The birth of modern America

  • manifest destiny

    The spirit of nationalism that swept the nation in the next two decades demanded more territory. The "every man is equal" mentality of the Jacksonian Era fueled this optimism. Now, with territory up to the Mississippi River claimed and settled and the Louisiana Purchase explored, Americans headed west in droves.
  • Indian Remuval

    The Indian Removal Act is a law that was passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. It authorized the president to negotiate with Indian tribes in the Southern United States for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands.
  • third parties politics

    The term third party is used in the United States for any and all political parties in the United States other than one of the two major parties (Republican Party and Democratic Party). The term can also refer to independent politicians not affiliated with any party at all and to write-in candidates.
  • Susan B. Antonhy

    In 1851, she attended an anti-slavery conference, where she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton. She was also involved in the temperance movement, aimed at limiting or completely stopping the production and sale of alcohol. She was inspired to fight for women's rights while campaigning against alcohol.
  • Homestead Act

    was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862. Anyone who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government (including freed slaves and women), was 21 years or older, or the head of a family, could file an application to claim a federal land grant.
  • urbanization & industrialization

    From 1870 to 1900 the United States became the world’s foremost industrial nation. It emerged as the leader in meatpacking, in production of timber and steel, and in the mining of coal, iron, gold, and silver. Overall, the nation experienced a stunning explosion in the scale of industry and in the pace of production.
  • Andrew Carnegie

    In the early 1870s, he entered the steel business, and over the next two decades became a dominant force in the industry.
  • The Haymarket riot

    The Haymarket affair (also known as the Haymarket massacre or Haymarket riot) was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago.
  • The Dawes Act

    An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations," known as the Dawes Act, emphasized severalty, the treatment of Native Americans as individuals rather than as members of tribes.
  • Ida B. Wells

    Ida B. Wells was an African-American journalist and activist who led an anti-lynching crusade in the United States in the 1890s.
  • initiative referendum recall

    Other local leaders encouraged Americans to register to vote, fight political corruption, and let the voting public decide how issues should best be addressed (the initiative, the referendum, and the recall).
  • Eugen v. Debbs

    Debs organized the American Railway Union, which waged a strike against the Pullman Company of Chicago in 1894. After embracing socialism, he became the party’s standard-bearer in five presidential elections.
  • Clarence Darrow

    In 1894 he defended Eugene V. Debs, arrested on a federal charge arising from the Pullman Strike.
  • william jennings bryan

    He starred at the 1896 Democratic convention with his Cross of Gold speech that favored free silver, but was defeated in his bid to become U.S. president by William McKinley.
  • klondike gold rush

    was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899.
  • populism and progressivism

    Democratization of the political process; reform of local governments; regulation of big business.
    Progressive Points Leaders where middle-class reformers concerned with urban and consumer issues,
  • the gilded age

    era of corruption, conspicuous consumption, and unfettered capitalism. But it is more useful to think of this as modern America's formative period, when an agrarian society of small producers were transformed into an urban society dominated by industrial corporations.
  • Civil service reform

    was a major issue in the late 19th century at the national level, and in the early 20th century at the state level. Proponents denounced the distribution of office by the winners of elections to their supporters as corrupt and inefficient. They demanded nonpartisan scientific methods and credential be used to select civil servants. The five important civil service reforms were the two Tenure of Office Acts of 1820 and 1867, Pendleton Act of 1883, the Hatch Acts (1939 and 1940) and the CSRA of 19
  • political machines

    In the mid-19th century, American cities grew rapidly, fueled by immigration and an increase in manufacturing and commerce. Immigrants arrived with great needs and few resources.
  • muckraker

    Writing to Congress in hopes of correcting abuses was slow and often produced zero results. Publishing a series of articles had a much more immediate impact.
  • Upton Sinclair

    Upton Beall Sinclair was a famous American writer and essayist whose book The Jungle, an exposé of Chicago's meatpacking industry, shocked the nation and led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906.
  • pure food and drug act

    is a United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines.
  • Dollar diplomacy

    From 1909 to 1913, President William Howard Taft and Secretary of State Philander C. Knox followed a foreign policy characterized as “dollar diplomacy.”
  • Teddy Roosevelt

    the youngest President in the Nation's history. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy. and founder of the Progressive Party insurgency.
  • federal reserve act

    is an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender.
  • 17th,18th,19th amendments

    Wilson was able to persuade it to pass the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade
    Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and America's first-ever federal progressive
    income tax in the Revenue Act of 1913. All four of the Progressive Era Amendments were ratified during his term in
    office. (Amendments 16, 17, 18, 19)
  • teapot dome scandal

    The Teapot Dome scandal was a bribery incident that took place in the United States from 1920 to 1923, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding
  • suffrage

    millions of American women exercised their right to vote for the first time. It took activists and reformers nearly 100 years to win that right, and the campaign was not easy: Disagreements over strategy threatened to cripple the movement more than once.
  • social gospel

    Is a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada. Protestant groups dedicated to the betterment of industrialized society through application of the biblical principles of charity and justice.
  • immigration & the American dream

    In the definition of the American Dream by James Truslow Adams in 1931, "life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement" regardless of social class or circumstances of birth.
  • Jane Addams

    Addams was one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era. She helped turn America to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, local public health, and world peace. She said that if women were to be responsible for cleaning up their communities and making them better places to live, they needed the vote to be effective in doing so.
  • nativism

    After the Great War in Europe ended in 1918 millions of devastated Europeans were seeking refuge in other parts of the world