History of The Scientific Method

  • Dec 1, 700

    Egyption Medical Textbook

    (1600 BC) applies the following components: examination, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, to the treatment of disease
  • Dec 1, 700

    three-prong method

    (400 BC) used for testing truth or falsehood of statehood
  • Dec 1, 700

    Inductive reasoning

    (400 BC) examining the causes of sensory perceptions and drawing conclusions about the outside world.
  • Dec 1, 700

    Aristotle Posterior Analytics

    (320 BC) categorising and subdividing knowledge, dividing knowledge
  • Dec 1, 700

    Euclid's Elements

    (300 BC) system of theorems following logically
  • Dec 1, 700

    Cataloged library

    (200 BC) at alexandria
  • Dec 1, 1021

    Book of optics

    Introduced by Alhazen; experimental method and combines observations, experiments and rational arguments
  • Dec 1, 1025

    Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī development

    experiments for mineralogy and mechanics, and conducts elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena.
  • Dec 2, 1027

    The Book of Healing

    Avicenna criticizes the Aristotelian method of induction
  • Dec 2, 1235

    Aristotelian commentaries

    Robert Grosseteste laid out the framework for the proper methods of science.
  • Dec 2, 1265

    Roger Bacon Described Scientific Method

    based on a repeating cycle of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and the need for independent verification
  • Dec 2, 1327

    Ockham's razor

    clearly formulated (by William of Ockham)
  • Dec 2, 1403

    Yongle Encyclopedia

    the first collaborative encyclopedia
  • Controlled expirements

    Discovered by francis bacon
  • Galileo's Two New Sciences

    contained two thought experiments, namely Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa experiment and Galileo's ship
  • First description of a controlled experiment

    using identical populations with only one variable
  • polynomial regression

    An optimal design is published by Joseph Diaz Gergonne.
  • Illustrations of the Logic of Science

    popularizing his trichotomy of Abduction, Deduction and Induction. Charles SandersPeirce explains randomization as a basis for statistical inference.
  • blinded, randomized experiments

    C. S. Peirce with Joseph Jastrow first describes blinded, randomized experiments, which become established in psychology
  • multiple hypotheses

    Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin proposes the use of multiple hypotheses to assist in the design of experiments
  • Randomized design

    popularized and analyzed by Ronald Fisher
  • Falsifiability

    as a criterion for evaluating new hypotheses is popularized by Karl Popper's The Logic of Scientific Discovery
  • First computer simulation

    It was a simulation of 12 hard spheres using a Monte Carlo algorithm.
  • Meta study

    combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses
  • robot scientist

    First working prototype of a "robot scientist" able to perform independent experiments to test hypotheses and interpret findings without human guidance
  • Controlled experiment

    Designed by Jābir ibn Hayyān