DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS OF THE XIX CENTURY

  • RICHARD TREVITHICK: LOCOMOTIVE

    RICHARD TREVITHICK: LOCOMOTIVE
    Trevithick was able to adapt a steam engine, which had been used since the beginning of the 18th century to pump water, to pull a locomotive machine that ran at a speed of 8 km / h dragging five wagons loaded with 10 tons of steel and 70 men, On a 15-km track from the Pen-y-Darren smelter, in South Wales. It became a means to save work in the mines.It was the first machine to run in rails.
  • AUGUSTIN FRESNEL: FRESNEL LENS

    AUGUSTIN FRESNEL: FRESNEL LENS
    Allows the construction of large aperture lenses and a short focal length without the weight and volume of material that should be used in a conventional design lens.The thickness of the lens in each ring is different, eliminating the enormous thickness that the lens would have to be its continuous surfaces, while the surface presents a stepped appearance. They are used in flat loupes with credit card format, headlights, car headlights, direction indicators, etc.
  • NICÉPHORE NIÉPCE: PHOTOGRAPHY

    NICÉPHORE NIÉPCE: PHOTOGRAPHY
    After numerous attempts, Niépce made the first recorded image of the story by placing lithographic stones covered in tin in the bottom of an obscure camera.
  • ELÍAS HOWE: SEWING MACHINE

    ELÍAS HOWE: SEWING MACHINE
    Howe's invention helped towards the mass production of sewing machines and clothing. That in turn of changed the sewing industry forever and freed women from the drudgery of some of their daily chores. Consequently millons of jobs were created around the world. His machine produced one of the first reliable lock- stitches in history.
  • WILLIAM MORTON: ANESTHESIA

    WILLIAM MORTON: ANESTHESIA
    Morton knew that there were some gases that eliminated pain sensitivity in the human body, so he discovered new substances, including nitrous oxide (hilar gas). He decided to do an experiment with his friend Horace Wells, which consisted of extracting one of his teeth using this gas and the result was expected, Wells didnt feel any pain.
  • ELISHA OTIS GRAVE: ELEVATOR BRAKE

    ELISHA OTIS GRAVE: ELEVATOR BRAKE
    While Otis worked as a master mechanic for a company dedicated to the construction of beds, he noted that large mechanical parts should be raised with the help of hoists, then devised a safety device that ensured the integrity of the pieces in case of rope breakage .
  • ANTONIO MEUCCI: FIRST TELEPHONE

    ANTONIO MEUCCI: FIRST TELEPHONE
    Meucci discovered that the transformation of the sound vibrations into electrical impulses allowed to transmit the voice at a distance through a cable.
  • HEINRICH GOBEL: LIGHT BULB

    HEINRICH GOBEL: LIGHT BULB
    By using a filament made out of carbonized bamboo and a bottle of Eau-de-Cologne, which was a vacuum, he succeeds in constructing the first electric light bulb.
  • HENRY BESSEMER: BESSEMER CONVERTER

    HENRY BESSEMER: BESSEMER CONVERTER
    Henry developed the first process for manufacturing steel . He invented a large, pear-shaped receptacle called a converter and utilized a blast of air in a de-carbonization process to create the steel from iron. It helped made stronger rails for constructing the railroads and helped to make stronger metal machines and innovative architectural structures like skyscrapers.
  • NARCISO MONTURIOL: SUBMARINE

    NARCISO MONTURIOL: SUBMARINE
    His fondness for scientific-technical subjects led him to conceive an underwater ship for coral gathering; Then he tried to endorse the idea with the scientific possibilities that would open the submarine exploration, as well as the possible military uses.
  • PIERRE MICHAUX: MODERN BICYCLE (VELOCIPEDE)

    PIERRE MICHAUX: MODERN BICYCLE (VELOCIPEDE)
    It had pedals attached to a large front wheel, and was called the "velocipede." The velocipedes had the tires made of solid wheel and were very uncomfortable. So much so, that in England they were called the "shake-bones."
  • SOLOMON ANDREWS: AIRSHIP

    SOLOMON ANDREWS: AIRSHIP
    This 1864 photo shows Andrews' airship, as it cruised on a famous trip of 30 miles in 14 and half minutes. Its flew over Perth Amboy, New Jersey, on June 1, 1863. Andrew's airship had three 80-foot cigar-shaped balloons, with a rudder and gondola. Buoyancy was controlled by jettisoning sand ballast or releasing hydrogen lift gas.
  • LOUIS PASTEUR: PASTEURIZATION

    LOUIS PASTEUR: PASTEURIZATION
    With the help of a microscope, Pasteur discovered that two organisms were involved in the fermentation process. One produced alcohol and the other, lactic acid, which sour wine.He used a new method to eliminate microorganisms that can degrade wine, beer or milk, after enclosing the liquid in well-sealed vats and raising its temperature to 44 degrees for a short time.This process currently guarantees the safety of many food products in the world.
  • THOMAS CLIFFORD ALLBUTT: CLINICAL THERMOMETER

    THOMAS CLIFFORD ALLBUTT: CLINICAL THERMOMETER
    The Allbutt Clinical Thermometer was the first practical device for taking temperatures. It could be easily carried around large hospitals and gave rapid, accurate readings.It was around 6 inches long, and contained mercury. This model was far smaller than previous thermometers, making it portable for doctors and nurses.
  • CHRISTOPHER SHOLES: TYPEWRITER

    CHRISTOPHER SHOLES: TYPEWRITER
    Sholes was suggested to modify a machine for the printing of letters and he got the idea for his typewriter by looking at someone playing the piano.He spent the rest of his life in the project,adding a shift key and he also obtained a list of the letters most used in English, and changed the keyboard where the common pairs were separated in the same one,arrangement that is still used today.
  • THOMAS ALVA EDISON: PHONOGRAPH

    THOMAS ALVA EDISON: PHONOGRAPH
    Invented for the recording and reproduction of sound.Consists of a metal cylinder covered by tin paper, on which rests a subtle steel tip placed in the center of the diaphragm.. If you speak in front of the diaphragm, the sound energy of the voice makes it vibrate and transmits the vibrations.
  • WILLIAM HESKETH LEVER: SOAP

    WILLIAM HESKETH LEVER: SOAP
    His revolutionary product helped to promote cleanliness and hygiene. It was intended to "make cleanliness somewhat common, reduce women's work, promote health and help achieve personal beauty, so that life would be more enjoyable and rewarding for people".
  • KARL BENZ: AUTOMOBILE

    KARL BENZ: AUTOMOBILE
    The major features of the automobile, were the compact high-speed single-cylinder four-stroke engine,a tubular steel frame, and three wire-spoked wheels.The engine output was 0.75 hp (0.55 kW). Details included an automatic intake slide, a controlled exhaust valve, high-voltage electrical vibrator ignition with spark plug, and water/thermo siphon evaporation cooling.
  • JOHN PEMBERTON: COCA-COLA

    JOHN PEMBERTON: COCA-COLA
    John stirred up a fragrant, caramel-coloured liquid and, when it was done, he carried it to a pharmacy. The mixture was combined with carbonated water and sampled by customers who all agreed that drink was something special.
  • EMILE BERLINER: GRAMOPHONE

    EMILE BERLINER: GRAMOPHONE
    ,Emile Berliner invented a recording system based on a flat disc instead of a cylinder which is the gramophone.It's inspired by the "phonograph" by Thomas Edison.
  • CLÉMENT ADER: PLANE

    CLÉMENT ADER: PLANE
    Clement Ader claimed that he made a steam-engine powered low-level flight of approximately 160 feet and recorded a distance just over 50 meters in the suburbs of Paris, from a level field on the estate of a friend.
  • LUMIÈRE BROTHERS: CINEMATOGRAPHE

    LUMIÈRE BROTHERS: CINEMATOGRAPHE
    Louis Lumière designed a process of intermittent movement based on the way in which a sewing machine worked. It consisted in that two pins or claws were inserted into the sprocket holes punched into the celluloid film strip; the pins moved the film along and then retracted, leaving the film stationary during exposure.It weighed around five kilograms and operated with the use of a hand-powered crank.
  • FELIX HOFFMANN: ASPIRIN

    FELIX HOFFMANN: ASPIRIN
    The young German chemist Felix Hoffman discovered this substance while he was working in Bayer's chemical laboratory. It was there, while working with another substance, where he was able to obtain acetylsalicylic acid in a chemically pure and stable form. The substance proved to have analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.