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  • 10,000 BCE


    Gothic architecture was characterized by its vaulted arches, vertical lines, elaborate carvings, and stained glass windows which is seen in many of the famous European cathedrals ( Editors). Notre Dame in Paris is one of the most famous Gothic cathedrals.
  • Period: 1001 to 1100


    It was simple painting during the medieval period at times stiff and artificial. Giotto's paintings provided the transition between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in thirteenth-century Italy. His frescoes showed a naturalism which served as a model for other Renaissance painters and sculptors. Another Florentine painter named Masaccio contributed the use of perspective using, the realistic painting of the human figure and the experimentation with chiaroscuro.
  • 1140


    The Muslim Caliphate declined and the Christian states of the Iberian Peninsula emerged by the end of the tenth century ( Ediotrs). These states grew in importance during the eleventh century and part of the twelfth. Moors who had occupied the southern areas of Spain got drove out by Christians. This movement was called the Reconquista, or reconquest. Christian Spain consisted of three parts by 1140, Castile and Leon, Portugal, and Aragon.
  • 1240

    Roger Bacon

    Roger Bacon
    Bacon believed in experimentation than in reasoning process ( Editors). Bacon's most important math contribution was applying the science of geometry to optics. Bacon described eyeglasses which became popular toward the end of the Middle Ages. You can imagine the revolutionary change that came over handicapped people who could now see.
  • 1259


    The Treaty of Paris established between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England in 1259 temporarily formed the basis for foreign relations with their two nations ( Editors). Edward I Henry's successor also carried out the terms of the treaty. A large amount of the French territory was under the control of England but France was not satisfied with this arrangement. Also the English-held duchy of Aquitaine was a trade center.
  • Period: 1301 to 1400


    Because of political and religious struggles between the Holy Roman Emperors, the papacy and other factions, regionalism, rather than nationalism, prevailed during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ( Editors). This regionalism tendency led to the development of the city-states into five major states, the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Republic of Florence, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples.
  • Period: 1309 to 1376

    The Papacy

    Pope Pius II was a multitalented man could have been considered an example of the universal man ( Editors). Rome's architectural improvement was encouraged by Pope Sixtus IV, patron of Botticelli and other artists. He sponsored the building of the Sistine Chapel.
  • 1311


    When the fourteenth century starded, England was weakened by differing factions ( Editors). Edward II was opposed by barons that were afraid of a monarchy. In 1311 they forced the king to grant them powers of reform.. The ordinances they made reorganized the government, which gave it greater power. The king that was accused of neglect and incompetence, was deposed from the throne and murdered.
  • Period: 1452 to 1519

    Leonardo da Vinci

    Leonardo da Vinci was one of the best inventor-scientists in Italy ( Editors). He is known as the greatest of all time. As a young age apprentice painter, Leonardo developed his own artistic style and made his own special formula of paint. Some of the occupations he engaged in where civil engineer, architect, and military weapons designer.
  • Period: to

    Italian writers

    In the fourteenth century through the works of Petrarch a new learning developed in Italy ( Editors). "Father of Humanism," tried to spread an interest in the study of classics. He was called the first "modern man" because of his interest in humanities and because of his methods that differed greatly from medieval scholars. Petrarch wrote more than three hundred love sonnets that were imitated by European poets.