• Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln
    Lincoln had the authority to institute military measures. In July 1862, Lincoln informed his cabinet that he planned to issue a new military order. As of a certain date, all slaves living in the area and rebelling against the united states, would be free, thanks to the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Andrew Johnson

    Andrew Johnson
    In January 1865, Johnson overlooked the states refusal to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which congress enventually passed.
  • Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant
    While Grant was in office the Fifteenth Amendment was passed.
  • Rutherford B. Hayes

    Rutherford B. Hayes
    In June of 1877 Hayes issued an executive order prohibiting federal employees from participating in political campaigns. When two associates of New York senator Roscoe Conkling defied this order, Rutherford demanded their removal. This led to a split in the republican party.
  • James A. Garfield

    James A. Garfield
    Garfield was assassinated less than four months after his inauguration. He was shot by Charles Guiteau, a meantally unstable man who had successfully sought a government job.
  • Chester A. Arthur

    Chester A. Arthur
    Chester Arthur became president after Garfield was shot. Arthur helped secure passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Act. The bill established the Civil Service Commission to administer competitive examinations to those people seeking government jobs.
  • Grover Cleveland

    Grover Cleveland
    During the Pullman strike Cleveland ordered federal troops into Pullman. The troops helped restore normal factory operations. Grover Cleveland was nominated president twice. He was the 22 and 24 president.
  • Benjamin Harrison

    Benjamin Harrison
    During the Land Acts President Benjamin Harrison announced that land would be for available to the first takers beginning at noon on April 22. By the appointed day, about 50,000 people had gathered to race one another for land.
  • William McKinley

    William McKinley
    McKinley was shot on september 6, 1901, by Leon Czolgosz, at the Pan-American Exposition. Eight days later He died and his vice president, Theodore Roosevelt, became president.
  • Theodore Roosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt
    In the Russian-Japanese war Roosevelt feared that if russia won it might cut off U.S. trade with Manchuria, but if Japan won, it might threaten free trade in Asia. Theodore and representatives of the two countries hammered out a treaty that granted neither side all it wanted. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.