Moral Development

  • Preconentional Level (includes stages 1&2)

    Like in cognitive delopment where childeren develop in stages based on age. Moral based on the consequences of one's choices or actions. happens around the same time preoperational and concrete operational thinking happen in a child
  • Punishment & Obidience (Stage 1)

    The child assumes that powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules which they must unquestioningly obay. They see morality as something external to themselfs. They choose the actions that will not have any physicly consequences.
  • individual instrumental purpose and exchange (stage 2)

    the child can separate their own interest and point of views from others and the authority. they begin to see that everyone has their own needs. children believe that by showing the right action to the authority, they will earn a reward out of it.
  • conventional level (includes stages 3&4)

    a level where they learn the nature of authority, in society as well as in their family, begins around the adolesece and adult age
  • mutual interpersonal expectation, relationships and conformity (stage 3)

    learns to live up to rules in order to get praise or approval from others, thinks less egocentric and becomes more aware of other's feelings, agreements or expectation.
  • social system and conscience (stage 4)

    they feel more like it is their duty to uphold the rules and laws of the social system to maintain the welfare of society, they lookk for thebenefits for society, they believe that any action has to be right for the society
  • postconventional level (includes 5&6)

  • prior right and social-contract or utility (stage 5)

    will uphold the basic rights, values, and legal contract of a society, they will consider both moral and legal point of views and find a pratical solution
  • Stage of Universal Ethisal Principles (stage 6)

    Make universal ethic choices that benefit all of humanity, everyone has rights and we should respect them, the law and rules are onlly there to guild us, not be the only way to make decisions on moral dilemma.
  • moral dilemma

    moral dilemma example: a wowen is very sick, the sickness is only curable with one drug, thee women's husband wants to help her but he can not afford the drug from the doctor, the husband said that he will pay the doctor back but he still said no. becoming desperate the husband broke into the doctor's office to steal the drug for his wife
  • moral stages example - 1,2,3 (using the moral dilemma example)

    stage 1 thinking: he shouldn't steal the drug because he could get caught and sent to jail
    stage 2 thinking: it won't do him any good to steal because he will get nothing out of it
    stage 3 thinking: he shouldn't steal because other will think he is a thief, his wife would not want to be saved by thievery
  • moral stages example - 4,5,6 (using the moral dilemma example)

    stage 4 thinking: although his wife needed the drug, he shouldn't break the law to get it, everyone is equal to the law
    stage 5 thinking: the doctor's decision is reprehensible but mutual respect for the rights of other must be maintained
    stage 6 thinking: he should steal the drug to save his wife then face the penalty for the crime
  • criticisms

    gilligan said that the theory is male bias, males would normaly reach stage 4 but women would reach stage 3, he believes that the female participants were judge using male standards