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Supreme Court cases

  • Creation of the Supreme Court – Article 3 of the Constitution of the United States

    Creation of the Supreme Court – Article 3 of the Constitution of the United States
    Article III states that the judicial power in federal courts, requires a supreme court, has inferior courts, requires good behavior from judges, and outlaws decreasing the salaries of judges.
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    John Jay

    John Jay was the 1st Supreme Court Justice. He was appointed by George Washington. He established judicial review.
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    John Marshall

    Marshall served as Chief Justice during all or part of the administrations of six Presidents: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. helped to establish the Supreme Court as the final authority on the meaning of the Constitution in cases and controversies that must be decided by the federal courts.[26] His impact on constitutional law is without peer, and his imprint on the Court's jurisprudence remains indelible.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    John Adams filled the judicial branch with federalists before his term ended. Jefferson wanted to block this. Marbury sued and was granted his commision. Supreme Court Justice Marshall sacrificed a small gain for federalists for a larger, more powerful longer-term gain for the judicial system. Marshall established the judicial review. The Supreme Court could overrule the other two branches of government.
  • Fletcher v. Peck

    Fletcher v. Peck
    Robert Fletcher bought 15,000 acres from John Peck 1803. Peck had placed a covenant in the deed that said that the title to the land had not been constitutionally impaired by any act of the state of Georgia. Fletcher sued Peck to establish the constitutionality of the 1796 act; either the act was constitutional and the contract was void, or the act unconstitutional and Fletcher had clear title to the land.
    It was the first Supreme Court case to declare a state's law uncostitutional.
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward

    Dartmouth College v. Woodward
    New Hampshire wanted to change Dartmouth College from a private school to a public school.Marshall stated that a state government could not alter a private corporation.
  • McCollough v. Maryland

    McCollough v. Maryland
    Maryland tried to tax from the Second Bank of the United States. Marshall determined that a state could not tax a federal institution because federal laws are supreme.
  • Gibbons v. Ogden

    Gibbons v. Ogden
    Ruled that the New York monopoly was unconstitutional.This established the federal government's control of interstate commerce.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

    Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    The Cherokee Nation believed that the state of Georgia was depriving them of their rights. The Supreme Court stated that they did not have jurisdiction because the Cherokee were an independent nation.
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    Worcester v. Georgia
    Laws were passed in Georgia that required any whites that were living in Cherokee lands obtain a permit to continue living on the land. Samuel Worcester was arrested for being opposed to the Indian removal and not having a permit. It was ruled that the Cherokees were an independent community and Georgia did not have the authority to make laws for them. Worcester was released.
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt

    Commonwealth v. Hunt
    It was ruled that "peaceful unions" had could creat labor contracts with employers.
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford

    Dred Scott v. Sanford
    This decision ruled that African Americans were not and could not become citizens of the US. Scott was born as a slave but had lived in illinois, a free state, for several years and had been legally married. He considered himself free for these reasons but the Supreme Court ruled that he was not.
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    John Jay

  • Maples v. Thomas