The Evolution of Traditional Media

  • 35,000 BCE

    Pre-Industrial Age: Cave Paintings

    Pre-Industrial Age: Cave Paintings
    • are a type of parietal art (which category also includes petroglyphs, or engravings), found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term usually implies prehistoric origin, but cave paintings can also be of recent production: In the Gabarnmung cave of northern Australia, the oldest paintings certainly predate 28,000 years ago, while the most recent ones were made less than a century ago.
  • 2500 BCE

    Pre-Industrial Age: Papyrus (Egypt: 2500 B.C.)

    Pre-Industrial Age: Papyrus (Egypt: 2500 B.C.)
    • is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge. Papyrus (plural: papyri) can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll, an early form of a book.
  • 2400 BCE

    Pre-Industrial Age: Clay Tablets (Mesopotamia: 2400 B.C.)

    Pre-Industrial Age: Clay Tablets (Mesopotamia: 2400 B.C.)
    • were a medium used for writing. They were common in the Fertile Crescent, from about the 5th millennium BC. A clay tablet is a more or less flat surface made of clay. Using a stylus, symbols were pressed into the soft clay. It is possible to correct errors on the tablet. The tablet was then baked until dry and hard, either by leaving it out in the sun, or in a fire. Sun-baked tablets could be moistened and recycled. The ones that survived thousands of years were baked in fire.
  • 130 BCE

    Pre-Industrial Age: Acta Diurna (Rome: 130 B.C.)

    Pre-Industrial Age: Acta Diurna (Rome: 130 B.C.)
    • were daily Roman official notices, a sort of daily gazette.They were carved on stone or metal and presented in message boards in public places like the Forum of Rome. They were also called simply Acta.
  • 5

    Pre-Industrial Age: Mayan Codex

    Pre-Industrial Age: Mayan Codex
    • are folding books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark paper. The folding books are the products of professional scribes working under the patronage of deities such as the Tonsured Maize God and the Howler Monkey Gods.
  • 220

    Pre-Industrial Age: Woodblock Printing (or block printing: 220 A.D.)

    Pre-Industrial Age: Woodblock Printing (or block printing: 220 A.D.)
    • is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper. Woodblock printing existed in Tang China during the 7th century AD and remained the most common East Asian method of printing books and other texts, as well as images, until the 19th century. Ukiyo-e is the best known type of Japanese woodblock art print.
  • 220

    Pre-Industrial Age: Dibao (China: 2nd Century)

    Pre-Industrial Age: Dibao (China: 2nd Century)
    • literally "reports from the [official] residences", were a type of publications issued by central and local governments in imperial China. While closest in form and function to gazettes in the Western world, they have also been called "palace reports" or "imperial bulletins". Different sources place their first publication as early as the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) or as late as the Tang Dynasty (June 18, 618–June 4, 907).
  • Industrial Age: The London Gazette (Newspaper) (1640)

    Industrial Age: The London Gazette (Newspaper) (1640)
    • is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette.
  • Industrial Age: Punch Cards

    Industrial Age: Punch Cards
    is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Digital data can be used for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery.
  • Industrial Age: Telegraph

    Industrial Age: Telegraph
    • is the long-distance transmission of textual messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus flag semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not.
  • Industrial Age: Typewriter

    Industrial Age: Typewriter
    • is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type. Typically, a typewriter has an array of keys, and pressing one causes a different single character to be produced on the paper, by causing a ribbon with dried ink to be struck against the paper by a type element similar to the sorts used in movable type letterpress printing.
  • Industrial Age: Telephone

    Industrial Age: Telephone
    • A telephone (derived from the Greek: τῆλε, tēle, "far" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice", together meaning "distant voice"), or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
  • Industrial Age: Motion Picture Photography/Projection

    Industrial Age: Motion Picture Photography/Projection
    • also called film or movie, series of still photographs on film, projected in rapid succession onto a screen by means of light. Because of the optical phenomenon known as persistence of vision, this gives the illusion of actual, smooth, and continuous movement.
  • Industrial Age: Printing Press

    Industrial Age: Printing Press
    • is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process.
  • Industrial Age: Commercial Motion Pictures

    Industrial Age: Commercial Motion Pictures
    • comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film studios, cinematography, animation, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel.
  • Industrial Age: Motion Picture with Sound

    Industrial Age: Motion Picture with Sound
    • is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900, but decades passed before sound motion pictures were made commercially practical. Reliable synchronization was difficult to achieve with the early sound-on-disc systems, and amplification and recording quality were also inadequate.
  • Electronic Age: Television

    Electronic Age: Television
    • sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program ("TV show"), or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising, entertainment and news.
  • Electronic Age: Transistor Radio

    Electronic Age: Transistor Radio
    • is a small portable radio receiver that uses transistor-based circuitry. Following their development in 1954, made possible by the invention of the transistor in 1947, they became the most popular electronic communication device in history, with billions manufactured during the 1960s and 1970s. Their pocket size sparked a change in popular music listening habits, allowing people to listen to music anywhere they went.
  • Electronic Age: Largest Electronic Computers (EDSAC/UNIVAC 1)

    Electronic Age: Largest Electronic Computers (EDSAC/UNIVAC 1)
    • The Electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer. Inspired by John von Neumann's seminal First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, the machine was constructed by Maurice Wilkes and his team at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in England. EDSAC was the second electronic digital stored-program computer to go into regular service.
    • The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.
  • Electronic Age: Mainframe Computers

    Electronic Age: Mainframe Computers
    • are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing. They are larger and have more processing power than some other classes of computers: minicomputers, servers, workstations, and personal computers.
  • Electronic Age: OHP (OverHead Projector), LCD (Liquid-Crystal Display) Projectors

    Electronic Age: OHP (OverHead Projector), LCD (Liquid-Crystal Display) Projectors
    Overhead projector:
    - is a variant of slide projector that is used to display images to an audience. LCD projector:
    - is a type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface. It is a modern equivalent of the slide projector or overhead projector.
  • Information Age: Web Browsers : Mosaic (1993)

    Information Age: Web Browsers : Mosaic (1993)
    • NCSA Mosaic, or simply Mosaic, is the web browser that popularized the World Wide Web and the Internet. It was also a client for earlier internet protocols such as File Transfer Protocol, Network News Transfer Protocol, and Gopher. The browser was named for its support of multiple internet protocols.
  • Information Age: Web Browsers : Internet Explorer (1995)

    Information Age: Web Browsers : Internet Explorer (1995)
    • was a series of graphical web browsers (or, as of 2019, a "compatibility solution") developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows.
  • Information Age: Blogs: Blogspot

    Information Age: Blogs: Blogspot
    • is a blog-publishing service that allows multi-user blogs with time-stamped entries. It was developed by Pyra Labs, which was bought by Google in 2003. The blogs are hosted by Google and generally accessed from a subdomain of blogspot.com. Blogs can also be served from a custom domain owned by the user (like www.example.com) by using DNS facilities to direct a domain to Google's servers.
  • Information Age: Social Networks: Friendster

    Information Age: Social Networks: Friendster
    • was a social gaming site based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It was originally a social networking service website. Before Friendster was redesigned, the service allowed users to contact other members, maintain those contacts, and share online content and media with those contacts.
  • Information Age: Social Networks: Multiply

    Information Age: Social Networks: Multiply
    • was a social networking service with an emphasis on allowing users to share media – such as photos, videos and blog entries – with their "real-world" network. The website was launched in March 2004 and was privately held with backing by VantagePoint Venture Partners, Point Judith Capital, Transcosmos, and private investors.[2] Multiply had over 11 million registered users.
  • Information Age: Blogs: WordPress

    Information Age: Blogs: WordPress
    • is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP & MySQL. Features include a plugin architecture and a template system. It is most associated with blogging but supports other types of web content including more traditional mailing lists and forums, media galleries, and online stores.
  • Information Age: Social Networks: FaceBook

    Information Age: Social Networks: FaceBook
    • is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon, Apple, and Google.
  • Information Age: Video: YouTube

    Information Age: Video: YouTube
    • is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries.
  • Information Age: Micro Blogs: Twitter

    Information Age: Micro Blogs: Twitter
    • is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled to 280 for all languages except Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.
  • Information Age: Micro Blogs: Tumblr

    Information Age: Micro Blogs: Tumblr
    • is a microblogging and social networking website founded by David Karp in 2007 and owned by Verizon Media. The service allows users to post multimedia and other content to a short-form blog. Users can follow other users' blogs. Bloggers can also make their blogs private.
  • Information Age: Social Networks: Instagram

    Information Age: Social Networks: Instagram
    • is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS. A version for Android devices was released a year and half later, in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited website interface in November 2012, and apps for Windows 10 Mobile and Windows 10 in April 2016 and October 2016 respectively.