Post Confederation Canada

  • Fraser Gold Rush

    Gold was found in the Fraser River near BC. As a result, many people settled there and built farms. Once again, FN rights were ignored. MacDonald feared that this would interfere with his dream of a railway going coast to coast so he promised that the railway would be built within 10 years.
  • Fenian Annexation Bill

    Ireland wanted independence from Britain. They were mad at Britain because they didn't help with the famine irish. Group of irish civil war soldiers decided to attack BNA. They wanted to hold Canada hostage and threaten to take over Canada if Britain didn't release Ireland. This bill pressured the American House of Representatives to take over the area from Canada West to BC. The bill was not passed.
  • Purchase of Alaska

    MacDonald feared an American invasion from Alaska as a result.
  • Red River Rebellion continued (1)

    The Metis National Committee, led by Louis Riel to discuss the future of the Metis, captured Fort Garry, the headquarters of the HBC. They settled in comfortably; there was plenty of food and supplies. Canadian forces could not reach the fort because of harsh winter conditions.
    Red River was taken by the government, and the MNC surrounded MacDonald's store. They imprisoned 50 guards and grabbed pork. On December 8, a provisional (temporary) government was set up by the MNC.
  • Metis Bill of Rights

    This was a list of conditions for the Canadian Government to follow. The Metis wanted the Northwest Territories to join Canada. They also demanded that they have their own legislative assembly, so they could pass laws. In addition, the bill wanted every man over the age of 21 to be able to vote because currently, only males who own property could vote. Lastly, they wanted separate French and English schools and pardon for the Metis involved in the resistance.
  • Red River Rebellion continued (2)

    They drew up the Metis Bill of Rights.
  • Metis Bill of Rights continued

    In the end, the bill was accepted. However, Catholic and Protestant schools would be implemented, not french and english schools.
  • Period: to

    Red River Rebellion

    After the HBC's monopoly on Rupert's Land expired, the government bought it from HBC. Surveyors were sent to mark down the future plots of land. However, the opinion of the Metis were ignored As a result, the metis got angry and erased the marks from the ground. On Nov. 2, William McDougall, the lieutenant colonel of the NW Territories, tried to enter a metis settlement to survey the land. The people there were angry at this, and stopped McDougall.
  • Manitoba becomes a province

    This province blossomed from a small FN settlement. The creation of this province was shiocking because it was so small at the time.
  • Purchase of Rupert's Land

    The Canadian Government bought Rupert's Land from the HBC. The area is now known as the NW Territories. This led to the Metis fearing the English coming and assimilating their french culture. Also, they were worried that their land would be taken away. Rupert's Land was sold to the government for 300,000 Euros, equivalent to $1.5 million US today.
  • BC becomes a province

    Macdonald promises to have a railway linking BC to the rest of the country within 10 years.
  • DOMINION LANDS ACT continued

    Otherwise, they would lose their land and they would not get their registration fee back.

    This act gave settlers lots of land (65 acres per family/settler) and attracted people to move west. This was important because it was part of MacDonald's vision, and settlers settling in the west would discourage Americans from expanding into that area. However, there was a $10 registration fee, and the people who had that land must live on it for 3 years before they officially acquire it. Once 3 years is up, they also get their $10 back. Nobody within the group owning the land could leave.
  • Cypress Hills Massacre

    This massacre occurred in Cypress Hills, NW Territories. It involved groups of American wolf and bison hunters, whiskey traders, the metis, and some Assiniboine people (FN from the great plains).
    Some horses were stolen from the wolf hunters. They wanted to find the thieves, but lost their way and arrived in Cypress Hills. They came to the trading posts and a misunderstanding caused the metis, the hunters, and the traders to attack the Assiniboine people.
  • Cypress Hills Massacre continued

    There were 24 casualities, 23 of them the Assiniboine. This incident angered Canadians because of the Americans that were involved, and this directly led to MacDonald making the decision to form the NWMP. The responsibility of this police force was to keep peace, look over the construction of the CPR, stop the Americans from invading, and to stop illegal whiskey traders.
  • Alexander MacKenzie becomes prime minister

    Alexander MacKenzie's Liberals defeated Macdonald's Conservatives. He came up with confidential voting or the secret ballot.

    This act applies to only true FN people, not mixed blood Metis. It stated that people who lived on the FN reserves had no right to vote or drink alcohol. Also, an FN woman marrying a non-FN man would have their FN status removed. Vice versa, if a non-FN man marries an FN woman, they would adopt FN status. Furthermore, FN people could only vote if they gave up their FN status. Lastly, timber and other resources could be taken from the reserves at will, with no payment.
  • MacDonald returns as prime minister

    John A. MacDonald comes back into power. he made a National Policy, with a purpose to give tariffs protection. Taxes on foreign imported goods were increased, in an attempt to create a healthy economy. He also reduced taxes on imported raw materials. This allowed the manufacturers to get cheaper materials. The policy also proposed a railway stretching from coast to coast and the settlement of the west.
  • Last spike

    Sir Donald A. Smith, president of BMO, drove in the last spike of the CPR, signifying the unity of the country and how Canada is now all connected.
  • Metis Petition continued (2)

    However, John A. MacDonald wanted him hanged publicly because he wanted everyone to see what would happen to someone who went against the government. MacDonald would have the final say due to the Constitution Act of 1867, which stated that the Canadian government would have the say on internal affairs. Riel was hanged and as the Queen predicted, there was an uproar. Settlers were killed and legislative buildings were burned.
  • Metis Petition continued (3)

    Troops arrived very quickly because of the new railway. After they came, the chaos stopped. In the end, Big Bear and Crowfoot were killed.
  • Metis Petition

    The metis petitioned to the government for rights but they were ignored. Furthermore, the metis were now getting pushed out to Saskatchewan. Thinking Riel could save the day, they called him back to help. On March 19, Riel and his followers captured a protestant church and set up another provisional (temporary) government. They w.ere supported by the tribes of Big Bear and Crowfoot because they were getting pushed out as well. A battle began between the tribes and the settlers.
  • Metis Petition continued (1)

    Gabrielle Dumont was the military leader of the metis.
    Afterwards, Riel was arrested and put on trial. He was found guilty of treason. His lawyer wanted him to admit his insanity, but he refused. Riel could be hanged or sent to prison. Queen Victoria wanted him jailed because she feared that if he was hanged, there would be an uproar among the french.
  • Canadian Forces

    Canada gets its own army after using Britain's troops for many years.
  • P.E.I. becomes a province

    Originally, P.E.I. did not want to join Canada. However, after confederation, trade between the provinces boomed. P.E.I. did not benefit and plans to build a railway failed. They were left in debt. MacDonald made a deal to pay off their debts if they joined the rest of Canada. The deal was accepted and P.E.I. became the 7th province of Canada.