Major ethical philosophies

  • 469 BCE


    •Socrates states no one chooses evil;no one chooses to act in ignorance.
    •We seek the good, but fail to achieve it by ignorance or lack of knowledge as to how to obtain what is good. He believes no one would intentionally harm themselves. When harm comes to us although we thought we were seeking the good, the good is not obtain in such a case since we lacked knowledge as to how best to achieve the good.
  • Period: 469 BCE to 399 BCE


  • 384 BCE


    In ethics aristotle introduced the concept of what is usually referred to as the golden mean of moderation. He believes that every virtue resides somewhere between the vice of defect and excess that is one can display either too little or too much of a good thing, or a virtue. The trick, as for the Goldilocks is to have just the right amount. The mean of moderation is more of a sliding value, fluctuating between defect and excess, but not automatically splitting the diference between them
  • Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE


  • The Ethics of Kant: Deontology

    The Ethics of Kant: Deontology
    The term Deontology stems from the greek deon-duty, obligation or command. As an ethical system it is the radical opposite of utilitarianism in that it holds that the consequences of a moral decision are of no matter whatsoever.What is important are the motive as to why one has acted in the way that one has.So an action may have benefictal results, but still be unethical if it has been performed for the wrong reasons.
  • Period: to

    Immanuel Kant

  • Utilitarianism

    Holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Utilitarianism is the most common approach to business ethics because the way that it accounts for cost and benefits. There are two types of utilitarianism first:Rule utilitarianism helps the largest number of people using the fairest, second is Act utilitarianism makes the most ethical action possible for the benefit of the people
  • John Rawls

    John Rawls
    Rawls insisted human justice must be centered on a firm foundation comprising a first and second principle.First principle declared that "each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty.Such as freedom of thought,speech,vote,a fair trial for an accused crime etc.Second principle consist of two sub points Socio-economic inequality is permissible only to the degree that it brings the greatest benefit to society.Second authority and offices are to be available to everyone
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    The Ethics of John Rawls: Justice Theory