Hydrochloric and Nitric AcidJabar ibn Hayyan discovered these acids while distilling various salts together with sulfuric acid. He discovered hydrochloric acid from salt, and nitric acid from saltpeter.
Theory of Beginning of UniverseJa'far al-Sadiq developed a theory that follows, "The universe was born out of a tiny particle, which had two opposite poles. That particle produced an atom. In this way, the matter came into being. Then the matter diversified. This diversification was caused by the density or rarity of the atoms."
Refuting the study of traditional alchemyAl-Kindi was the first to disprove the study of traditional alchemy and the theory of the transmutation of metals into more valuable metals. (gold or silver).
Theory of Classical ElementsAl-Razi, who in his Doubts about Galen, was the first one to prove Aristotle's theory of classical elements as well as Galen's theory of humorism wrong using an experimental method.
Art of ElixirAl-Farabi wrote: The Necessity of the Art of the Elixir
Explanation of the SymbolsMuhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimihe, wrote a Book of the Explanation of the Symbols.
Steam DistillationIbn Sina perfected steam distillation to produce essential oils such as rose essence, which he used as aromatherapeutic treatments for heart conditions.
Law of Conservation of MassNasir al-Din al-Tusi contributed to the field of chemistry, affirming an early law of conservation of mass.