Second Agricultural Revolution

  • Land Conversion, Drainage, and Reclamation Programs

    As the population density of countries like England and the Dutch republic increased. New methods of creating more farmable land was needed. Draining the many swamps and marshy areas became a necessity to increase available space.
  • The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge advocates the potato

    Many people believed potatoes to only be useful as animal feed. Farmers and many others looked down on it even though the Royal Society of London would speak about the benefits of Potatoes and Other tubers on this year.
  • Jethro Tull and the Seed Drill

    Jehro Tull was a British inventor and thinker who wrote and advocated for sowing with drilling equipment. This process would ensure proper depth and spread of seeds to increase the yield, making agriculture more efficient.
  • Norfolk Four Course Crop Rotation

    Crop rotation over four fields. Charles Townshend popularized it. This was very important to supporting growth of crops over long periods of time without draining the soil of all its nutrients. These techniques lasted for many years prior but the 4 year rotation cycle became more common during the early 18th century.
  • Charles “Turnip” Townsend

    A Viscount in Britain that was instrumental in many movements. One of which was the agricultural revolution. He would popularize the use of turnips in the 4 crop rotation system and would also popularize this system of planting. That is how he got his nickname.
  • Dutch and Rotherham swing (wheel-less) plough

    The Rotherham plough was a local Yorkshire plough which the Dutch had modified. It had an iron blade that was lighter and easier to use than a wooden plough.
  • Robert Bakewell, Thomas Coke, and the development of Selective Breeding

    As one of the major effects of the technological advances of the agricultural revolution, selective breeding was brought by specifically breeding and inbreeding animals to attain certain beneficial characteristics. This would allow for better domestication and use of these animals in the agricultural sector.
  • Enclosure Act

    By sectioning and privatizing farm land, it was theorized that a) people would have more incentive to use the latest and most effective farming techniques than if the land was a common ground that needed many people's approval and b)better experimentation could be conducted on the land. This would encourage people from all areas of society to promote the enclosure acts that would be enacted in many years of European and British history.
  • Development of a National Market

    Adam Smith's wealth of nations was published on this date. The development of a national market that was not heavily dependent on the state for mercantilist policies and tariffs would create a new system of trade and economic growth that would in turn stimulate the need for more agricultural advances.
  • Aurther Young

    Was important in propagating the ideas and summarizing the claims of many scientists and inventors during this time. He would promote the seed drilling techniques, crop rotation, and many other ideas.