Japan's Geography

Timeline created by shifu.p
In History
  • Period: Jan 1, 710 to Jan 1, 794

    Nara Period

    Historians divide Japanese history before the modern era into two separate periods:he ancient period (400-1185) CE, when emperorsr ruled Japan. They define the second period as medievil because, like medievil Europe, society in Japan at this time was feudal structure.
  • Oct 16, 784

    Emperor Kammu moves the capital to Nagaoka-kyō (Kyōto)

    Emperor Kammu (桓武天皇 Kanmu-tennō?, 737–806)[1] was the 50th emperor of Japan,[2] according to the traditional order of succession.[3] Kammu reigned from 781 to 806
  • Oct 16, 794

    Emperor Kammu moves the capital to Heian-kyō (Kyōto)

  • Period: Oct 16, 794 to Oct 16, 1185

    Heian period

  • Oct 16, 858

    Emperor Seiwa begins the rule of the Fujiwara clan

    The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi), descending from the Nakatomi clan, was a powerful family of regents in Japan
  • Oct 16, 990

    Sei Shōnagon writes the Pillow Book essays

    The Pillow Book (枕草子 Makura no Sōshi?) is a book of observations and musings recorded by Sei Shōnagon during her time as court lady to Empress Consort Teishi (定子) during the 990s and early 11th century in Heian Japan. The book was completed in the year 1002.
  • Period: Oct 16, 1000 to Oct 16, 1008

    Murasaki Shikibu writes The Tale of Genji novel

    The Tale of Genji (源氏物語 Genji Monogatari?) is a classic work of Japanese literature written by the Japanese noblewoman and lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu in the early years of the 11th century, around the peak of the Heian period. It is sometimes called the world's first novel, the first modern novel, the first psychological novel or the first novel still to be considered a classic. Notably, the novel also illustrates a unique depiction of the livelihoods of high courtiers during the Heian per
  • Oct 16, 1068

    Emperor Go-Sanjo overthrows the Fujiwara clan

  • Oct 16, 1087

    Emperor Shirakawa abdicates and becomes a Buddhist monk, the first of the "cloistered emperors" (insei)

    Emperor Shirakawa (白河天皇 Shirakawa-tennō?, July 7, 1053 – July 24, 1129) was the 72nd emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2] Shirakawa's reign lasted from 1073 to 1087
  • Oct 16, 1185

    Taira is defeated (Gempei War) and Minamoto Yoritomo with the support (backing) of the Hōjō clan seizes power, becoming the first shogun of Japan, while the emperor (or "mikado") becomes a figurehead

    The Genpei War (源平合戦 Genpei kassen, Genpei gassen?) (1180–1185) was a conflict between the Taira and Minamoto clans during the late-Heian period of Japan. It resulted in the fall of the Taira clan and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate under Minamoto Yoritomo in 1192.
  • Oct 16, 1185

    the rival Taira clan is defeated at sea at the Battle of Dannoura by Yoritomo's brother Minamoto Yoshitsune,

    The battle of Dan-no-ura (壇ノ浦の戦い, Dan-no-ura no tatakai?) was a major sea battle of the Genpei War, occurring at Dan-no-ura, in the Shimonoseki Strait off the southern tip of Honshū. On April 24, 1185, the Genji (Minamoto) clan fleet, led by Minamoto no Yoshitsune, defeated the Heike (Taira) clan fleet, during a half-day engagement.
  • Period: Oct 16, 1185 to Oct 16, 1336

    Kamakura Period

  • Oct 16, 1191

    Rinzai Zen Buddhism is introduced in Japan by the monk Eisai of Kamakura and becomes popular among the samurai, the leading class in Japanese society

    The Rinzai school (臨済宗; Japanese: Rinzai-shū, Chinese: 临济宗 línjì zōng) is (with Sōtō and Ōbaku), one of three sects of Zen in Japanese Buddhism.
  • Oct 16, 1192

    The emperor appoints Yoritomo as shogun (military leader) with a residence in Kamakura, establishing the bakufu system of government

    A shogun (将軍, shōgun?) [ɕoː.gu͍ɴ] listen (help·info) (literally, "a commander of a force") was one of the (usually) hereditary military dictators of Japan from 1192 to 1867.[1] In this period, the shoguns, or their shikken regents (1203–1333), were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally appointed by the emperor.
  • Oct 16, 1221

    The Kamakura army defeats the imperial army in the Jōkyū Disturbance, thereby asserting the supremacy of the Kamakura shogunate (Hōjō regents) over the emperor

    Jōkyū War (承久の乱, jōkyū no ran?), also known as the Jōkyū Disturbance or the Jōkyū Rebellion,[1] was fought in Japan between the forces of Retired Emperor Go-Toba and those of the Hōjō clan, regents of the Kamakura shogunate, whom the retired emperor was trying to overthrow.
  • Oct 16, 1232

    The Jōei Shikimoku code of law is promulgated to enhance control by the Hōjō regents

  • Oct 16, 1274

    The Mongols of Kublai Khan try to invade Japan but are repelled by a typhoon. Nichiren is banished to Sado Island

  • Oct 16, 1333

    Nitta Yoshisada conquers and destroys Kamakura during the Siege of Kamakura ending the Kamakura Shogunate.

    The 1333 siege of Kamakura was a battle of the Genkō War, and marked the end of the power of the Hōjō clan, which had dominated the regency of the Kamakura shogunate for over a century. Forces loyal to Emperor Go-Daigo and led by Nitta Yoshisada entered the city from multiple directions and destroyed it; in the end, the Hōjō leaders retreated to Tōshō-ji, the Hōjō family temple, where they committed suicide with the rest of the clan.
  • Oct 16, 1336

    After the successful overthrow of the Kamakura bakufu in 1336, Ashikaga Takauji set up his own bakufu in Kyoto.

  • Period: Oct 16, 1336 to Oct 16, 1534

    Ashikaga period

  • Period: Oct 16, 1534 to

    Sengoku-Jidai: Eriod of Country of War

  • Oct 21, 1555


    After destroying his former masters,the Ouchi Clan in 1555. Mori Motonari,the leader of Mori clan has become master of the Western part of Honshu,the main island of Japan. Mori clan now holds the provinces of Aki,Suo, Nagato and Iwami. His forces have also attacked Kuyshy,endangering the Otomo domain,which have caused war between the two powers.
  • Oct 21, 1560


    Since Onin War Japan has been in turmoil. Almost hundred years of internal strife between various Daimyos has left the country in ruins. The weak Ashikaga shogunate has no power over the warring factions and has themselves fallen on the role of puppets for various lords pursuing the power on the central Japan.
  • Oct 16, 1565

    the shogun Yoshiteru was assassinated

  • Oct 21, 1568

    Struggle for unification and final peace

    The absence of a de facto central authority in the capital lasted until Oda Nobunaga's armies entered Kyōto re-establishing the Muromachi Shogunate under the puppet shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki to begin the Azuchi-Momoyama period. However, despite a renewed central authority in Kyōto and Nobunaga's attempt to unify the country, the struggle for power among warring states continued until unification and final peace was achieved long after his assassination in 1582.
  • Oct 21, 1570

    The Archbishopric of Edo is established and the first Japanese Jesuits are ordained

  • Oct 16, 1573

    The Ashikaga shogunate was finally destroyed

    When Nobunaga drove Ashikaga Yoshiaki out of Kyoto. Initially, Yoshiaki fled to Shikoku. Afterwards, Yoshiaki sought and received protection from the Mōri clan in western Japan. Later, Toyotomi Hideyoshi requested that Yoshiaki accept him as an adopted son and the 16th Ashikaga Shogun, but Yoshiaki refused.
  • Japan united!

    After Nobunaga's assassination, Toyotomi Hideyoshi rose above his rivals to succeed his former lord. Hideyoshi first conquered Shikoku (Shikoku Heitei), then Kyushu (Kyushu Heitei) to finally unite all of Japan by defeating the later Hojo clan of Sagami province in the conquest and siege of Odawara (Odawara Seibatsu).
  • HIdeyoshi's death.

    However, immediately after Hideyoshi's death in 1598, his retainer Tokugawa Ieyasu sought to undermine the Toyotomi.
  • The battle of Sekighara

  • After the battle:

    After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 over Ishida Mitsunari, Ieyasu became the undisputed ruler and received the title of Seii Taishogun and established the Tokugawa or Edo shogunate.
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa period

  • Toyotomi destroyed and peace regained to Japan.

    Eventually Ieyasu detroyed the Toyotomi in the Summer Siege of Osaka in 1615 to finally bring peace to Japan.
  • Battle of Osaka. Tokugawa Ieyasu besieges Osaka Castle, all opposition from forces loyal to the Toyotomi family. Tokugawa authority becomes paramount throughout Japan

  • Tokugawa Iemitsu formalizes the system of mandatory alternate residence (sankin kōtai) in Edo

  • Shimabara Rebellion (1637–38) mounted by overtaxed peasants.

    The Shimabara Rebellion (島原の乱 Shimabara no ran?) was an uprising in southwestern Japan in 1637–1638 during the Edo period. It largely involved peasants, most of them Catholic Christians. It was one of only a handful of instances of serious unrest during the relatively peaceful period of the Tokugawa shogunate's rule.[2] In the wake of the Matsukura clan's construction of a new castle at Shimabara, taxes were drastically raised, which provoked anger from local peasants and lordless samurai. Rel
  • Edicts establishing National Seclusion (Sakoku Rei) are completed. All Westerners except the Dutch are prohibited from entering Japan

  • Tokugawa Iemitsu bans all foreigners, except Chinese and Dutch, from Japan.

  • The Great Fire of Meireki destroys most of the city of Edo.

    The Great Fire of Meireki (明暦の大火 Meireki no taika?), also known as the Furisode Fire, destroyed 60-70% of the Japanese capital city of Edo (now Tokyo) on March 2, 1657[1], the third year of the Meireki Imperial era. It lasted for three days, and is estimated to have claimed over 100,000 lives.
  • Mount Fuji erupts.

    Mount Fuji was extinct, but it was active during the medievil period, it last erupted in 1707.
  • The anatomical text Kaitai Shinsho, the first complete Japanese translation of a Western medical work, is published by Sugita Gempaku and Maeno Ryotaku.

  • The anatomical text Kaitai Shinsho, the first complete Japanese translation of a Western medical work, is published by Sugita Gempaku and Maeno Ryotaku.

  • Matsudaira Sadanobu becomes senior shogunal councillor and institutes the Kansei Reforms.

    The Kansei Reforms (寛政の改革 Kansei no kaikaku?) were a series of reactionary policy changes and edicts which were intended to cure a range of perceived problems which had developed in mid-18th century Tokugawa Japan.
  • The USA forces Japan to sign a trade agreement ("Treaty of Kanagawa") which reopens Japan to foreigners after two centuries.

    On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 日米和親条約 Hepburn: Nichibei Washin Jōyaku?, "Japan–US Treaty of Amity and Friendship") or Kanagawa Treaty (神奈川条約 Kanagawa Jōyaku?) was concluded between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate.
  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigns, the Tokugawa dynasty ends, and the emperor (or "mikado") Meiji is restored, but with capital in Edo/Tokyo and divine attributes.