Rock PaintingsMade by Homo Sapiens normally show animals, humans with animals characteristics andd abstrac drawings difficult to understand. It´s thought that these were made in sanctuaries like Altamira cave in Cantabria
Last glaciation (Würm)This event is remarkable because it means the begining of the Mesolithic which lead to the Neolithic were humans became sedentary and learn ways of autosufiency like agriculture.
Period: 3200 BCE to 2000 BCE
Millares y el Argar cultureMost evolved societies in the Iberian penisula they worked and used copper, they were sttled in hich places with walled towns. They buried dead bodies. It´s remarkable the megalithic arquitecture and bell-shaped ceramic.
MetallurgyIt meant an immense upgrade compared to Neolithic tools and weapons because it became more resistent and efficient. The objective was military supremacy but it quickly extended to jewellery and working tools
Period: 2000 BCE to 700 BCE
Indoeuropean peopleThey penetrated through the Pyrennes coming from central and occidental Europe, they settled in the center and west of the Iberian peninsula. They knew iron metallurgy and introduced it however their economy and social structure wasn´t much evolved.
Tartessos kingdomThey were the first State in the Iberian peninsula, their kings were legendary figures except Argantonio. Their wealth came from agriculture, cattle and mining. The fall of this kingdom remains unknown
Period: 450 BCE to 201 BCE
CarthaginiansThey took over the Mediterranean when Tiro fell to the Babilonians but after the First Punic Wars loss to Rome they wanted to make up for it conquering the Iberian peninsula. They founded Cartago-Nova in 227 b.C. Not too much after Rome declared war to them, Second Punic Wars
Period: 201 BCE to 235
High Roman EmpireRomans got in the peninsula after the win in the war against Cartago. Arter that they conquered close to the whole peninsula. Then it started the romanization process. Hispania was divided in Ulterior and Citerior. The economy was slavery based on rural activies, business and industry, society was divided in free people and slaves
Period: 235 to 746
III century crisis and Occidental Roman Empire fallThe crisis started whith the military anarchy which lead to Civil wars and social and political caos. Business went down and cities became unpopular, landlordism and villas became normal which force a closed economy. Thereform was ambitious but it didn´t work. In 409 Barbarians invaded the peninsula and in 476 the Empire came to an end.
Visigothic origins in HispaniaIn the year 415 the Visigoths entered Hispania.
Its initial settlement with capital in Tolosa, occupying half the territory of Gaul and almost the entire Iberian Peninsula. However, after the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire in 476 they finally settled south of the Pyrenees.
The Visigoths were small, compared to about four million Hispano-Romans. The main settlement areas were the central and northern plateau,. This Spanish period of the Visigothic kingdom had its capital in Toledo.
Period: 711 to 722
Al-Andalus formationAfter the weakness of the Visigothic kingdom the arabics penetrated in the peninsula. In 712 Tariq and Musa the 2 generals of arabic army met in Toledo preventing the choice of another Visigothic king. After that they go up north conquering the peninsula until 722 were they suffered their first loss in Covadonga
Period: 711 to 1035
Resistance beginingThese were little societies that didn´t surrender to the arabics, they were located in the north of the peninsula were the land gave them and advantage in the war. AStur-Leones kingdom, Castilla´s kingdom, Navarra´s kingdom and Catalonian counties.
Covadonga´s battleConsidered the first major loss of the arabics or the the first win of the Christians in the reconquest of the peninsula. The ground gave the locals a big advantage over the arabic who saw their advance stopped in the north of the peninsula.
Period: 722 to 1492
RepoblationIs the process of settling christians in the land recovered from the arabs during the reconquest. This process had it changes over the time. Some say that without repoblation the reconquest couldn´t be done.
Cordoba´s caliphateAbd al-Rahman III pacified all the territory and claimed himself ``caliph of the muslims and defensor of the islam´s faith´´, becoming independent form Damascus and Kairouan.
Toledo´s Translators SchoolThe school provided a better coexistence for the 3 culutres living toghether at the time. Culturally it was key to transmit culture and it became important internationally because it provided busisness for the kingdom.
Period: 1238 to Jan 2, 1492
Granada kingdomThey managed survive Castilla´s kingdom by paying taxes but they decided not to pay forcing a war with Castilla that they lost when on January 2nd of 1492 Isabel the Catholic took the city of Granada.
Period: 1273 to
The MestaWas an organization created by Alfonso X the Wise which consisted of a farming animals organisation which lead to an increasing economy due to the wool, it gave cattlers some facilities and privileges.
MayorazgoWas an institution which changed the relationships between the families and the nobility which secured the transmition to the offspring
Period: 1410 to 1479
Aragon´s crownPolitical problems ended up in confrontations between nobility and the crown because of the sucesionof the royalty. Aafter these were solved they expanded in the mediterranean this period ends when Juan II dies.
Sep 4, 1479
Dynastic UnionAlcaçovas-Toledo treaty ended the Civil War and reckoned Isabel and Fernando as Spanish kings. The dynastic union made both kingdoms remain independent.
Period: 1490 to 1497
Marriage policy with PortugalSpanish Crown sistematically used marriage policy with Portugal as external politics. It didn´t quite worked out instantly but in 1580 Felipe II was able to claim Portugal´s throne.
Jewish expulsionThe Spanish Inquisition´s first labor was to prohibit Judaism. This was made so that the Jewish wouldn´t influence the youth to become jew. This made a huge impact on the labor fields because most of the workers were Jewish which created a crisis.
Period: 1492 to 1504
Christopher ColombusColombus made 4 diferent journeys to America.
First (1492-1493): discovered San Salvador, La Española and Juana islands.
Second (1493-1496):reckoned the Antillas, Puerto Rico and Jamaica
Third (1498-1500): Venezuela´s shore and close islands
Fourth (1502-1504): discovered Central America
Apr 17, 1492
Santa Fe´s CapitulationsChristopher Colombus thought about going to Asia sailing west to avoid the Mediterranean pirates from Turkey. In this capitulations Colombus agreed terms with the Castilla´s Crown to do this journey. According to the contract Colombus would get economical and aristocratic privileges of the land he discovered.
Tordesillas TreatyTordesillas´ Treaty signed by Portugal and Spain intended to divide the new world in two, being the west part for Spain and the east for Portugal. This treaty let Portugal acquire what now is Brazil. Both powers signed the treaty in order to avoid future issues about the new world.
Secret Granada TeatryFernando the Catholic signed with Luis XII the Secret Granada Teatry, which had divided Napoli kingdom between the 2 powers, Spain and France. After the ocupation border issues started a war that Spain won.
Hiring HouseThe Hiring House was created by the Catholic Kings in order to control and regulate everything related American business. It was estblished in Seville.
Burgos lawsThey came to mean a meticulous regulation of: regime of work, wages, housing, care of the Indians ... However, the abuse
He continued towards the entrusted Indians, which unleashed a campaign in their defense.
New LawsIn 1542, King Charles I promulgated the New Laws, which protected the natives against abuses by settlers:
- The encomienda should be extinguished upon the death of the owner.
- The Indians could not be reduced to slavery.
- Personal services were disappearing and replaced by taxes (paid services)