Mem wa 01

The Korean War 1950-1953

  • Kim II Sung's Visit to Moscow

    Kim II Sung's Visit to Moscow
    According to Khrushchev's memoirs, Kim visited Moscow to propose the launch and ask for support. Kim then returned with a more specific proposal, expressing firm conviction that US involvement could be avoided before Stalin gave his approval. (Local conflict)
  • MacArthur's Assessment of ROK army

    MacArthur's Assessment of ROK army
    It was a force that "should be capable of offering token resistance to invasion and providing no plausible basis of allegations of being a threat to North Korea."
  • Soviet Successful Testing of the Atomic Bomb

    Soviet Successful Testing of the Atomic Bomb
    In September 1949, US intelligence sources detected traces of radioactivity in the northern Pacific (***Note, Soviet testing of atomic bomb occurred on 29 August 1949)
    Significance: This caused panic in Washington as it meant that the US atomic monopoly was over.
  • Fall of China to Communism

    Fall of China to Communism
    China had been "lost" to communism and the continent of Asia was lay exposed to the communist menace.
  • Acheson's Defence Perimeter Speech

    Acheson's Defence Perimeter Speech
    The speech omitted South Korea from the list of countries which the US woud automaticallt defend in the event of aggression.
  • Stalin's Cautious Agreement to Kim II Sung's Invasion plans

    "Kim II Sung proposed but Stalin disposed." Stalin warned that Russia would not intervene directly in the conflict.
  • Truman's Approval of Development of Hydrogen Bomb

    Truman's Approval of Development of Hydrogen Bomb
    Following Soviet successful testing of the atomic bomb which meant the loss of atomic monopoly for the US, Truman authorised the development of a thermonuclear or hydrogen bomb.
  • Treaty between Chinese Communist Party and Soviet Union

    Treaty between Chinese Communist Party and Soviet Union
    The CCP and the Kremlin signed a 30-year mutual assistance treaty under which the Soviet Union promised to provide China with $300 million in credits.
  • National Security Council 68 (NSC 68)

    Proposed a substantial increase in military strength which meant a massive military build-up.
    Why it was created? The Truman administration couldnot be seen to be inactive in response to the fall of China and Soviet possession of atomic bomb.
  • Soviet's Military Aid to North Korea

    Soviet sent military supplies and advisers to North Korea in May and June 1950
  • Start of Korean War

    Start of Korean War
    90000 North Korean soldiers, battle-hardened by their experience in the Chinese civil war and spear-headed by 150 T-34 tanks, smashed through South Korea's border defences.
  • US Response to North Korea's Invasion

    US Response to North Korea's Invasion
    The US sponsored a resolution in the United Nations Security Council, calling for military action against North Korea.
  • Deployment of American Troops into South Korea

    Deployment of American Troops into South Korea
    Truman ordered American troops statione in Japan into South Korea. He enjoyed widespread support for his decisive action. US committed 260000 troops while UN soldiers from other nations never exceeded 35000. (***Clearly an American operation => Korean War is a Cold War conflict)
  • North Koreans Capture of Seoul

    In August 1950, North Koreans captured Seoul. The conditions for fighting were unpleasant (monsoon season and high temperatures).
  • Battle of Pusan Perimeter

    By September 1950, the UN forces occupied only a toehold around Pusan. MacArthur mounted an outflanking movement and UN troops broke out of the Pusan perimeter and advanced rapidly north.
    (***Change in War aims. No longer pursuing a policy of containment but one of rollback. Decision was based on intelligence reports that neither the USSR nor China would intervene in the war => Limited => Cold War conflict
  • Involvement of China in the Korean War

    The presence of American troops on the Chinese border of Yalu River was a threat to national security. Mao Ze Dong feared that Chiang Kai Shek might launch a counter-revolution within China. (***Korean War took on the role of a regional conflict now.)
  • Developments of War after Involvement of China

    Developments of War after Involvement of China
    US troops were penned in by the Chinese at temperatures below subzero. In Decemeber, the UN forces suffered 11000 casualties in 2 days, of which 3000 US troops died.
  • Communist's Recapture of Seoul

    Communist's Recapture of Seoul
    Following the recapture of Seoul by the Communist, Truman reverted back to original war aims. He briefly considered using atomic weapons against the Chinese to force their withdrawal from the war, but rejected as it might lead to world war with the USSR (***Show of restraint =>Limited nature => Cold War conflict)
  • Operation Killer

    Operation Killer
    Launching of Operation Killer
  • Operation Ripper

    Operation Ripper
    Launching of Operation Ripper and Operation Killer allowed for superior firepower and command of the air. These enabled UN troops to re-cross the 38th parallel. The rest of the war battle front stabilised along a line 150 miles long just north of the parallel.
  • Relieving of MacArthur's Command

    Relieving of MacArthur's Command
    MacArthur was relieved of his duty as he was not happy about fighting a limited war.
  • Peace Talks

    Peace Talks
    Peace talks dragged on for another 2 years due to two issues - Prisoner of War Issue and Stalin. (***POW Issue => Ideological aspect => Cold war conflict)
  • Stalin's death

    Stalin's death
  • Syngman Rhee's Releasing POW

    Syngman Rhee's Releasing POW
    Syngman Rhee ordered the release of 27000 POW which damaged the peace talks significantly but not fatally. He attempted to influence the end of the Korean War. Wanted to manipulate the major powers but failed. (Cold War conflict as it showed that the major powers were in control of the war.)
  • End of Korean War

    End of Korean War
    Compromise on matters of repatriation resulted in an armistice in July 1953.