Space Exploration

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    Sputnick and Gemini Projects

    The sputnick and Gemini projets were the beginning of a competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
    Sputnick 1 was launched on October 4, 1957 and Sputnick 2 was launched shortly after. A rocket called Atlas was sent out to orbit in 1962.
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    Space Exploration

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    Pioneer Probes

    There were 14 pioneer probes that were sent out into the universe to learn more about it and was considered one of the most succesful NASA projects. Pioneer 1 and 2 did not even make it out of the atmosphere. But the rest did and brought back data while they were in the solar system.
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    Mariner Program

    The Mariner Program was where NASA launched 10 spacecrafts to go on missions around Mars, Mercury, and Venus to record data from the planets. 7/10 of the missions were succesful and brought back relevent data.
    Launch Dates:
    1962- Mariner 1 and 2
    1964- Mariner 3 and 4
    1967- Mariner 5
    1969- Mariner 6 and 7
    1971- Mariner 8 and 9
    later in1971- Mariner 10 Mariner 9 is expected to crash into Mars in 2022. It is orbiting the planet right now,.
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    Vanera Probes

    16 probes were launched to record data in Venus. 13 were successful in transmitting data, but only 10 probes actually landed on Venus. They are the first probes to ever send back colored pictures.
    1967- Vanera 4 was the first to send back data from Earth
    1970- Vanera 7 was the first to land on Venus
    1975- Vanera 9 was the first to take a black and white picture
    1978- Vanera 12 recored the first sound on venus
    1981- Vanera 13 took the first colored picture
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    Space Stations

    Space stations provide living quarters for astronauts when they go up into space.
    1971- Salyut and Almaz were the first space stations launched into space (Almaz was used by Soviet Union for moon race against U.S.)
    1973- Skylab was launched (America's first space station)
    1986- Mir was launched (first permanent and longest-lasting space station)
    1998- International Space Station was launched
    2001- Mir was caught on fire and fell into Pacific Ocean
    2011- Tingong was launched (Chinese)
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    Viking Probes

    The Viking Probes were designed to teach scientists more about the planet Mars, and to see if there was any life there. The probes landed on Mrs in 1976. Viking 2 was powered down in 1978 and Viking 1 was powered down in 1980.
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    Voyager Probes

    the Voyager Probes were probes sent out into the universe to explore more of what is in the solar system. Their objective is to pass the helioshock.SO far though, they have only passes termination shock.
    1977- Voyager Probes launched
    2004-Voyager 1 passes termination shock
    2007- Voyager 2 passes termination shock
    1990- VIM mission begins
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    Space Shuttle

    The Space Shuttle Program was a way for astronauts and space-observing machines to enter and exit space safely. The space shuttles were used for many human missions, the launching of the Hubble Space Telescope, and many other things. • 1981 first launch
    • 1883 first challenger flight
    • 1984 first discovery flight
    • 1985 first atlantis flight
    • 1990 launches hubble space telescope
    • 1992 first endeavor flight
    • 2011 last flight/retirement
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    Galileo Spacecraft

    The Galileo Spacecraft was an expesive spacecraft (cost 1.6 billion dollars) and made many important discoveries. Some of the discoveries was it found 3 rings on saturn and discovered that there is lightning on Jupiter.
    The spacecraft was launched in 1989
    The probe seperated from the spacecraft in 1994
    The probe hit Jupiter's atmosphere in 1995
    The Galileo mission ended in 2003
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    Magellan Spacecraft

    The Magellan spacecraft was yet another cometition between the Soviet Union and the United States in space exploration. The Soviet Union's spacecraft could only cover and take data for a small percentage of Venus's surface, while the Unites States' spacecraft, Magellan, covered 98% It took Magellan a year to arrive to Venus.
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    Hubble Space Telescope

    The Hubble Space Telescope is the first ever telescope to orbit Earth in space. Becuase atmospheric distortion doe not interfere with it, its pictures taken in space are clear.
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    N.E.A.R. Mission

    The NEAR spacecraft was designed to explore and get more data on the asteroid Eros. It was the first spacecraft to ever have a successful landing on an asteroid. It gave back many pictures of the asteroids surface. • 1996- NEAR spacecraft is launched
    • 2000- NEAR started to orbit Eros
    • 2001 landed safely on asteroid
    • 2001 last connection to Earth
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    Cassini Mission

    Cassini is a spacecraft that was built to take a closer look at some of the things in our solar system. One main thing it focused on was Titan, one of Saturn's moons. It was powered by radioisotope thermionic generators. Dates of Launch and flybys: 1997- Cassini is launched
    1998- Venus flyby 1

    1999- Venus flyby 2
    1999- Earth flyby
    2004- arrival to Saturn
    2004- releases probe to Titan (Saturn's moon)
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    Genisis Spacdecraft

    The Genisis Spacecraft was the first to get beyond the moon. This was a huge accomplishment for NASA and the United States. The Spacecraft launched in 2001 and crash-landed back to Earth in 2004.
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    Mars Rovers

    There were 2 rovers that were sent to mars to explore and give data to NASA. Their names were Opportunity and Spirit. They both launched in 2003 and touched down on Mars in 2004. They were only expected to operate for a couple months, but Spirit stopped opperating in 2010.