history of the scientific method

  • 150

    1600BC, The Edwin Smith papyrus/Treatment of Disease

    An Egyptian medical textbook, the Edwin Smith papyrus, (circa 1600 BC), applies the following components: examination, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, to the treatment of disease, which display parallels to basic empirical methodology.
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  • 150

    400 BC Three Prong Method

    In China, Mozi and the School of Names advocate using one's senses to observe the world, and develop the "three-prong method" for testing the truth or falsehood of statements.
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  • 150

    400 BC Process of Examining

    Democritus advocates inductive reasoning through a process of examining the causes of sensory perceptions and drawing conclusions about the outside world.
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  • 150

    320 BC Comprihencive Documents

    First comprehensive documents categorising and subdividing knowledge, dividing knowledge into different areas by Aristotle,(physics, poetry, zoology, logic, rhetoric, politics, and biology). Aristotle's Posterior Analytics defends the ideal of science as necessary demonstration from axioms known with certainty.
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  • 150

    300 BC Geometry

    Euclid's Elements expound geometry as a system of theorems following logically from axioms known with certainty.
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  • Jan 1, 1021

    1021, Experimental Methods

    Alhazen introduces the experimental method and combines observations, experiments and rational arguments in his Book of Optics
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  • Jan 1, 1025

    1025, Another Step

    More Info!Abu Rayhan al-biruni, develops experimental methods for mineralogy and mechanics, and conducts elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena
  • Jan 1, 1220

    1220, The begining of the Framework

    Robert Grosseteste, an English scholastic philosopher, theologian and the bishop of Lincoln, published his Aristotelian commentaries, which laid out the framework for the proper methods of science.
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  • Jan 1, 1235

    1235, The end of the framework

    Robert Grosseteste, an English scholastic philosopher, theologian and the bishop of Lincoln, published his Aristotelian commentaries, which laid out the framework for the proper methods of science.
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  • Jan 1, 1265

    1265, Getting There

    Roger Bacon, an English monk, inspired by the writings of Grosseteste, described a scientific method, which he based on a repeating cycle of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and the need for independent verification. He recorded the manner in which he conducted his experiments in precise detail so that others could reproduce and independently test his results.
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  • 1595, Microsope

    Microscope invented in Holland
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  • 1600, Labs

    First Dedicated Labratory
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  • 1608, Telescope

    Telescope Invented in Holland
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  • 1637, Scientific Method

    The first Scientific Method declared, Rene Descartes
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  • 1637, Two New Sciences

    Galileo's Two New Sciences published, containing two thought experiments, namely Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa experiment and Galileo's ship, which are intended to disprove existing physical theories by showing that they have contradictory consequences
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  • 1812, Thought Method

    The formulation by Hans Christian Ørsted of the Latin-German mixed term Gedankenexperiment (lit. experiment conducted in the thoughts, or thought experiment). Although the method had been in use by philosophers since antiquity.
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  • 1815, Optimal Design

    An optimal design for polynomial regression is published by Joseph Diaz Gergonne.
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  • 1877, Trichotomy

    Charles Sanders Peirce publishes "Illustrations of the Logic of Science", popularizing his trichotomy of Abduction, Deduction and Induction. Peirce explains randomization as a basis for statistical inference.
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  • 1885, Psychology

    C. S. Peirce with Joseph Jastrow first describes blinded, randomized experiments, which become established in psychology
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  • 1897, Multiple Hypothesis

    Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin proposes the use of multiple hypotheses to assist in the design of experiments. More Info
  • 1926, Randomize Becomes Popular

    Randomized design popularized and analyzed by Ronald Fisher (following Peirce)
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  • 1934, Falsifiability

    Falsifiability as a criterion for evaluating new hypotheses is popularized by Karl Popper's The Logic of Scientific Discovery (following Peirce)
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  • 1946, Computer

    first computer simultation More Info!
  • 1946, Meta Study

    Meta study of scientific method (Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions)
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  • 2009, Robot

    Adam - First working prototype of a "robot scientist" able to perform independent experiments to test hypotheses and interpret findings without human guidance.
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