Supreme Court Cases of the Time Period Which We Covered In APUSH Class

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    Super Long Time

  • West v. Barnes

    West v. Barnes
    -first orally argued in US Supreme Court
    RULING-an appeal must be issued by the Supreme Court within 10 days (later changed to benefit people who lived further away)
    -The Supreme Court and other federal branches were in the processes of establishing themselves;Constitution recently
    written;George Washington president
    -RESULTS-established general procedures of early Supreme Court; prevented corrupt appeals; let power of the Court extend more easily over a larger area
    -Whiskey Rebellion
    -John Jay
  • Calder v. Bull

    Calder v. Bull
    RULING-Ex post facto (decision to change previous legal consequences) applies to criminal, not civil, cases
    RESULTS-people could only apply a change in sentence for criminal charges
    Adams/Jefferson administration, Federal Party losing favor; XYZ Affair(US denied French Officials a bribe, led to Quasi War)
  • McCulloch v. Maryland

    McCulloch v. Maryland
    RULING-Congress may possess implied powers to carry out explicit powers; Individual states cannot create legislature that goes against or impedes a Congressional ruling/body
    -Panic of 1819; Missouri Compromise(Tallmadge Amendment); Monroe Doctrine
    RESULTS-Maryland could not put a tax on the National Bank; established federal power over the states; reinforced the authority of the Second National Bank
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

    Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    RULING-Native American tribes are dependent but individual sovereignties
    RESULTS-the Supreme Court (and the federal or state governments) did not have jurisdiction over the Cherokee tribe or their land disputes
    -Andrew Jackson in power;abolished National Bank;Trail of Tears; influx of immigrants, industry, expansion; Nullification Crisis with Calhoun/SC; Black Hawk Wr (Sauk and Fox)
  • Prigg v. Pennsylvania

    Prigg v. Pennsylvania
    RULING-Federal law holds authority over state law
    RESULTS-in this case, the ruling applied to the case of slavery.
    The Missouri Compromise admitted MO and ME;question of slavery in new territories;
    Immigration and industrial growth of mid-century; railroads expand; inventions-telegraph; industrialization!!; Nativism growing; Chinese-US diplomacy opens;
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    RULING-African Americans are not citizens; the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional; the federal government may not free slaves
    RESULTS-African Americans could not (until the 14th Amendment) bring any disputes to court; continuity of white superiority mindset; prevented federal gov't from outlawing slavery; the Missouri Compromise was abolished under the pretext that slaves were property, which Congress could not take away legally
    Kansas denied statehood; John Brown/Bleeding Kansas
  • Ex parte Garland

    Ex parte Garland
    RULING-If a person has been pardoned of a crime, Congress may not punish them
    RESULTS-pardoned criminals were no longer punished after the repeal of any legal punishment
    Reconstruction of the South; Johnson impeached by radical Republicans;Grant(corrupt); rise of Progressivism (Social Gospel etc)
  • Slaughterhouse Cases (The Butchers' Benevolent Association of New Orleans v. The Crescent City Live-Stock Landing and Slaughter-House Company; Paul Esteben, L. Ruch, J. P. Rouede, W. Maylie, S. Firmberg, B. Beaubay, William Fagan, J. D. Broderick, N. Seib

    Slaughterhouse Cases (The Butchers' Benevolent Association of New Orleans v. The Crescent City Live-Stock Landing and Slaughter-House Company; Paul Esteben, L. Ruch, J. P. Rouede, W. Maylie, S. Firmberg, B. Beaubay, William Fagan, J. D. Broderick, N. Seib
    RULING-the 14th Amendment protects rights/immunities of federal citizenship, does not apply to right/immunities concerned with individual state
    RESULTS-citizens bringing accounts of unfair/inadequateworking conditions to federal court could only claim national rights
    Panic of 1873; Greenback Party; KKK rises; Social Darwinism; decline of Nation Labor Union
  • US v Cruikshank

    US v Cruikshank
    RULING-First Amendment does not limit citizens' rights under state; Second Amendment serves to control power of federal gov't only
    RESULTS-little protection was given to Southern black citizens although the ruling reinforced meaning of the 14th Amendment
    blacks prevented from voting/property rights, emergence of Jim Crow laws in South; Compromise of '77-Special Election; Dawes Act eliminated tribal land ownership; Great Railroad Strike; Battle of Little Bighorn
  • United States v. Harris (KKK Cases)

    United States v. Harris (KKK Cases)
    RULING-the local government has the right to penalize assault and murder
    RESULTS-KKK lost significant amount of power;declined until decades later; local law gained some power
    Railroads expand;Exclusion Act bans Chinese immigration; AFL rises;
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    RULING- Louisiana has right to regulate railroad companies as long as they operate within the state; upheld that the law separated blacks and whites as a matter of public policy
    RESULTS- separate but equal
    President Grover Cleveland, Utah admitted as 45th state, William Jennings Bryan delivered Cross of Gold speech
  • Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock

    Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
    RULING- Congress had power to void treaty obligations with Native Americans
    RESULTS- established paternalistic relationship between US and Native American tribes; ruling was great departure from rulings in other cases like Cherokee Nation v. Georgia which respected tribal autonomy
    President Teddy Roosevelt; first hotel exclusively for women opens in NYC; Wright brothers successfully complete first heavier-than-air flight
  • US v Grimaud

    US v Grimaud
    RULING-federal gov't can delegate power to local incidents regarding criminal charges
    RESULTS-local park rangers did indeed have the authority to arrest Grimaud for trespassing on national property
    Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom; 16th Amendment=income tax; Federal Reserve 1913;
  • Mutual Film Corp. v Industrial Commission of Ohio

    Mutual Film Corp. v Industrial Commission of Ohio
    RULING-Free Speech Amendment of OH Const did not apply to films (overruled in 1952)
    RESULTS-films had to be approved before being publicly shown. If they were not approved material, they did not possess the Right to Free Speech and were therefore illegl
    US was trying to avoid WWI; neutrality struggle with Germany (ie Lusitania, Zimmerman Telegraph)
  • Leser v Garnett

    Leser v Garnett
    RULING- Court upheld 19th Amendment (right to vote disregards gender)
    RESULTS-upheld women's suffrage; women retained right to vote
    Roaring 20's: Prohibition, Warren G Harding, increased feminism (flappers), prosperity, technology advancing, WWI recently over (Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations); Chicago Race Riots, Garvey etc; Red Scare; brief 1923 recession
  • Lum v Rice

    Lum v Rice
    RULING-segregated schools constitutional under Plessy v Ferguson;
    RESULTS-Martha Lum, a girl of Chinese descent, could not attend the white school, although no colored school was nearby. She was then required to attend the nearest colored school by law
    2 years before stock market crash; Prohibition still in effect; Hoover; consumerism and cars Scopes Monkey Trials;
  • Near v Minnesota

    Near v Minnesota
    RULING-censorship (except in extreme cases) violates the Right to Free Speech, Press, etc
    RESULTS-newspapers may print what they like without forced censorship; Near and associates could print 'scandalous' and 'offensive' articles (some led to criminal charges of targets)
    midst of GD (Hoovervilles, etc)
  • Nixon v Condon

    Nixon v Condon
    RULING-white primaries unconstitutional (violates 14th)
    RESULTS-Democratic Party in Texas could not legally hold its all white primary; small judicial success of NAACP
    still GD; NAACP worked for advancement via the Court System;
    midst of Hoover Great Depression
  • Oklahoma Tax Commission v US

    Oklahoma Tax Commission v US
    RULING-Native American land exempt from direct state taxes by Congress is also exempt from state estate taxes
    RESULTS-Native Americans on designated land did not pay this tax
    midst of WW2 in Europe and Pacific; FDR
  • Korematsu v US

    Korematsu v US
    RULING-internment of Japanese American citizens during WW2 was constitutional
    RESULTS-the government justified the relocation of Japanese Americans (regardless of citizenship) into internment camps to prevent "espionage"
    6 months after D Day in Normandy, US was trying to end war in Pacific, Roosevelt died next April, later dropped atomic bombs in Japan
  • Sipuel v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma

    Sipuel v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma
    RULING- colleges could not deny admitance based on race
    RESULTS- precursor to Brown v. Board of Education; reversed Lee v. Mississippi
    President Harry Truman; Marshall Plan; US recognizes Israel as a country
  • McCollum v. Board of Education

    McCollum v. Board of Education
    RULING- religious intruction in public schools violates US Constitution
    RESULTS- people still complaining about it today, beginning with Justice Stanley Forman Reed who was the lone dissenting justice
    Hell's Angels motercycle gang founded in CA; Berlin Blockade
  • Loving v. Virginia

    Loving v. Virginia
    RULING- interracial marriage ban lifted in US
    RESULTS- interracial couples able to marry; cited in many same-sex marriage debates in the 2010s
    President Lyndon B. Johnson; The Doors release self-titled album; 25th Amendment to the Constitution is enacted
  • Ginsberg v. New York

    Ginsberg v. New York
    RULING- material that is not considered obscene for adults may still be obscene for children and thus must be regulated
    RESULTS- images and the related media depicting nudity were no longer allowed to be sold to minors
    Lyndon B, Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act; Congress repeals requirement for American currency to be backed by gold
  • Roe v. Wade

    Roe v. Wade
    RULING- abortion legalized in the United States
    RESULTS- women empowered to take control of their own bodies; plenty of backlash against desicion; many protests exist today
    President Richard Nixon; Lyndon Johnson dies; first American prisoners of war released from Vietnam; Sears Tower in Chicago completed
  • Taylor v. Louisiana

    Taylor v. Louisiana
    RULING- the systematic exclusion of women from jury service violates the criminal's 6th and 14th Amendment Rights
    RESULTS- overturned Hoyt v. Florida, which allowed women to be excluded from jury service
    President Gerald Ford; Watergate Scandal accomplices convicted; The Rocky Horror Picture Show opens in NYC; unemployment rate peaks at 9.0%
  • Thompson v. Oklahoma

    Thompson v. Oklahoma
    RULING- death penalty banned for minors under the age of 16
    RESULTS- sentencing minors to death penalty decreed "cruel and unusual punishment"; expanded in 2005 when the age was raised to 18
    President Ronald Regan; first computer worm is written by Robert Morris and lauched from MIT; American space shuttle program resumes following Challenger disaster
  • Blanton v. North Las Vegas

    Blanton v. North Las Vegas
    RULING- right to a trial by jury is not found in crimes where the maximum amount of incarceration is less than six months
    RESULTS- petty crims no longer require trial by jury
    President George H. W. Bush; Ted Bundy executed by electric chair; unemployment rate drops to 5%
  • Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal

    Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal
    RULING- federal government cannot bar religious use of hallucinogenic tea in a New Mexican branch of a Brazilian church
    RESULTS- court disagreed with government's argument that the Controlled Substances Act does not allow exceptions
    President George W. Bush; a Grayhound bus carrying 52 people crashes near Elizabethtown and kills 5; smoking banned in all public places in Ohio
  • Hudson v. Michigan

    Hudson v. Michigan
    RULING- if police have a search warrent to enter a private residence but violate the "knock-and-announce" policy, any evidence they procure is still viable
    RESULTS- dissent on grounds that the ruling violated privacy
    President George W. Bush; third year of war in Iraq; space shuttle Discovery is launched to International Space Station