Symbols Engraved Onto Tabletsabout
The first ever symbols put on a moveable object were from a group of southern Mesopotamian people called the Sumarians. They had a "cuneiform" alphabet, and they wrote the symbols on clay tablets with a stylus called a "Calamus". The Sumarians had the earliest known alphabet in the world.
Earliest Surviving Papyrus Scrolls2400 B.C.
Scrolls, made of the thick paper material Papyrus, that contained written words date all the way back to 2400 BC, from Egypt. Some historians believe that papyrus could have been invented as early as 3100 B.C. Egyptains used papyrus before the Greeks or Romans adopted the use of it. they stored their books rolled up into wooden tubes, and glued together lots of scrolls to make very long pages.
The Invention of Parchmentfourth
As opposed to the plant-based papyrus, people began writing on parchment made from thinned out animal skins. The word "parhment" comes from the name of the Greek town that perfected it, Pergamon. After the over-farming of papyrus reeds, parchment became the main writing material.
Wax Tablets200 BC
Invented by the Romans, these blocks of wood had wax on the inside of them that one could make an impression on using a stylus, and this innovation of a book allowed for words to be erased and re-written. These were sometimes bound together with string or cordto keep "pages" together like an early version of the ringed binder.
It is widely believed that a Chinese eunuch called Cai Lun invented the process of paper making. It involves mixing together fibers in water, forming a suspension, and then allowing this suspension to dry in a screen so it has a flat shape and is easy to write on. Every piece of paper was a standard size, and called a leaf.
Library of Alexandria Is Createdabout
the Library of Alexandria is made, containing ancient scrolls and books.
Illustrations Added To Books400-600 A.D.
Early illustrations were still made on parchment as opposed to the more modern paper due to the better quality and strength of parchment. These books were handwritten and decorated with bright colors, intricate designs, and even silver and gold.
The Very First Printed Book868 AD
printed on paper in China using woodblocks with characters on it. The woodblock was used much like a stamp, covered with ink and pressed into the paper. The woodblock(s) were carefully and tediously prepared using knives, to carve out around each letter.
Moveable Type- The Improvement of Woodblocks1041-1230 AD
A system of printing literature that involved rearranging small blocks with a letter on each one to form sentences, and paprapraghs, and books. This process was an improvement on the woodblock because each small letter could be rearranged and re-used, as opposed to recarving an entire block of wood for each page.
Moveable Type Goes Worldwide1250-1450 AD
The system of using moveable, individual letters catches on and starts being used by other countries such as Egypt and Europe, however eacgh country put their own twist on the idea. In Egypt, it was mainly used for religious texts which would be rolled into tubes and worn around the neck, and in Europe they started to make the blocks out of metal instead of wood so they would be more durable with clearer shapes, and they also invented the printing press.
The Guttenberg Bible1455 AD
A man called Johnannes Gutenberg had invented the printing press, and with this technology it became possible to print long books for much cheaper than before. 180 total copis of the Bible were printed, and some were even illustrated.
Printing Revolution1455-1500 AD
The printing press led to many new improvements in the world of literature, including the production of 20 million books, the very first Newspaper, and 'bestsellers'. Italic type was invented, and books were starting to be printed smaller and more portable.
Print Is Brought To North America1639-1640 AD
The first book to be printed in America was made with a printing press brought over by Puritans. It was called the 'Bay Psalm', and was essentially a book of the psalms form the Hebrew Bible.
Chlorine Is Discovered1744 AD
A Swedish chemist by the name of Carl WIlhelm Sheele. Chlroine is relevant to the improvement of books because chlorine is used to bleach the pages so that they have a cleaner look and they are easier to read.
Book Covers1832 AD
The very first books to be made with removable paper jackets, or sleeves, appear.
The Cheap Novel1832-1860 AD
The first mass-market paperback books are made in response to the growth of education and knowledge in the world. They were printed on cheap paper and were usually rewrites of novels or stories in the Crime genre. In America, they became known as Dime Novels.
The Paperback1920-1938 AD
When they were first made, paperback novels were considered trashy and lower quality than hardback novels and people thought they would never appeal to the public. However, one publisher called Emanuel Haldemann-Julius had large success with selling paperback newpaper advertisements through mail order, and then companies began offering up susbriptions to recieve paperback literature in the mail for 5$ a month.
The Modern Paperback Novelabout
The Penguin publishing comapny published ten books for sale in stores in paperback form.
Sep 26, 630
The Microprocessor Digitalizes Literature1971 AD
The invention of the microprocessor led to the creation of computers, which made books' availability skyrocket and it also made books easier to make better through typing them and editing and re-editing them.
Sep 26, 660
Books Sold Through The Internet1995
When the internet was made public not only did it connect the world, it made for a new way to sell and exchange goods and services. The sale of books online was revolutionary, and made books published in other countries more widely available. The very first book sold on Amazon.com was called "Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought".
Sep 26, 700
The Kindle2007 AD
The invention of the kndle offered ways to store thousands of books digitally and gave you the ability to have many many books with you at one time without the weight.