• 17,000 BCE

# Cave paintings in Lascaux, the first representation of constellations

"It has been suggested that the 17,000-year-old cave paintings in Lascaux Southern France depict star constellations such as Taurus, Orion's Belt and the Pleiades. However, this view is not yet generally accepted among scientists." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constellation#History_of_the_early_constellations
• 3000 BCE

# Babylonians, the early geometry

"The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to early peoples, who discovered obtuse triangles in the ancient Indus Valley, and ancient Babylonia from around 3000 BC. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths, angles, areas, and volumes, which were developed to meet some practical need in surveying, construction, astronomy, and various crafts." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_geometry#Early_geometry
• 2700 BCE

# The invention of Abacus, the early calculator by sumerians

"The period 2700–2300 BC saw the first appearance of the Sumerian abacus, a table of successive columns which delimited the successive orders of magnitude of their sexagesimal number system.Some scholars point to a character from the Babylonian cuneiform which may have been derived from a representation of the abacus. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abacus
• 1800 BCE

# Babylonians, the origins of Algebra

"The roots of algebra can be traced to the ancient Babylonians, who developed an advanced arithmetical system with which they were able to do calculations in an algorithmic fashion. The Babylonians developed formulas to calculate solutions for problems typically solved today by using linear equations, quadratic equations, and indeterminate linear equations." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebra#History
• 1800 BCE

# The origin of Pythagorean theorem

"There is debate whether the Pythagorean theorem was discovered once, or many times in many places, and the date of first discovery is uncertain, as is the date of the first proof. Historians of Mesopotamian mathematics have concluded that the Pythagorean rule was in widespread use during the Old Babylonian period (20th to 16th centuries BC), over a thousand years before Pythagoras was born" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pythagorean_theorem#History
• 1500 BCE

# The invention of sundial

"The earliest sundials known from the archaeological record are shadow clocks (1500 BC or BCE) from ancient Egyptian astronomy and Babylonian astronomy.The Roman writer Vitruvius lists dials and shadow clocks known at that time in his De architectura. A canonical sundial is one that indicates the canonical hours of liturgical acts.The Italian astronomer Giovanni Padovani published a treatise on the sundial in 1570." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sundial#History
• 1000 BCE

# Babylonians, the first to recognize the astronomical phenomena

"Babylonian astronomy was the study or recording of celestial objects during early history Mesopotamia. These records can be found on Sumerian clay tablets, inscribed in cuneiform, dated to around 1000 BCE." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_astronomy
• 600 BCE

# The discovery of static electricity by Thales of Miletus

"Around 600BC, Thales of Miletus discovered that rubbing amber caused it to be able to pick up leaves and dust." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_electricity#History
• 500 BCE

# The invention of map, the earliest geographical writing

"In China, the earliest known geographical Chinese writing dates back to the 5th century BC, during the beginning of the Warring States (481–221 BC). This was the Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu chapter of the Shu Jing or Book of Documents." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_cartography
• 463 BCE

# The discovery of moonlight as reflected sunlight by Anaxagoras

"His theories about eclipses, the Sun and Moon may well have been based on observations of the eclipse of 463 BCE, which was visible in Greece. He was the first to explain that the Moon shines due to reflected light from the Sun. He also said that the Moon had mountains and believed that it was inhabited." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaxagoras
• 424 BCE

# The invention of lens

"The oldest certain reference to the use of lenses is from Aristophanes' play The Clouds (424 BC) mentioning a burning-glass. Pliny the Elder (1st c) confirms that burning-glasses were known in the Roman period. Pliny also has the earliest known reference to the use of a corrective lens when he mentions that Nero was said to watch the gladiatorial games using an emerald (presumably concave to correct for nearsightedness, though the reference is vague)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lens#History
• 400 BCE

# The invention of Armillary sphere

"Throughout Chinese history, astronomers have created celestial globes (Chinese: 浑象) to assist the observation of the stars. The Chinese also used the armillary sphere in aiding calendrical computations and calculations.According to Needham, the earliest development of the armillary sphere in China goes back to the astronomers Shi Shen and Gan De in the 4th century BC, as they were equipped with a primitive single-ring armillary instrument." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armillary_sphere#History
• 400 BCE

# The invention of Gear

"Early examples of gears date from the 4th century BC in China (Zhan Guo times – Late East Zhou dynasty), which have been preserved at the Luoyang Museum of Henan Province, China.The earliest preserved gears in Europe were found in the Antikythera mechanism, an example of a very early and intricate geared device, designed to calculate astronomical positions. Its time of construction is now estimated between 150 and 100 BC." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gear#History
• 350 BCE

# Meteorologica, the first meteorology treatise by Aristotle

"Meteorology (Greek: Μετεωρολογικά; Latin: Meteorologica or Meteora) is a treatise by Aristotle. The text discusses what Aristotle believed to have been all the affections common to air and water, and the kinds and parts of the earth and the affections of its parts. It includes early accounts of water evaporation, earthquakes, and other weather phenomena." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteorology_(Aristotle)
• 259 BCE

# The publication of Peri Lithon (On Stones) by Theophrastus, the early Geology treatise

"The study of the physical material of the Earth dates back at least to ancient Greece when Theophrastus (372–287 BCE) wrote the work Peri Lithon (On Stones). During the Roman period, Pliny the Elder wrote in detail of the many minerals and metals then in practical use – even correctly noting the origin of amber." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology#History
• 250 BCE

# Book publication: "On Floating Bodies" about the Archimedes principle

"On Floating Bodies (Greek: Περὶ τῶν ἐπιπλεόντων σωμάτων) is a Greek-language work consisting of two books written by Archimedes of Syracuse (287 – c. 212 BC), one of the most important mathematicians, physicists, and engineers of antiquity. On Floating Bodies, which is thought to have been written around 250 BC, survives only partly in Greek, the rest in medieval Latin translation from the Greek." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_Floating_Bodies
• 220 BCE

# The invention of astrolabe

"An early astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic civilization by Apollonius of Perga between 220 and 150 BC, often attributed to Hipparchus. The astrolabe was a marriage of the planisphere and dioptra, effectively an analog calculator capable of working out several different kinds of problems in astronomy." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrolabe#History
• 200 BCE

# The invention of compass

"The compass was invented in China during the Han Dynasty between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD where it was called the "south-governor" (sīnán 司南). The magnetic compass was not, at first, used for navigation, but for geomancy and fortune-telling by the Chinese. The earliest Chinese magnetic compasses were possibly used to order and harmonize buildings in accordance with the geomantic principles of feng shui." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_compass
• 190 BCE

# The invention of Astrometry

"The history of astrometry is linked to the history of star catalogues, which gave astronomers reference points for objects in the sky so they could track their movements. This can be dated back to Hipparchus, who around 190 BC used the catalogue of his predecessors Timocharis and Aristillus to discover Earth's precession. In doing so, he also developed the brightness scale still in use today." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrometry#History
• 6 BCE

# The geocentric model in Ancient Greece

"In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, often exemplified specifically by the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the Universe with Earth at the center. Under the geocentric model, the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets all orbited Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geocentric_model
• 4 BCE

# "Works and Days" by Hesiod, the first document of constellations in Ancient Greece

"There is only limited information on ancient Greek constellations, with some fragmentary evidence being found in the Works and Days of the Greek poet Hesiod, who mentioned the "heavenly bodies". Greek astronomy essentially adopted the older Babylonian system in the Hellenistic era[citation needed], first introduced to Greece by Eudoxus of Cnidus in the 4th century BC."
• 6

# Theory of impetus

"The theory of impetus[1] was an auxiliary or secondary theory of Aristotelian dynamics, put forth initially to explain projectile motion against gravity. It was introduced by John Philoponus in the 6th century,[2][3] and elaborated by Nur ad-Din al-Bitruji at the end of the 12th century." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_impetus
• 150

# The first use of Prime meridian in a world map by Ptolemy

"The notion of longitude was developed by the Greek Eratosthenes (c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC) in Alexandria, and Hipparchus (c. 190 BC – c. 120 BC) in Rhodes, and applied to a large number of cities by the geographer Strabo (64/63 BC – c. 24 AD). But it was Ptolemy (c. AD 90 – c. AD 168) who first used a consistent meridian for a world map in his Geographia." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_meridian#History
• 200

# The discovery of Alpha Centauri by Claudius Ptolemy

"Alpha Centauri is listed in the 2nd-century star catalog of Ptolemy. He gave its ecliptic coordinates, but texts differ as to whether the ecliptic latitude reads 44° 10′ South or 41° 10′ South.[59] (Presently the ecliptic latitude is 43.5° South, but it has decreased by a fraction of a degree since Ptolemy's time due to proper motion.) " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_Centauri#Observational_history
• 300

# Zosimos of Panopolis, Alchemy the origins of Chemistry

"Zosimos of Panopolis (Greek: Ζώσιμος ὁ Πανοπολίτης; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Alchemista, i.e. "Zosimus the Alchemist") was an Egyptian-born Greek alchemist and Gnostic mystic.He wrote the oldest known books on alchemy, which he called "Cheirokmeta," using the Greek word for "things made by hand." Pieces of this work survive in the original Greek language and in translations into Syriac or Arabic." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zosimos_of_Panopolis
• 500

# Hindu–Arabic numerals, the origin of numbers

"Although the Hindu–Arabic numeral system (i.e. decimal) was developed by Indian mathematicians around AD 500, they were modified into Arabic numerals later in North Africa. It was in the North African city of Bejaia that the Italian scholar Fibonacci first encountered the numerals; his work was crucial in making them known throughout Europe. European trade, books, and colonialism helped popularize the adoption of Arabic numerals around the world. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_numerals
• 700

# The invention of trigonometry in Classical Hellenistic period

"Early study of triangles can be traced to the 2nd millennium BC, in Egyptian mathematics (Rhind Mathematical Papyrus) and Babylonian mathematics. Systematic study of trigonometric functions began in Hellenistic mathematics, reaching India as part of Hellenistic astronomy.In Indian astronomy, the study of trigonometric functions flourished in the Gupta period, especially due to Aryabhata (sixth century CE), who discovered the sine function." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_trigonometry
• 825

# The first calculation of the diameter of the Moon and its distance frome the Earth by Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi

"Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi, a Persian astronomer, conducted various observations at the Al-Shammisiyyah observatory in Baghdad between 825 and 835 AD. Using these observations, he estimated the Moon's diameter as 3,037 km (equivalent to 1,519 km radius) and its distance from the Earth as 346,345 km (215,209 mi), which come close to the currently accepted values." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploration_of_the_Moon#Before_spaceflight
• 850

# The publish of the Book of Ingenious Devices by Banu Musa

"The Book of Ingenious Devices (Arabic: كتاب الحيل Kitab al-Hiyal, Persian: كتاب ترفندها Ketab tarfandha) was a large illustrated work on mechanical devices, including automata, published in 850 by the three brothers of Persian descent, known as the Banu Musa (Ahmad, Muhammad and Hasan bin Musa ibn Shakir) working at the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma) in Baghdad, Iraq, under the Abbasid Caliphate." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ingenious_Devices
• 859

# University of al-Qarawiyyin, the first university

"The University of al-Qarawiyyin (Arabic: جامعة القرويين‎; French: Université Al Quaraouiyine), also written Al-Karaouine, is a university located in Fez, Morocco. It is the oldest existing, continually operating higher educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records and is occasionally referred to as the oldest university by scholars." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_al-Qarawiyyin
• 900

# The determination of the lenght of the sidereal year by Thābit ibn Qurra

"The medieval astronomical theory of the trepidation of the equinoxes is often attributed to Thābit.But it had already been described by Theon of Alexandria in his comments of the Handy Tables of Ptolemy. Thābit determined the length of the sidereal year as 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 12 seconds (an error of 2 seconds). Copernicus based his claim on the Latin text attributed to Thābit. Thābit published his observations of the Sun" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C4%81bit_ibn_Qurra
• 964

# The publish of Book of Fixed Stars by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, the first discovery of Andromeda Galaxy

"The Book of Fixed Stars (Arabic: كتاب صور الكواكب‎ kitāb suwar al-kawākib) is an astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964. He has the earliest known descriptions and illustrations of what he called "a little cloud", which is actually the Andromeda Galaxy." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Fixed_Stars
• 1000

# The publish the Book of Optics by Ibn al-Haytham

"It is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965–c. 1040 AD)
The Book of Optics presented experimentally founded arguments against the widely held extramission theory of vision (as held by Euclid in his Optica), and proposed the modern intromission theory, the now accepted model that vision takes place by light entering the eye" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Optics
• 1000

# The first azimuthal equidistant projection

"The earliest text describing the azimuthal equidistant projection is an 11th-century work by al-Biruni." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azimuthal_equidistant_projection
• 1037

# The first calculation of Earth radius by Al Bīrūnī

"Bīrūnī devised a novel method of determining the earth's radius by means of the observation of the height of a mountain. He carried it out at Nandana in Pind Dadan Khan (present-day Pakistan). He used trigonometry to calculate the radius of the Earth using measurements of the height of a hill and measurement of the dip in the horizon from the top of that hill." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Biruni#Geography_and_Geodesy
• 1088

# University of Bologna, the first university in Middle Ages

"The University of Bologna (Italian: Alma mater studiorum - Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a research university in Bologna, Italy. Funded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence studiorum), it is the oldest university in the world,as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Bologna
• 1202

# The publish of the Liber Abaci by Fibonacci, the first Western book to describe the Hindu–Arabic numeral system

"Liber Abaci (also spelled as Liber Abbaci) ("The Book of Calculation") is a historic 1202 Latin manuscript on arithmetic by Leonardo of Pisa, posthumously known as Fibonacci
Liber Abaci was among the first Western books to describe the Hindu–Arabic numeral system and to use symbols traditionally described as "Arabic numerals"." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liber_Abaci
• 1206

# The invention of mechanical calendar by Abu Rayhan Biruni

"The most sophisticated timekeeping astrolabes were the geared astrolabe mechanisms designed by Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī in the 11th century and by Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr in the 13th century. These devices functioned as timekeeping devices and also as calendars." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clock#Astronomical
• 1220

# The publish of Prose Edda, the origin of Norse cosmology by Snorri Sturluson

"Norse cosmology is the study of the cosmos (cosmology) as perceived by the North Germanic peoples. The topic encompasses concepts from Norse mythology, such as notions of time and space, cosmogony, personifications, anthropogeny, and eschatology.These concepts are primarily recorded in a collection of poems compiled in the 13th century, and the Prose Edda, authored by Icelander Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norse_cosmology
• 1245

# The first gunpowder-powered rocket

"The first gunpowder-powered rockets evolved in medieval China under the Song dynasty by the 13th century. The Mongols adopted Chinese rocket technology and the invention spread via the Mongol invasions to the Middle East and to Europe in the mid-13th century." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket#History
• 1247

# The invention of Tusi couple by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

"The Tusi couple is a mathematical device in which a small circle rotates inside a larger circle twice the diameter of the smaller circle. Rotations of the circles cause a point on the circumference of the smaller circle to oscillate back and forth in linear motion along a diameter of the larger circle. The Tusi couple is a 2-cusped hypocycloid." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tusi_couple
• 1284

# The invention of Torquetum by Jabir ibn Aflah

"The torquetum or turquet is a medieval astronomical instrument designed to take and convert measurements made in three sets of coordinates: Horizon, equatorial, and ecliptic.The first torquetum is thought to have been built by Jabir ibn Aflah (more commonly known as Geber). However, there is conflicting evidence that suggests that Jabir simply inspired the invention of the torquetum." . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torquetum
• 1505

# Codex on the Flight of Birds by Leonardo da Vinci

"Codex on the Flight of Birds is a relatively short codex from c. 1505 by Leonardo da Vinci. It comprises 18 folios and measures 21 × 15 centimetres. Now held at the Royal Library of Turin, the codex begins with an examination of the flight behavior of birds and proposes mechanisms for flight by machines. Leonardo constructed a number of these machines, and attempted to launch them from a hill near Florence." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codex_on_the_Flight_of_Birds
• 1514

# The Heliocentrism in Copernican Revolution

"Heliocentrism[a] is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System. Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center.It was not until the 16th century that a mathematical model of a heliocentric system was presented, by the Renaissance mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic cleric Nicolaus Copernicus, leading to the Copernican Revolution." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliocentrism
• 1543

# Nicolaus Copernicus publish: "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium"

""On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) of the Polish Renaissance. The book, first printed in 1543 in Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire, offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system, which had been widely accepted since ancient times." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_revolutionibus_orbium_coelestium
• 1560

# The discovery of fluorescence by Bernardino de Sahagún

"An early observation of fluorescence was described in 1560 by Bernardino de Sahagún and in 1565 by Nicolás Monardes in the infusion known as lignum nephriticum (Latin for "kidney wood"). It was derived from the wood of two tree species, Pterocarpus indicus and Eysenhardtia polystachya." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence#History
• # The invention of microscope by Zacharias Janssen

"He was a Dutch spectacle-maker who lived most of his life in Middelburg. He is associated with the invention of the first optical telescope and/or the first truly compound microscope, but these claims (made 20 years after his death) may be fabrications put forward by his son." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zacharias_Janssen
• # The discovery of Earth Magnetic Field by William Gilbert

"Almost three centuries later, William Gilbert of Colchester replicated Petrus Peregrinus's work and was the first to state explicitly that Earth is a magnet. Published in 1600, Gilbert's work, De Magnete, helped to establish magnetism as a science." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_field#History
• # The discovery of Photosynthesis by Jan van Helmont

"Jan van Helmont began the research of the process in the mid-17th century when he carefully measured the mass of the soil used by a plant and the mass of the plant as it grew. After noticing that the soil mass changed very little, he hypothesized that the mass of the growing plant must come from the water, the only substance he added to the potted plant." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthesis#Discovery
• # The publish of Uranometria by Johann Bayer

"Uranometria is a star atlas produced by Johann Bayer. It was published in Augsburg in 1603 by Christoph Mang (Christophorus Mangus) under the full title Uranometria : omnium asterismorum continens schemata, nova methodo delineata, aereis laminis expressa. This translates to "Uranometria, containing charts of all the constellations, drawn by a new method and engraved on copper plates"." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranometria
• # The early Selenography by William Gilbert

"The idea that the Moon is not perfectly smooth originates to at least c. 450 BC, when Democritus asserted that the Moon's "lofty mountains and hollow valleys" were the cause of its markings. However, not until the end of the 15th century AD did serious study of selenography began. Around AD 1603, William Gilbert made the first lunar drawing based on naked-eye observation." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selenography
• # The earliest use of the term "camera obscura"

"The earliest use of the term "camera obscura" is found in the 1604 book Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena by German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer Johannes Kepler.Kepler discovered the working of the camera obscura by recreating its principle with a book replacing a shining body and sending threads from its edges through a many-cornered aperture in a table onto the floor where the threads recreated the shape of the book." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera_obscura
• # The invention of telescope by Hans Lipperhey

"Hans Lipperhey (1570 – buried 29 September 1619), also known as Johann Lippershey or Lippershey, was a German-Dutch spectacle-maker. He is commonly associated with the invention of the telescope, because he was the first one who tried to obtain a patent for it. It is, however, unclear if he was the first one to build a telescope." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Lipperhey
• # The discovery of Great Comet, the first comet discovered by telescope by Gottfried Kirch

"C/1680 V1, also called the Great Comet of 1680, Kirch's Comet, and Newton's Comet, was the first comet discovered by telescope. It was discovered by Gottfried Kirch and was one of the brightest comets of the seventeenth century." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Comet_of_1680
• # The discovery of Galilean moons by Galileo Galilei

"The Galilean moons (or Galilean satellites) /ɡælɪˈliːən/ are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They were first seen by Galileo Galilei in December 1609 or January 1610, and recognized by him as satellites of Jupiter in March 1610.They were the first objects found to orbit a planet other than the Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilean_moons
• # The publication of Sidereus Nuncius, by Galileo Galilei, the first observations made through a telescope

"Sidereus Nuncius (usually Sidereal Messenger, also Starry Messenger or Sidereal Message) is a short astronomical treatise (or pamphlet) published in New Latin by Galileo Galilei on March 13, 1610 It was the first published scientific work based on observations made through a telescope, and it contains the results of Galileo's early observations" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidereus_Nuncius
• # Johannes Kepler publish: "Kepler's laws of planetary motion"

"In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun, published by Johannes Kepler between 1609 and 1619. These improved the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, replacing its circular orbits and epicycles with elliptical trajectories, and explaining how planetary velocities vary." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler%27s_laws_of_planetary_motion
• # The discovery of inertia

"Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its velocity. This includes changes to the object's speed, or direction of motion. An aspect of this property is the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at a constant speed, when no forces act upon them." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inertia
• # Galileo Galilei publish: "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems"

"The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) is a 1632 Italian-language book by Galileo Galilei comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system. It was translated into Latin as Systema cosmicum (English: Cosmic System) in 1635 by Matthias Bernegger." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialogue_Concerning_the_Two_Chief_World_Systems
• # The invention of Systems of linear equations by René Descartes

"Systems of linear equations arose in Europe with the introduction in 1637 by René Descartes of coordinates in geometry. In fact, in this new geometry, now called Cartesian geometry, lines and planes are represented by linear equations, and computing their intersections amounts to solving systems of linear equations." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_algebra
• # The publication of Selenographia, sive Lunae descriptio by Johannes Hevelius, the first detailed map of the moon

"Selenographia, sive Lunae descriptio (Selenography, or A Description of The Moon) was printed in 1647 and is a milestone work by Johannes Hevelius. It includes the first detailed map of the moon, created from Hevelius's personal observations" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selenographia,_sive_Lunae_descriptio
• # The Pascal's law

"It is a principle in fluid mechanics given by Blaise Pascal that states that a pressure change at any point in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid such that the same change occurs everywhere. The law was established by French mathematician Blaise Pascal in 1647–48." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal%27s_law
• # The origin of Thermodynamics

"The history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamics#History
• # The discovery of Titan, the Saturn moon by Christiaan Hyugens

"Discovered in 1655 by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens, Titan was the first known moon of Saturn, and the sixth known planetary satellite (after Earth's moon and the four Galilean moons of Jupiter). Titan orbits Saturn at 20 Saturn radii. From Titan's surface, Saturn subtends an arc of 5.09 degrees and would appear 11.4 times larger in the sky than the Moon from Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titan_(moon)
• # The discovery of centrifugal force and centripetal force by Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton

"Christiaan Huygens coined the term "centrifugal force" in his 1659 De Vi Centrifuga and wrote of it in his 1673 Horologium Oscillatorium on pendulums. Isaac Newton coined the term "centripetal force" (vis centripita) in his discussions of gravity in his 1684 De Motu Corporum." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_centrifugal_and_centripetal_forces
• # The publication of The Sceptical Chymist by Robert Boyle, the origin of the modern Chemistry

"The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes is the title of a book by Robert Boyle, published in London in 1661. In the form of a dialogue, the Sceptical Chymist presented Boyle's hypothesis that matter consisted of corpuscles and clusters of corpuscles in motion and that every phenomenon was the result of collisions of particles in motion." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist
• # The discovery of cells by Robert Hooke

"Robert Hooke discovered cells in cork, then in living plant tissue using an early compound microscope. He coined the term cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") in his book Micrographia (1665)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micrographia
• # Journal des sçavans and English Philosophical Transactions the first scientific journals

"The history of scientific journals dates from 1665, when the French Journal des sçavans and the English Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first began systematically publishing research results. Over a thousand, mostly ephemeral, were founded in the 18th century, and the number has increased rapidly after that." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_journal#History
• # The invention of reflecting telescope by Isaac Newton

"Isaac Newton has been generally credited with building the first reflecting telescope in 1668. It used a spherically ground metal primary mirror and a small diagonal mirror in an optical configuration that has come to be known as the Newtonian telescope." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newtonian_telescope
• # The invention of Differential equation by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Welhem von Leibniz

"Differential equations first came into existence with the invention of calculus by Newton and Leibniz. In Chapter 2 of his 1671 work Methodus fluxionum et Serierum Infinitarum" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_equation#History
• # The discovery of Iapetus, the Saturn moon by Giovanni Domenico Cassini

"Iapetus was discovered by Giovanni Domenico Cassini, an Italian-born French astronomer, in October 1671. He had discovered it on the western side of Saturn and tried viewing it on the eastern side some months later, but was unsuccessful." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iapetus_(moon)
• # The discovery of Rhea, the Saturn moon by Giovanni Domenico Cassini

"Rhea was discovered by Giovanni Domenico Cassini on 23 December 1672. It was the second moon of Saturn that Cassini discovered, and the third moon discovered around Saturn overall" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhea_(moon)
• # Rømer's determination of the speed of light

"Rømer's determination of the speed of light was the demonstration in 1676 that light has a finite speed and so does not travel instantaneously. By timing the eclipses of the Jupiter moon Io, Rømer estimated that light would take about 22 minutes to travel a distance equal to the diameter of Earth's orbit around the Sun." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C3%B8mer%27s_determination_of_the_speed_of_light
• # The Hook's law by Robert Hooke

Hooke's law is a law of physics that states that the force (F) needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance (x) scales linearly with respect to that distance, that is, F8=kx, where k is a constant factor characteristic of the spring, and x is small compared to the total possible deformation of the spring. The law is named after 17th-century British physicist Robert Hooke. He first stated the law in 1676 as a Latin anagram. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hooke%27s_law
• # The discovery of bacteria and microroganisms by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

"Bacteria were first observed by the Dutch microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens microscope of his own design. He then published his observations in a series of letters to the Royal Society of London." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria
• # The discovery of Tethys, the Saturn moon by Giovanni Domenico Cassini

"Tethys was discovered by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1684 together with Dione, another moon of Saturn. He had also discovered two moons, Rhea and Iapetus earlier, in 1671–72. Cassini observed all of these moons using a large aerial telescope he set up on the grounds of the Paris Observatory." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tethys_(moon)
• # The discovery of Dione, the Saturn moon by Giovanni Domenico Cassini

"It was discovered by Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1684. It is named after the Titaness Dione of Greek mythology. It is also designated Saturn IV.Cassini found Dione in 1684 using a large aerial telescope he set up on the grounds of the Paris Observatory.The satellites of Saturn were not named until 1847, when William Herschel's son John Herschel published Results of Astronomical Observations made at the Cape of Good Hope." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dione_(moon)
• # The invention of Newton's cradle

"Newton's cradle is a device that demonstrates conservation of momentum and energy using a series of swinging spheres. When one sphere at the end is lifted and released, it strikes the stationary spheres, transmitting a force through the stationary spheres that pushes the last sphere upward." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton%27s_cradle#History
• # Isaac Newton publish: "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica"

"The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics; Newton's law of universal gravitation; and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophi%C3%A6_Naturalis_Principia_Mathematica
• # The invention of binary code by Gottfried Leibniz

"The modern binary number system, the basis for binary code, was invented by Gottfried Leibniz in 1689 and appears in his article Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire. The full title is translated into English as the "Explanation of the binary arithmetic", which uses only the characters 1 and 0, with some remarks on its usefulness, and on the light it throws on the ancient Chinese figures of Fu Xi." (1703). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_code#History_of_binary_codes
• # The wave theory of light by Christiaan Huygens

"Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695) worked out a mathematical wave theory of light in 1678, and published it in his Treatise on light in 1690. He proposed that light was emitted in all directions as a series of waves in a medium called the Luminiferous ether. As waves are not affected by gravity, it was assumed that they slowed down upon entering a denser medium." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light#Wave_theory
• # Isaac Newton publish: "Opticks"

"The book analyzes the fundamental nature of light by means of the refraction of light with prisms and lenses, the diffraction of light by closely spaced sheets of glass, and the behaviour of color mixtures with spectral lights or pigment powders. It is considered one of the great works of science in history." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opticks
• # The law of conservation of energy by Émilie du Châtelet

"In physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be conserved over time. This law, first proposed and tested by Émilie du Châtelet, means that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it can only be transformed or transferred from one form to another. For instance, chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy when a stick of dynamite explodes."
• # The invention of Fahrenheit scale by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

"It uses the degree Fahrenheit (symbol: °F) as the unit. Several accounts of how he originally defined his scale exist. The lower defining point, 0 °F, was established as the freezing temperature of a solution of brine made from equal parts of ice, water and a salt (ammonium chloride)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahrenheit
• # The discovery of North Magnetic Pole and the origin of Space Weather by George Graham

"In 1724, George Graham reported that the needle of a magnetic compass was regularly deflected from magnetic north over the course of each day. This effect was eventually attributed to overhead electric currents flowing in the ionosphere and magnetosphere by Balfour Stewart in 1882, and confirmed by Arthur Schuster in 1889 from analysis of magnetic observatory data." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_weather#Genesis
• # The invention of Achromatic lens by Chester Moore Hall

"Credit for the invention of the first achromatic doublet is often given to an English barrister and amateur optician named Chester Moore Hall. Hall wished to keep his work on the achromatic lenses a secret and contracted the manufacture of the crown and flint lenses to two different opticians, Edward Scarlett and James Mann" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achromatic_lens#History
• # The invention of Sextant by John Hadley

"The principle of the instrument was first implemented around 1731 by John Hadley (1682–1744) and Thomas Godfrey (1704–1749), but it was also found later in the unpublished writings of Isaac Newton (1643–1727). In 1922, it was modified for aeronautical navigation by Portuguese navigator and naval officer Gago Coutinho." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sextant
• # The invention of bit, the basic unit of information

"The bit is a basic unit of information in information theory, computing, and digital communications. The name is a portmanteau of binary digit.The encoding of data by discrete bits was used in the punched cards invented by Basile Bouchon and Jean-Baptiste Falcon (1732), developed by Joseph Marie Jacquard (1804), and later adopted by Semyon Korsakov, Charles Babbage, Hermann Hollerith, and early computer manufacturers like IBM." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bit#History
• # The first hypothesis about the formation and evolution of the solar system by Emanuel Swedenborg, Immanuel Kant, and Pierre-Simon Laplace

"The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.5 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud. This model, known as the nebular hypothesis was first developed in the 18th century by Emanuel Swedenborg, Immanuel Kant, and Pierre-Simon Laplace." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formation_and_evolution_of_the_Solar_System
• # The invention of Celsius scale by Anders Celsius

"It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale. Before being renamed to honor Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, and gradus, which means steps. Since 1743 the Celsius scale has been based on 0 °C for the freezing point of water and 100 °C for the boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celsius
• # The discovery of thermodynamics

"In the early modern period, heat was thought to be a measurement of an invisible fluid, known as the caloric. Bodies were capable of holding a certain amount of this fluid, leading to the term heat capacity, named and first investigated by Scottish chemist Joseph Black in the 1750s." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_thermodynamics
• # The discovery of conservation of matter by Mikhail Lomonosov

"The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as the system's mass cannot change, so quantity can neither be added nor be removed. Therefore, the quantity of mass is conserved over time." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_of_mass
• # The first determined periodicity of comet Hally, by Edmond Halley

"Halley's returns to the inner Solar System have been observed and recorded by astronomers since at least 240 BC. Clear records of the comet's appearances were made by Chinese, Babylonian, and medieval European chroniclers, but, at those times, were not recognized as reappearances of the same object. The comet's periodicity was first determined in 1705 by English astronomer Edmond Halley, after whom it is now named." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halley%27s_Comet
• # The First Industrial Revolution

"The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution
• # Term albedo is introduced to optics by Johann Heinrich Lambert

"The term albedo was introduced into optics by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1760 work Photometria." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albedo
• # The first publication of The Nautical Almanac

"A nautical almanac is a publication describing the positions of a selection of celestial bodies for the purpose of enabling navigators to use celestial navigation to determine the position of their ship while at sea.In Great Britain, The Nautical Almanac has been published annually by HM Nautical Almanac Office, ever since the first edition was published in 1767." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nautical_almanac
• # Messier Catalogue publication

"The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters"). Because Messier was only interested in finding comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_object
• # The discovery of Langargant point by Leonhard Euler

"The three collinear Lagrange points (L1, L2, L3) were discovered by Leonhard Euler a few years before Joseph-Louis Lagrange discovered the remaining two.In 1772, Lagrange published an "Essay on the three-body problem". He considered the general three-body problem. From that, in the second chapter, he demonstrated two special constant-pattern solutions, the collinear and the equilateral, for any three masses, with circular orbits" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrangian_point#History
• # The discovery of Ring nebula, the first observation of a planetary nebula by Antoine Darquier de Pellepoix

"The first usage may have occurred during the 1780s with the English astronomer William Herschel who described these nebulae as resembling planets; however, as early as January 1779, the French astronomer Antoine Darquier de Pellepoix described in his observations of the Ring Nebula, "very dim but perfectly outlined; it is as large as Jupiter and resembles a fading planet"." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_nebula
• # The discovery of Properties of water by Henry Cavendish

"Henry Cavendish showed that water was composed of oxygen and hydrogen in 1781. The first decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, by electrolysis, was done in 1800 by English chemist William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle. In 1805, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Alexander von Humboldt showed that water is composed of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Properties_of_water#History
• # The discovery of Uranus planet by William Herschel

"Sir William Herschel observed Uranus on 13 March 1781 from the garden of his house at 19 New King Street in Bath, Somerset, England (now the Herschel Museum of Astronomy), and initially reported it (on 26 April 1781) as a comet. With a telescope, Herschel "engaged in a series of observations on the parallax of the fixed stars." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranus
• # The invention of High-altitude balloon by Jacques Charles and Robert brothers

"In France during 1783, the first public experiment with hydrogen-filled balloons involved Jacques Charles, a French professor of physics, and the Robert brothers, renowned constructors of physics instruments." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-altitude_balloon#The_first_hydrogen_balloon
• # 1783 Great Meteor

"The 1783 Great Meteor was an unusually bright bolide observed on 18 August 1783, from the British Isles at a time when such phenomena were not well understood. The meteor was the subject of much discussion in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society and was the subject of a detailed study by Charles Blagden." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1783_Great_Meteor
• # The discovery of Titania, the Uranus moon by William Herschel

"is the largest of the moons of Uranus and the eighth largest moon in the Solar System at a diameter of 1,578 kilometres (981 mi). Discovered by William Herschel in 1787, Titania is named after the queen of the fairies in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Its orbit lies inside Uranus's magnetosphere." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titania_(moon)
• # The discovery of Oberon, the Uranus moon by William Herschel

"Oberon was discovered by William Herschel on January 11, 1787; on the same day he discovered Uranus's largest moon, Titania. He later reported the discoveries of four more satellites, although they were subsequently revealed as spurious. For nearly fifty years following their discovery, Titania and Oberon can be seen from Earth with a present-day high-end amateur telescope." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oberon_(moon)
• # The invention and publication of the first Periodic table

"In 1789, Antoine Lavoisier published a list of 33 chemical elements, grouping them into gases, metals, nonmetals, and earths. Chemists spent the following century searching for a more precise classification scheme. In 1829, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner observed that many of the elements could be grouped into triads based on their chemical properties." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table#First_systemization_attempts
• # The discovery of Enceladus, the Saturn moon by William Herschel

"Enceladus was discovered by William Herschel on August 28, 1789, during the first use of his new 1.2 m (47 in) 40-foot telescope, then the largest in the world, at Observatory House in Slough, England.Its faint apparent magnitude (HV = +11.7) and its proximity to the much brighter Saturn and Saturn's rings make Enceladus difficult to observe from Earth with smaller telescopes." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enceladus
• # The discovery of Mimas, the Saturn moon by William Herschel

"Mimas was discovered by the astronomer William Herschel on 17 September 1789. He recorded his discovery as follows: "The great light of my forty-foot [12 m] telescope was so useful that on the 17th of September, 1789, I remarked the seventh satellite, then situated at its greatest western elongation." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimas_(moon)
• # The discovery of the four aerodynamic forces of flight

"In 1799, Sir George Cayley became the first person to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight (weight, lift, drag, and thrust), as well as the relationships between them, and in doing so outlined the path toward achieving heavier-than-air flight for the next century. In 1871, Francis Herbert Wenham constructed the first wind tunnel, allowing precise measurements of aerodynamic forces." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerodynamics
• # The invention of batery by Alessandro Volta

"Italian physicist Alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in 1800. This was a stack of copper and zinc plates, separated by brine-soaked paper disks, that could produce a steady current for a considerable length of time. Volta did not understand that the voltage was due to chemical reactions." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_battery#History
• # William Herschel discovers the infrared radiation

"The discovery of infrared radiation is ascribed to William Herschel, the astronomer, in the early 19th century. Herschel published his results in 1800 before the Royal Society of London. Herschel used a prism to refract light from the sun and detected the infrared, beyond the red part of the spectrum, through an increase in the temperature recorded on a thermometer." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared#History_of_infrared_science
• # The discovery of Ultra violet radiation by Johann Wilhelm Ritter

"UV radiation was discovered in 1801 when the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter observed that invisible rays just beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum darkened silver chloride-soaked paper more quickly than violet light itself." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultraviolet#Discovery
• # The discovery of dwarf planet Ceres by Giuseppe Piazzi

"Ceres was the first asteroid to be discovered (by Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Astronomical Observatory on 1 January 1801). It was originally considered a planet, but was reclassified as an asteroid in the 1850s after many other objects in similar orbits were discovered." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceres_(dwarf_planet)
• # The discovery of astroid Pallas by Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers

"When Pallas was discovered by the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers on 28 March 1802, it was counted as a planet, as were other asteroids in the early 19th century. The discovery of many more asteroids after 1845 eventually led to their reclassification." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Pallas
• # The discovery of Juno asteroid by Karl Ludwig Harding

"Juno was discovered on 1 September 1804, by Karl Ludwig Harding. It was the third asteroid found, but was initially considered to be a planet; it was reclassified as an asteroid and minor planet during the 1850s" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3_Juno
• # The discovery of Amino acids by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet

"The first few amino acids were discovered in the early 19th century. In 1806, French chemists Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet isolated a compound in asparagus that was subsequently named asparagine, the first amino acid to be discovered. Cystine was discovered in 1810, although its monomer, cysteine, remained undiscovered until 1884. Glycine and leucine were discovered in 1820." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid
• # The discovery of asteroid 4 Vesta by Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers

"Heinrich Olbers discovered Pallas in 1802, the year after the discovery of Ceres. He proposed that the two objects were the remnants of a destroyed planet. He sent a letter with his proposal to the British astronomer William Herschel, suggesting that a search near the locations where the orbits of Ceres and Pallas intersected might reveal more fragments." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4_Vesta
• # The Atomic theory of matter by John Dalton

"In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms. Dalton estimated the atomic weights according to the mass ratios in which they combined, with the hydrogen atom taken as unity." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_theory#History
• # The discovery of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis by Michael Faraday

"Michael Faraday FRS (/ˈfærədeɪ, -di/; 22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Faraday#Electricity_and_magnetism
• # The invention of gyroscope by Johann Bohnenberger

"The first instrument used more like an actual gyroscope was made by Johann Bohnenberger of Germany, who first wrote about it in 1817. At first he called it the "Machine". Bohnenberger's machine was based on a rotating massive sphere.In 1832, American Walter R. Johnson developed a similar device that was based on a rotating disc." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyroscope#History
• # The invention of photography by Nicéphore Niépce

"The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it.[28] Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography#Invention
• # The Second law of thermodynamics by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot

"The first theory of the conversion of heat into mechanical work is due to Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in 1824. He was the first to realize correctly that the efficiency of this conversion depends on the difference of temperature between an engine and its environment." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_law_of_thermodynamics#History
• # The discovery of organic compunds by Friedrich Wöhler

"Vitalism survived for a while even after the rise of modern ideas about the atomic theory and chemical elements. It first came under question in 1824, when Friedrich Wöhler synthesized oxalic acid, a compound known to occur only in living organisms, from cyanogen." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compound#History
• # The discovery of Electromagnetic induction by Michael Faraday

"Electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday, published in 1831. It was discovered independently by Joseph Henry in 1832. In Faraday's first experimental demonstration (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_induction#History
• # The invention of the first computing device by Charles Babbage

"Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the "father of the computer", he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century. After working on his revolutionary difference engine, designed to aid in navigational calculations, in 1833 he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Engine, was possible." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer#History
• # The first Weather forecasting of modern era

"It was not until the invention of the electric telegraph in 1835 that the modern age of weather forecasting began. Before that, the fastest that distant weather reports could travel was around 160 kilometres per day (100 mi/d), but was more typically 60–120 kilometres per day (40–75 mi/day) (whether by land or by sea)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weather_forecasting#History
• # The invention of light year unit by Friedrich Bessel

"The light-year unit appeared a few years after the first successful measurement of the distance to a star other than the Sun, by Friedrich Bessel in 1838. The star was 61 Cygni, and he used a 6.2-inch (160 mm) heliometer designed by Joseph von Fraunhofer."
• # The use of parsec for to measure large distances of astronomical objects

"The parsec is defined as being equal to the length of the longer leg of an extremely elongated imaginary right triangle in space. The two dimensions on which this triangle is based are its shorter leg, of length one astronomical unit (the average Earth-Sun distance), and the subtended angle of the vertex opposite that leg, measuring one arcsecond." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsec#History_and_derivation
• # The invention of first photovoltaic device by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel

"In 1839, at age 19, experimenting in his father's laboratory, Becquerel created the world's first photovoltaic cell. In this experiment, silver chloride or silver bromide was used to coat the platinum electrodes; once the electrodes were illuminated, voltage and current were generated. Because of this work, the photovoltaic effect has also been known as the "Becquerel effect". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmond_Becquerel
• # The first astrophotography by Louis Daguerre

"The first known attempt at astronomical photography was by Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, inventor of the daguerreotype process which bears his name, who attempted in 1839 to photograph the Moon." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrophotography#History
• # The invention of electrical telegraph

"An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until better systems became widespread. It used coded pulses of electric current through dedicated wires to transmit information over long distances." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_telegraph#History
• # The invention of Optical Fiber by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet

"Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London, 12 years later." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber#History
• # The discovery of Doppler effect phenomenon

"The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source.[1] It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who described the phenomenon in 1842."
• # The invention of telemetry

"Telemetering information over wire had its origins in the 19th century. One of the first data-transmission circuits was developed in 1845 between the Russian Tsar's Winter Palace and army headquarters. In 1874, French engineers built a system of weather and snow-depth sensors on Mont Blanc that transmitted real-time information to Paris." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telemetry#History
• # The discovery of asteroid Astrea by Karl Ludwig Hencke

"Astraea was the fifth asteroid discovered, on 8 December 1845, by Karl Ludwig Hencke and named for Astræa, a goddess of justice named after the stars. It was his first of two asteroid discoveries. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5_Astraea
• # The discovery of Neptune planet by Johann Galle and Urbain Le Verrier

"The position of Neptune was subsequently calculated from Bouvard's observations, independently, by John Couch Adams and Urbain Le Verrier after his death. Neptune was subsequently observed with a telescope on 23 September 1846 by Johann Galle within a degree of the position predicted by Le Verrier" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neptune
• # The discovery of Triton, the Neptune planet moon by William Lassell

"Triton was discovered by British astronomer William Lassell on October 10, 1846, just 17 days after the discovery of Neptune. When John Herschel received news of Neptune's discovery, he wrote to Lassell suggesting he search for possible moons. Lassell did so and discovered Triton eight days later. Lassell also claimed for a period to have discovered rings." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triton_(moon)
• # The discovery of asteroid Hebe by Karl Ludwig Hencke

"Hebe was discovered on 1 July 1847 by Karl Ludwig Hencke, the sixth asteroid discovered. It was the second and final asteroid discovery by Hencke, after 5 Astraea. The name Hebe, goddess of youth, was proposed by Carl Friedrich Gauss." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6_Hebe
• # The discovery of asteroid Iris by John Russell Hind

"Iris was discovered on August 13, 1847, by J. R. Hind from London, UK. It was Hind's first asteroid discovery and the seventh asteroid to be discovered overall." Iris was discovered on August 13, 1847, by J. R. Hind from London, UK. It was Hind's first asteroid discovery and the seventh asteroid to be discovered overall." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/7_Iris
• # The discovery of asteroid Flora by J. R. Hind

"Flora was discovered by J. R. Hind on October 18, 1847. It was his second asteroid discovery after 7 Iris.
The name Flora was proposed by John Herschel, from Flora, the Latin goddess of flowers and gardens, wife of Zephyrus " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8_Flora
• # The discovery of asteroid Metis by Andrew Graham

"Metis was discovered by Andrew Graham on 25 April 1848, at Markree Observatory in Ireland; it was his only asteroid discovery. It also has been the only asteroid to have been discovered as a result of observations from Ireland until 7 October 2008, when, 160 years later, Dave McDonald from observatory J65 discovered (281507) 2008 TM9" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9_Metis
• # The discovery of Hyperion, the Saturn moon by William Bond, George Bond and William Lassell

"is a moon of Saturn discovered by William Cranch Bond, George Phillips Bond and William Lassell in 1848. It is distinguished by its irregular shape, its chaotic rotation, and its unexplained sponge-like appearance. It was the first non-round moon to be discovered." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperion_(moon)
• # The first use of number Pi in maths

The number π (/paɪ/) is a mathematical constant. It is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, and it also has various equivalent definitions. It appears in many formulas in all areas of mathematics and physics. It is approximately equal to 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter "π" since the mid-18th century, and is spelled out as "pi". It is also referred to as Archimedes' constant.
• # The invention of Foucault pendulum

"The Foucault pendulum or Foucault's pendulum is a simple device named after French physicist Léon Foucault and conceived as an experiment to demonstrate the Earth's rotation. The pendulum was introduced in 1851 and was the first experiment to give simple, direct evidence of the earth's rotation. Foucault pendulums today are popular displays in science museums and universities." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foucault_pendulum
• # The establishment of the Prime meridian (Greenwich)

"The future prime meridian based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851. By 1884, over two-thirds of all ships and tonnage used it as the reference meridian on their charts and maps. In October of that year, at the behest of US President Chester A. Arthur, 41 delegates from 25 nations met in Washington, D.C., United States, for the International Meridian Conference." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_meridian_(Greenwich)
• # The discovery of Ariel, the Uranus moon by William Lassell

"It was discovered in October 1851 by William Lassell and named for a character in two different pieces of literature. As of 2019, much of the detailed knowledge of Ariel derives from a single flyby of Uranus performed by the spacecraft Voyager 2 in 1986, which managed to image around 35% of the moon's surface." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ariel_(moon)
• # The discovery of Umbriel, the Uranus moon by William Lassell

"Umbriel, along with another Uranian satellite, Ariel, was discovered by William Lassell on October 24, 1851.Although William Herschel, the discoverer of Titania and Oberon, claimed at the end of the 18th century that he had observed four additional moons of Uranus, his observations were not confirmed and those four objects are now thought to be spurious." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbriel_(moon)
• # The discovery of electron by Joseph Thomson

"The discovery of electrons by Joseph Thomson was closely tied with the experimental and theoretical research of cathode rays for decades by many physicists. While studying electrical conductivity in rarefied gases in 1859, the German physicist Julius Plücker observed that the phosphorescent light."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron#History
• # The first use of Spherical trigonometry in early Modern times by John Napier, Delambre

"The origins of spherical trigonometry in Greek mathematics and the major developments in Islamic mathematics.The subject came to fruition in Early Modern times with important developments by John Napier, Delambre and others, and attained an essentially complete form by the end of the 19th century with the publication of Todhunter's textbook Spherical trigonometry for the use of colleges and Schools." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_trigonometry
• # The first optical observation of a Solar flare by Richard Carrington

"Richard Carrington observed a flare for the first time on 1 September 1859 projecting the image produced by an optical telescope through a broad-band filter. It was an extraordinarily intense white light flare. Since flares produce copious amounts of radiation at Hα, adding a narrow ( ≈1 Å) passband filter centered at this wavelength to the optical telescope allows the observation of not very bright flares with small telescopes." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_flare#History
• # The discovery of Solar wind by Richard C. Carrington

"The existence of particles flowing outward from the Sun to the Earth was first suggested by British astronomer Richard C. Carrington. In 1859, Carrington and Richard Hodgson independently made the first observation of what would later be called a solar flare." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_wind
• # The first observation of a geomagnetic storm by Richard C. Carrington and Richard Hodgson

"The September 1859 geomagnetic storm (also known as the Carrington Event)[1] was a powerful geomagnetic storm during solar cycle 10 (1855–1867). A solar coronal mass ejection (CME) hit Earth's magnetosphere and induced the largest geomagnetic storm on record on September 1–2, 1859. The associated "white light flare" in the solar photosphere was observed and recorded by British astronomers Richard C. Carrington and Richard Hodgson." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_1859_geomagnetic_storm
• # The early radio astronomy

"Before Jansky observed the Milky Way in the 1930s, physicists speculated that radio waves could be observed from astronomical sources. In the 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell's equations had shown that electromagnetic radiation is associated with electricity and magnetism, and could exist at any wavelength." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_astronomy
• # The discovery of Electromagnetic radiation by James Clerk Maxwell

"In 1862–64 James Clerk Maxwell developed equations for the electromagnetic field which suggested that waves in the field would travel with a speed that was very close to the known speed of light. Maxwell therefore suggested that visible light (as well as invisible infrared and ultraviolet rays by inference) all consisted of propagating disturbances (or radiation) in the electromagnetic field." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation#History_of_discovery
• # The formation of International Telecommunication Union

"The ITU is the oldest international organization, preceded by the now defunct International Telegraph Union which drafted the earliest international standards and regulations governing international telegraph networks. The development of the telegraph in the early 19th century changed the way people communicated on the local and international levels. Between 1849 and 1865." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Telecommunication_Union#History
• # The discovery of comet Tempel 1 by Wilhelm Tempel

"Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel) is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867. It completes an orbit of the Sun every 5.5 years. Tempel 1 was the target of the Deep Impact space mission, which photographed a deliberate high-speed impact upon the comet in 2005. It was re-visited by the Stardust spacecraft on February 14, 2011 and came back to perihelion in August 2016." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempel_1
• # The discovery of RNA by Friedrich Miescher

"Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and numerous Nobel Prizes. Nucleic acids were discovered in 1868 by Friedrich Miescher, who called the material 'nuclein' since it was found in the nucleus. It was later discovered that prokaryotic cells, which do not have a nucleus, also contain nucleic acids. The role of RNA in protein synthesis was suspected already in 1939." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA
• # The discovery of DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid by Friedrich Miescher

"DNA was first isolated by the Swiss physician Friedrich Miescher who, in 1869, discovered a microscopic substance in the pus of discarded surgical bandages. As it resided in the nuclei of cells, he called it "nuclein".In 1878, Albrecht Kossel isolated the non-protein component of "nuclein", nucleic acid, and later isolated its five primary nucleobases." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
• # The Second Industrial Revolution

"The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid standardization and industrialization from the late 19th century into the early 20th century. The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the middle of 19th century, was punctuated by a slowdown in important inventions before the Second Industrial Revolution in 1870." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Industrial_Revolution
• # The invention of stellar classification

"The reason for the odd arrangement of letters in the Harvard classification is historical, having evolved from the earlier Secchi classes and been progressively modified as understanding improved.During the 1860s and 1870s, pioneering stellar spectroscopist Angelo Secchi created the Secchi classes in order to classify observed spectra. By 1866, he had developed three classes of stellar spectra, shown in the table below" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_classification
• # The invention of videotelephony by Alexander Graham Bell

"However Dr. Alexander Graham Bell personally thought that videotelephony was achievable even though his contributions to its advancement were incidental. In April 1891, Dr. Bell actually did record conceptual notes on an 'electrical radiophone', which discussed the possibility of "seeing by electricity" using devices that employed tellurium or selenium imaging components." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_videotelephony#Early_history
• # The first monoplane with steam engine by Félix du Temple

The aircraft used a very compact, high-speed circulation steam engine for which Félix du Temple applied for a patent on 28 April 1876. The engine used very small pipes packed together "to obtain the highest possible contact surface for the smallest possible volume" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Du_Temple_Monoplane
• # The discovery of Deimos, the Mars moon by Asaph Hall

Deimos was discovered by Asaph Hall, III at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. on 12 August 1877. It is named after Deimos, a figure representing dread in Greek mythology.[10] The names, at first spelled Phobus and Deimus, were suggested by Henry Madan (1838–1901), Science Master of Eton, from Book XV of the Iliad, where Ares (the Roman god Mars) summons Dread (Deimos) and Fear (Phobos)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deimos_(moon)
• # The discovery of Ohobos, the Mars moon by Asaph Hall

"Phobos was discovered by astronomer Asaph Hall on 18 August 1877, at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., at about 09:14 Greenwich Mean Time." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phobos_(moon)
• # Thomas Edison's first successful light bulb model

"Thomas Edison began serious research into developing a practical incandescent lamp in 1878. Edison filed his first patent application for "Improvement In Electric Lights" on 14 October 1878." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incandescent_light_bulb#Early_pre-commercial_research
• # Thomas Edison patent the electricity distribution

"After devising a commercially viable electric light bulb on October 21, 1879, Edison developed an electric "utility" to compete with the existing gas light utilities. On December 17, 1880, he founded the Edison Illuminating Company, and during the 1880s, he patented a system for electricity distribution." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison#Electric_power_distribution
• # The origin of climate change

"The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_climate_change_science
• # The first use of CET Central European Time

"Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time, Paris Time or Rome Time.In 1884 Serbia starts using CET." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_European_Time
• # The origin of Worldwide Standard Time Zones by Sandford Fleming

"Sandford Fleming promoted worldwide standard time zones, a prime meridian, and the use of the 24-hour clock as key elements in communicating the accurate time.He referred to the resulting system as Cosmic Time.At the 1884 International Meridian Conference held in Washington, D.C., the local mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in England was chosen to define the Universal day, counted from 0 hours at mean midnight." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time#History
• # The formation of Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing

"In March 1885, he met with patent attorney Lemuel W. Serrell, the same attorney used by Edison, to obtain help with submitting the patents. Serrell introduced Tesla to two businessmen, Robert Lane and Benjamin Vail, who agreed to finance an arc lighting manufacturing and utility company in Tesla's name, the Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla#Tesla_Electric_Light_&_Manufacturing
• # The first use of scientific method by Francis Ellingwood Abbot

"In 1885, the words "Scientific method" appear together with a description of the method in Francis Ellingwood Abbot's 'Scientific Theism'" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_scientific_method#Mention_of_the_topic
• # The discovery of noctilucent clouds by Otto Jesse

"Noctilucent clouds are first known to have been observed in 1885, two years after the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa.In the years following their discovery, the clouds were studied extensively by Otto Jesse of Germany, who was the first to photograph them, in 1887, and seems to have been the one to coin the term "noctilucent cloud", which means "night-shining cloud". His notes provide evidence that noctilucent clouds first appeared in 1885." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noctilucent_cloud
• # The origin of Carte du Ciel, the first astrographic chart

"The Carte du Ciel (literally, 'Map of the Sky') and the Astrographic Catalogue (or Astrographic Chart) were two distinct but connected components of a massive international astronomical project, initiated in the late 19th century, to catalogue and map the positions of millions of stars as faint as 11th or 12th magnitude." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carte_du_Ciel
• # The discovery of LCD Liquid Crystal Display by Friedrich Reinitzer

"In 1888, Friedrich Reinitzer (1858–1927) discovered the liquid crystalline nature of cholesterol extracted from carrots (that is, two melting points and generation of colors) and published his findings at a meeting of the Vienna Chemical Society on May 3, 1888 (F. Reinitzer: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cholesterins, Monatshefte für Chemie (Wien) 9, 421–441 (1888))." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid-crystal_display#History
• # The invention of radio by Guglielmo Marconi

"The invention of radio communication, although generally attributed to Guglielmo Marconi in the 1890s, spanned many decades, from theoretical underpinnings, through proof of the phenomenon's existence, development of technical means, to its final use in signalling." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_radio#Invention
• # Otto Lilienthal, the "flying man"

"Karl Wilhelm Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the "flying man". He was the first person to make well-documented, repeated, successful flights with gliders. Newspapers and magazines published photographs of Lilienthal gliding, favourably influencing public and scientific opinion about the possibility of flying machines becoming practical." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Lilienthal
• # The invention of Wireless power transfer by Nikola Tesla

"After 1890, inventor Nikola Tesla experimented with transmitting power by inductive and capacitive coupling using spark-excited radio frequency resonant transformers, now called Tesla coils, which generated high AC voltages." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_power_transfer#History
• # The inventon of cinematograph by Lumière brothers

"The device was invented and patented as the "Cinématographe Léon Bouly" by French inventor Léon Bouly on February 12, 1892. Bouly coined the term "cinematograph," from the Greek for "writing in movement." Due to a lack of money, Bouly could not develop his ideas properly and maintain his patent fees, so he sold his rights to the device and name to the Lumière brothers." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinematograph#History
• # The discovery of Amalthea, the Jupiter moon by Edward Emerson Barnard

"Amalthea was discovered on 9 September 1892, by Edward Emerson Barnard using the 36 inch (91 cm) refractor telescope at Lick Observatory. It was the last planetary satellite to be discovered by direct visual observation (as opposed to photographically) and was the first new satellite of Jupiter since Galileo Galilei's discovery of the Galilean satellites in in 1610." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalthea_(moon)
• # The beginning of search to discover Planet X by Percibal Lowell

In 1894, with the help of William Pickering, Percival Lowell (a wealthy Bostonian) founded the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. In 1906, convinced he could resolve the conundrum of Uranus's orbit, he began an extensive project to search for a trans-Neptunian planet, which he named Planet X, a name previously used by Gabriel Dallet. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planets_beyond_Neptune#Planet_X
• # The discovery of X-ray by Wilhelm Röntgen

"On November 8, 1895, German physics professor Wilhelm Röntgen stumbled on X-rays while experimenting with Lenard tubes and Crookes tubes and began studying them. He wrote an initial report "On a new kind of ray: A preliminary communication" and on December 28, 1895 submitted it to Würzburg's Physical-Medical Society journal." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray#Discovery_by_R%C3%B6ntgen
• # The discovery of radioactive decay

"Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by the French scientist Henri Becquerel, while working with phosphorescent materials.These materials glow in the dark after exposure to light, and he suspected that the glow produced in cathode ray tubes by X-rays might be associated with phosphorescence. He wrapped a photographic plate in black paper and placed various phosphorescent salts on it." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_decay#History_of_discovery
• # The invention of Zeppelin by Ferdinand von Zeppelin

"Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin's serious interest in airship development began in 1874, when he took inspiration from a lecture given by Heinrich von Stephan on the subject of "World Postal Services and Air Travel" to outline the basic principle of his later craft in a diary entry dated 25 March 1874." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeppelin
• # The invention of centrifugal compressor by Dr. A. C. E. Rateau

"Over the past 100 years,applied scientists including Stodola (1903, 1927–1945),Pfleiderer (1952), Hawthorne (1964), Shepard (1956), Lakshminarayana (1996), and Japikse (many texts including citations), have educated young engineers in the fundamentals of turbomachinery. These understandings apply to all dynamic, continuous-flow, axisymmetric pumps, fans, blowers, and compressors in axial, mixed-flow and radial/centrifugal configurations." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor
• # The discovery of Phoebe, the Saturn moon by William Henry Pickering

"Phoebe was discovered by William Henry Pickering on 17 March 1899 from photographic plates that had been taken starting on 16 August 1898 at the Boyden Observatory near Arequipa, Peru, by DeLisle Stewart.It was the first satellite to be discovered photographically." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoebe_(moon)
• # The Quantum Hypothesis by Max Planck

"In 1900, the German physicist Max Planck reluctantly introduced the idea that energy is quantized in order to derive a formula for the observed frequency dependence of the energy emitted by a black body, called Planck's law, that included a Boltzmann distribution (applicable in the classical limit)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_quantum_mechanics
• # The early Electronic engineering

"Electronic engineering as a profession sprang from technological improvements in the telegraph industry in the late 19th century and the radio and the telephone industries in the early 20th century. People were attracted to radio by the technical fascination it inspired, first in receiving and then in transmitting. Many who went into broadcasting in the 1920s were only 'amateurs' in the period before World War I." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_engineering#History
• # The publish of the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation

"The equation is named after Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (Russian: Константин Циолковский) who independently derived it and published it in his 1903 work. The equation had been derived earlier by the British mathematician William Moore in 1810, and later published in a separate book in 1813" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsiolkovsky_rocket_equation
• # The first sustained flight with a powered, controlled aircraft.

"According to the Smithsonian Institution and Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI),the Wrights made the first sustained, controlled, powered heavier-than-air manned flight at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, 4 miles (6.4 km) south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on 17 December 1903." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_flying_machines#The_Wright_brothers
• # The invention of Radar by Christian Hülsmeyer

"The German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects". In 1904, he demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog, but not its distance from the transmitter. He obtained a patent[6] for his detection device in April 1904 and later a patent for a related amendment for estimating the distance to the ship." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radar#First_experiments
• # The discovery of Himalia, the Jupiter moon by Charles Dillon Perrine

"It is the largest irregular satellite of Jupiter, with a diameter of at least 140 km (90 mi). It is the fifth largest Jovian satellite, after the four Galilean moons. It was discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at the Lick Observatory on 3 December 1904 and is named after the nymph Himalia, who bore three sons of Zeus (the Greek equivalent of Jupiter)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Himalia_(moon)
• # The discovery of Elara, the Jupiter moon by Charles Dillon Perrine

"Elara /ˈɛlərə/ is a prograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. It was discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at Lick Observatory in 1905.It is the eighth-largest moon of Jupiter and is named after Elara, one of Zeus's lovers and the mother of the giant Tityos.Elara did not receive its present name until 1975; before then, it was simply known as Jupiter VII." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elara_(moon)
• # Albert Einstein publication: "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies"

"Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and published 26 September of that same year. Observationally, the effects of these changes are most apparent at high speeds (where objects are moving at speeds close to the speed of light). The theory developed in this paper later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein#Special_relativity
• # The discovery of aeroelasticity

"An early scientific work on the subject was George Bryan's Theory of the Stability of a Rigid Aeroplane published in 1906. Problems with torsional divergence plagued aircraft in the First World War and were solved largely by trial-and-error and ad-hoc stiffening of the wing." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeroelasticity#History
• # The invention of helicopter by Paul Cornu

"Cornu first built an unmanned experimental design powered by a 2 hp Buchet engine.His manned helicopter was powered by a 24 horsepower (18 kW) Antoinette engine.[3] He piloted this construction himself at Normandy, France on November 13, 1907."
• # The discovery of Pasiphae, the Jupiter moon by Philibert Jacques Melotte

"Pasiphae /pəˈsɪfeɪ.iː/, formerly spelled Pasiphaë, is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. It was discovered in 1908 by Philibert Jacques Melotte and later named after the mythological Pasiphaë, wife of Minos and mother of the Minotaur from Greek legendThe moon was first spotted on a plate taken at the Royal Greenwich Observatory on the night of February 28, 1908." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasiphae_(moon)
• # The discovery of cosmic ray by Theodor Wulf

"In 1909, Theodor Wulf developed an electrometer, a device to measure the rate of ion production inside a hermetically sealed container, and used it to show higher levels of radiation at the top of the Eiffel Tower than at its base. However, his paper published in Physikalische Zeitschrift was not widely accepted." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_ray#Discovery
• # The discovery of nucleous by Ernest Rutherford, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden

"In 1909, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden, working under the direction of Ernest Rutherford, bombarded metal foil with alpha particles to observe how they scattered.Rutherford proposed that the positive charge of the atom is concentrated in a tiny nucleus at the center of the atom." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom#Discovery_of_the_nucleus
• # The invention of Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

"The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated as H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures. The diagram was created independently in around 1910 by Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell, and represented a major step towards an understanding of stellar evolution." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hertzsprung%E2%80%93Russell_diagram
• # The first experimental radio transmission from an airplane

"Radio communication was first used in aircraft just prior to World War 1.[3] The first airborne radios were in zeppelins, but the military sparked development of light radio sets that could be carried by heavier-than-air craft, so that aerial reconnaissance biplanes could report their observations immediately in case they were shot down. The first experimental radio transmission from an airplane was conducted by the US Navy August 1910." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avionics#History
• # The origin of Earth Science by Alfred Wegener

"In 1912 Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of Continental Drift This theory suggests that the shapes of continents and matching coastline geology between some continents indicates they were joined together in the past and formed a single landmass known as Pangaea; thereafter they separated and drifted like rafts over the ocean floor, currently reaching their present position." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20th_century_in_science#Earth_science
• # The discovery of the neutron by Ernest Rutherford

"The discovery of the neutron and its properties was central to the extraordinary developments in atomic physics in the first half of the 20th century. Early in the century, Ernest Rutherford developed a crude model of the atom, based on the gold foil experiment of Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. In this model, atoms had their mass and positive electric charge concentrated in a very small nucleus." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discovery_of_the_neutron
• # The invention of Sonar by Lewis Fry Richardson

"The world's first patent for an underwater echo-ranging device was filed at the British Patent Office by English meteorologist Lewis Fry Richardson a month after the sinking of Titanic, and a German physicist Alexander Behm obtained a patent for an echo sounder in 1913." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonar#History
• # The discovery of Sinope, the Jupiter moon by Seth Barnes Nicholson

"Sinope /sɪˈnoʊpiː/ is a retrograde irregular satellite of Jupiter discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Lick Observatory in 1914 and is named after Sinope of Greek mythology." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinope_(moon)
• # The beginning of World War I

"World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war that lasted from 1914 to 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars",it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I
• # The formation of Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center

"The Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center[4] (ГКНПЦ им. М. В. Хру́ничева in Russian) is a Moscow-based manufacturer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets, and the Russian modules of Mir and the International Space Station." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khrunichev_State_Research_and_Production_Space_Center
• # The first implementation of Daylight saving time

"Daylight saving time, also daylight savings time or daylight time (United States and Canada) and summer time (United Kingdom, European Union, and others), is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls later each day according to the clock.George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daylight_saving_time
• # The end of World War I

"World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war that lasted from 1914 to 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I
• # The discovery of gravitational lens

"The first observation of light deflection was performed by noting the change in position of stars as they passed near the Sun on the celestial sphere. The observations were performed in 1919 by Arthur Eddington, Frank Watson Dyson, and their collaborators during the total solar eclipse on May 29.The solar eclipse allowed the stars near the Sun to be observed. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_lens#History
• # The foundation of IAU International Astronomical Union

"The International Astronomical Union is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. Among other activities, it acts as the recognized authority for assigning designations and names to celestial bodies (stars, planets, asteroids, etc.) and any surface features on them." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Astronomical_Union
• # The invention of Broadcasting

"Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication (early radio, telephone, and telegraph) were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadcasting
• # The origin of Reliability engineering

"In the 1920s, product improvement through the use of statistical process control was promoted by Dr. Walter A. Shewhart at Bell Labs, around the time that Waloddi Weibull was working on statistical models for fatigue. The development of reliability engineering was here on a parallel path with quality. The modern use of the word reliability was defined by the U.S. military in the 1940s," https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reliability_engineering
• # The discovery of bioluminescence by E. Newton Harvey

"In 1920, the American zoologist E. Newton Harvey published a monograph, The Nature of Animal Light, summarizing early work on bioluminescence. Harvey notes that Aristotle mentions light produced by dead fish and flesh, and that both Aristotle and Pliny the Elder (in his Natural History) mention light from damp wood." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioluminescence#History
• # The formation of Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel

"The Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel (Russian: Общество изучения межпланетных сообщений or OIMS) was founded in Moscow in May 1924.It was a spin-off of a military science society at theZhukovsky Airforce Academy,and was chaired by Grigory Kramarov.Its 200 charter members included important Soviet space-exploration and rocketry experts such as Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,Fridrikh Tsander, and Vladimir Vetchinkin. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society_for_Studies_of_Interplanetary_Travel
• # The Hubble sequence

"The Hubble sequence is a morphological classification scheme for galaxies invented by Edwin Hubble in 1926. Hubble's scheme divided regular galaxies into three broad classes – ellipticals, lenticulars and spirals – based on their visual appearance (originally on photographic plates). A fourth class contains galaxies with an irregular appearance." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble_sequence
• # The invention of the first liquild-fueled rocket by Robert Goddard

"In 1920, Professor Robert Goddard of Clark University published proposed improvements to rocket technology in A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. In 1923, Hermann Oberth (1894–1989) published Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen ("The Rocket into Planetary Space").Modern rockets originated in 1926 when Goddard attached a supersonic (de Laval) nozzle to the combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant rocket. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket#History
• # The Big Bang theory

The Big Bang theory is a cosmological model of the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. Georges Lemaître first noted in 1927 that an expanding universe could be traced back in time to an originating single point, calling his theory that of the "primeval atom". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Big_Bang_theory
• # The invention of LED Light-emitting diode by Oleg Losev

"Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat's-whisker detector. Russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927. His research was distributed in Soviet, German and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode#Discoveries_and_early_devices
• # Lippisch Ente, the world's first rocket-powered full-size aircraft

"The Ente (German: duck) was the world’s first rocket-powered full-size aircraft. It was designed by Alexander Lippisch as a sailplane and first flown under power on June 11, 1928, piloted by Fritz Stamer." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lippisch_Ente
• # The discovery of Redshift galaxies calculations by Hubble

"Hubble went on to estimate the distances to 24 extra-galactic nebulae, using a variety of methods. In 1929 Hubble examined the relation between these distances and their radial velocities as determined from their redshifts. His estimated distances are now known to all be too small, by up to a factor of about 7." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Hubble#Redshift_increases_with_distance
• # The confirmation of the expansion of the universe, by Hubble

"Georges Lemaître independently reached a similar conclusion to Friedmann on a theoretical basis, and also presented the first observational evidence for a linear relationship between distance to galaxies and their recessional velocity. Edwin Hubble observationally confirmed Lemaître's findings two years later. Assuming the cosmological principle, these findings would imply that all galaxies are moving away from each other." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_of_the_universe#History
• # The first FM broadcast band

"Frequency modulation radio originated in the United States during the 1930s; the system was developed by the American electrical engineer Edwin Howard Armstrong. However, FM broadcasting did not become widespread, even in North America, until the 1960s." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FM_broadcast_band
• # The invention of hertz (symbol: Hz), the derived unit of frequency by Heinrich Hertz

"The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.The hertz is named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894), who made important scientific contributions to the study of electromagnetism. The name was established by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1930." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hertz#History
• # The first successful VfR test firing with liquid fuel (five minutes) was performed by Max Valier

"The Verein für Raumschiffahrt ("VfR", English: Society for Space Travel was a German amateur rocket association prior to World War II that included members outside Germany. The first successful VfR test firing with liquid fuel (five minutes) was performed by Max Valier at the Heylandt Works on January 25, 1930; and additional rocket experiments were conducted at a farm near Bernstadt, Saxony." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verein_f%C3%BCr_Raumschiffahrt
• # The discovery of dwarf planet Pluto by Clyde Tombaugh

"Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is an icy dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. It was the first and the largest Kuiper belt object to be discovered.Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and declared to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pluto
• # The first radio telescope

"The first radio antenna used to identify an astronomical radio source was one built by Karl Guthe Jansky, an engineer with Bell Telephone Laboratories, in 1932. Jansky was assigned the job of identifying sources of static that might interfere with radio telephone service. Jansky's antenna was an array of dipoles and reflectors designed to receive short wave radio signals at a frequency of 20.5 MHz"
• # The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical objec

"The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_astronomy
• # The origins of Soviet Space Program: The first Soviet liquid-fueled rocket Gird-09

"GIRD (Group for the Study of Reactive Motion) launched the first Soviet liquid-fueled rocket Gird-09, and on November 25, 1933, the first hybrid-fueled rocket GIRD-X." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_space_program#Origins
• # The first use of ET Eastern Time Zone

"The boundaries of the Eastern Time Zone have moved westward since the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) took over time-zone management from railroads in 1938." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Time_Zone
• # The discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn

"Jointly with Lise Meitner and his pupil and assistant Fritz Strassmann (1902–1980), Otto Hahn furthered the research begun by Enrico Fermi and his team in 1934 when they bombarded uranium with neutrons. Until 1938, it was believed that the elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (known as transuranium elements) arose when uranium atoms were bombarded with neutrons." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Hahn#Discovery_of_nuclear_fission_(1938)
• # The discovery of Lysithea, Jupiter moon by Seth Barnes Nicholson

"Lysithea /laɪˈsɪθiə/ is a prograde irregular satellite of Jupiter. It was discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson in 1938 at Mount Wilson Observatory and is named after the mythological Lysithea, daughter of Oceanus and one of Zeus' lovers." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysithea_(moon)
• # The discovery of Carme, Jupiter moon by Seth Barnes Nicholson

"Carme did not receive its present name until 1975; before then, it was simply known as Jupiter XI. It was sometimes called "Pan" between 1955 and 1975 (Pan is now the name of a satellite of Saturn)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carme_(moon)
• # The beginning of World War II

"World War II (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II
• # The formation of INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology

"It is an autonomous research agency of the Government of Spain responsible for the state aerospace, aeronautics, hydrodynamics, and defense and security technologies research. The INTA was established in 1942, as the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeronáutica (National Institute of Aeronautics), and it was integrated in the Ministry of the Air. It has its headquarters in Torrejón de Ardoz, near Madrid." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instituto_Nacional_de_T%C3%A9cnica_Aeroespacial
• # Hedy Lamarr, co-invented an early version of frequency-hopping spread spectrum

"Hedy Lamarr (/ˈheɪdi/), born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler (November 9, 1914[a] – January 19, 2000), was an Austrian-American actress, inventor, and film producer. She was part of 30 films in an acting career spanning 28 years, and co-invented an early version of frequency-hopping spread spectrum." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedy_Lamarr#Frequency-hopping_spread_spectrum
• # The origins of Space Race: The first successful launch of a V-2

"A modern pioneer ballistic missile was the A-4, commonly known as the V-2 developed by Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s under the direction of Wernher von Braun. The first successful launch of a V-2 was on October 3, 1942, and it began operation on September 6, 1944, against Paris, followed by an attack on London two days later. By the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945, more than 3,000 V-2s had been launched" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballistic_missile#History
• # The discovery of comet 66P/du Toit by Daniel du Toit

"It was discovered by Daniel du Toit at the Boyden Observatory, South Africa on 16 May 1944, who estimated its brightness at magnitude 10. Other observers estimated magnitude 11 and 12.5. Its next return date was calculated to have a perihelion date of 10 April 1959 but it was not discovered." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/66P/du_Toit
• # The end of World War II

"World War II (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II
• # The launch of V-2 No. 13, the first rocket to take a photograph of the Earth from outer space

"The White Sands rocket (official name V-2 No. 13) was a modified V-2 rocket that became the first man-made object to take a photograph of the Earth from outer space. Launched on 24 October 1946, at the White Sands Missile Range in White Sands, New Mexico, the rocket reached a maximum altitude of 65 mi (105 km)" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-2_No._13
• # The discovery of Pion by Cecil Powell, César Lattes, Giuseppe Occhialini

"In 1947, the first true mesons, the charged pions, were found by the collaboration of Cecil Powell, César Lattes, Giuseppe Occhialini, et al., at the University of Bristol, in England. Since the advent of particle accelerators had not yet come, high-energy subatomic particles were only obtainable from atmospheric cosmic rays." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pion#History
• # The invention of point-contact transistor, the first type of transistor by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain

"The point-contact transistor was the first type of transistor to be successfully demonstrated. It was developed by research scientists John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Laboratories in December 1947. They worked in a group led by physicist William Shockley." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-contact_transistor
• # Bell Labs, the first to propose a cellular radio telephone network

"In 1947, Bell Labs was the first to propose a cellular radio telephone network. The primary innovation was the development of a network of small overlapping cell sites supported by a call switching infrastructure that tracks users as they move through a network and passes their calls from one site to another without dropping the connection. In 1956, the MTA system was launched in Sweden." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_telephony#History
• # The beginning of Cold War

"The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and their respective allies, the Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc, after World War II. The period is generally considered to span the 1947 Truman Doctrine to the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War
• # The invention of the first transistor by John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William Bradford Shockley

"While the device was constructed a week earlier, Brattain's notes describe the first demonstration to higher-ups at Bell Labs on the afternoon of 23 December 1947, often given as the birthdate of the transistor. What is now known as the "p–n–p point-contact germanium transistor" operated as a speech amplifier with a power gain of 18 in that trial." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor_device#The_first_transistor
• # The invention of Holography by Dennis Gabor

"A hologram is a physical recording of an interference pattern which uses diffraction to reproduce a three-dimensional light field, resulting in an image which retains the depth, parallax, and other properties of the original scene.Holography is the science and practice of making holograms. A hologram is a photographic recording of a light field, rather than an image formed by a lens." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holography
• # The principles of cybernetics by Norbert Wiener

"Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary[1] approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine"." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetics
• # The discovery of Miranda, the Uranus moon by Gerard Kuiper

"Miranda was discovered on 16 February 1948 by planetary astronomer Gerard Kuiper using the McDonald Observatory's 82-inch (2,080 mm) Otto Struve Telescope. Its motion around Uranus was confirmed on 1 March 1948. It was the first satellite of Uranus discovered in nearly 100 years." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miranda_(moon)
• # The first sonic barrier aircraft

"The sound barrier or sonic barrier is the sudden increase in aerodynamic drag and other undesirable effects experienced by an aircraft or other object when it approaches the speed of sound. The XP-86 officially achieved supersonic speed on April 26, 1948." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_barrier#The_first_''official''_aircraft_to_break_the_sound_barrier
• # The first stored-program computer by Tom Kilburn

"The very first time a stored-program computer held a piece of software in electronic memory and executed it successfully, was 11 am 21 June 1948, at the University of Manchester, on the Manchester Baby computer. It was written by Tom Kilburn, and calculated the highest factor of the integer 2^18 = 262,144." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_software#Early_days_of_computer_software_(1948%E2%80%931979)
• # Dorothy Vaughan, supervisor of the West Area Computers

"Dorothy Johnson Vaughan (September 20, 1910 – November 10, 2008) was an American mathematician and human computer who worked for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), and NASA, at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. In 1949, she became acting supervisor of the West Area Computers, the first African-American woman to supervise a group of staff at the center." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Vaughan
• # The discovery of Nereid, Neptune moon by Gerard Kuiper

"Nereid /ˈnɪəriːɪd/, or Neptune II, is the third-largest moon of Neptune. Of all known moons in the Solar System, it has the most eccentric orbit. It was the second moon of Neptune to be discovered, by Gerard Kuiper in 1949." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nereid_(moon)
• # The Third Industrial Revolution

"The Digital Revolution (also known as the 3rd Industrial Revolution) is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Revolution
• # The first parabolic flight by Fritz Haber and Heinz Haber

"Parabolic flight as a way of simulating weightlessness was first proposed by the German aerospace engineer Fritz Haber and the German physicist Heinz Haber in 1950. Both had been brought to the US after World War II as part of Operation Paperclip." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reduced-gravity_aircraft#History
• # The origin of aeroacoustics

"The modern discipline of aeroacoustics can be said to have originated with the first publication of Lighthill in the early 1950s, when noise generation associated with the jet engine was beginning to be placed under scientific scrutiny." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeroacoustics#History
• # The discovery of Oort Cloud by Jan Oort

"In 1932 Estonian astronomer Ernst Öpik postulated that long-period comets originated in an orbiting cloud at the outermost edge of the Solar System.[9] Dutch astronomer Jan Oort independently revived the idea in 1950 as a means to resolve a paradox" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oort_cloud
• # WAC Corporal, the first sounding rocket developed in the United States

"The WAC Corporal was the first sounding rocket developed in the United States.The Corporal program was started by the US Army's Ordnance and California Institute of Technology organization (ORDCIT) in June 1944 with the ultimate goal of developing a military ballistic missile by developing the technology necessary." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WAC_Corporal
• # The invention of Video tape recorder by Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team

"Video technology was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube (CRT) television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. Video was originally exclusively a live technology. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder (VTR)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video#Analog_video
• # The discovery of Ananke, Jupiter moon by Seth Barnes Nicholson

"Ananke /əˈnæŋkiː/ is a retrograde irregular moon of Jupiter. It was discovered by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Mount Wilson Observatory in 1951 and is named after the mythological Ananke, the personification of Necessity, and the mother of the Moirai (Fates) by Zeus." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananke_(moon)
• # The invention of Maser by Charles H. Townes, James P. Gordon, and Herbert J. Zeiger

"A maser (/ˈmeɪzər/, an acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission. The first maser was built by Charles H. Townes, James P. Gordon, and Herbert J. Zeiger at Columbia University in 1953. Townes, Nikolay Basov and Alexander Prokhorov were awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics for theoretical work leading to the maser." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maser
• # The first version of the International System of Units

"In 1954, the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) created the first version of the International System of Units. The six base units that they used were the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, Kelvin, and candela. The seventh base unit, the mole, was added in 1971" https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Units
• # The formation of CERN

"The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe.[1] The acronym CERN originally represented the French words for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CERN#History
• # The invention of the first accurate atomic clock by Louis Essen and Jack Parry

"The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, was built by Louis Essen and Jack Parry in 1955 at the National Physical Laboratory in the UK." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_clock#History
• # The origin of Open science data

"The concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally established with the formation of the World Data Center system (now the World Data System), in preparation for the International Geophysical Year of 1957–1958." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_science_data
• # The fundation of Baikonur Cosmodrome

"It is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia. The Cosmodrome is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility.[1] The spaceport is located in the desert steppe of Baikonur, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) east of the Aral Sea and north of the river Syr Darya. It is near the Tyuratam railway station and is about 90 metres (300 ft) above sea level." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baikonur_Cosmodrome
• # The discovery of electron neutrino by Clyde Cowan

"The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has zero net electric charge. Together with the electron it forms the first generation of leptons, hence the name electron neutrino. It was first hypothesized by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, to account for missing momentum and missing energy in beta decay, and was discovered in 1956 by a team led by Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_neutrino
• # The invention of Hard disk drive by IBM

"Introduced by IBM in 1956, HDDs were the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers beginning in the early 1960s. HDDs maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers, though personal computing devices produced in large volume, like cell phones and tablets, rely on flash products."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_disk_drive#History
• # The first Space debris accumulation

"Space debris began to accumulate in Earth orbit immediately with the first launch of an artificial satellite into orbit in 1957. After the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) began compiling a database (the Space Object Catalog) of all known rocket launches and objects reaching orbit: satellites, protective shields and upper-stages of launch vehicles." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_debris#History
• # Casio Model 14-A ,the first all-electric (relatively) compact calculator,

"The Casio Computer Company, in Japan, released the Model 14-A calculator in 1957, which was the world's first all-electric (relatively) compact calculator. It did not use electronic logic but was based on relay technology, and was built into a desk." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calculator#Development_of_electronic_calculators
• # International Geophysical Year

The early period of space exploration.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Geophysical_Year
• # The first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)

"An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi) primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercontinental_ballistic_missile
• # Sputnik 1: The first artificial Earth satellite

"The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957, orbiting for three weeks before its batteries died, then silently for two more months before falling back into the atmosphere." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik_1
• # Laika, first traveller into cosmos

"It was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth. Laika, a stray mongrel from the streets of Moscow, was selected to be the occupant of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 that was launched into outer space on 3 November 1957." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laika
• # The first definition of aerospace engineering

"The first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958,[4] considering the Earth's atmosphere and outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft (aero) and spacecraft (space) under the newly coined term aerospace." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerospace_engineering#History
• # The installation of the first transatlantic telegraph cable was laid in 1858 by Cyrus West Field

"When the first transatlantic telegraph cable was laid in 1858 by Cyrus West Field, it operated for only three weeks bsequent attempts in 1865 and 1866 were more successful. Although a telephone cable was discussed starting in the 1920s,to be practical it needed a number of technological advances which did not arrive until the 1940s. Starting in 1927, transatlantic telephone service was radio-based." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transatlantic_communications_cable
• # The formation of NASA Pioneer Programm

"The Pioneer programs were two series of United States uncrewed space missions for lunar and planetary exploration. The first program, which ran from 1958 to 1960, unsuccessfully attempted to send spacecraft to orbit the Moon, successfully sent one spacecraft to fly by the Moon, and successfully sent one spacecraft to investigate interplanetary space between the orbits of Earth and Venus." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_program
• # Mary Jackson, American mathematician and aerospace engineer at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)

"Mary Jackson (née Winston, April 9, 1921 – February 11, 2005) was an American mathematician and aerospace engineer at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which in 1958 was succeeded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). She worked at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, for most of her career. She started as a computer at the segregated West Area Computing division in 1951." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Jackson_(engineer)
• # The discovery of Van Allen radiation belt by James Van Allen

"Kristian Birkeland, Carl Størmer, and Nicholas Christofilos had investigated the possibility of trapped charged particles before the Space Age.[4] Explorer 1 and Explorer 3 confirmed the existence of the belt in early 1958 under James Van Allen at the University of Iowa. The trapped radiation was first mapped by Explorer 4, Pioneer 3 and Luna 1" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_Allen_radiation_belt
• # Juno I, the first American satellite in space.

"The Juno I was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958. A member of the Redstone rocket family, it was derived from the Jupiter-C sounding rocket. It is commonly confused with the Juno II launch vehicle, which was derived from the PGM-19 Jupiter medium-range ballistic missile." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juno_I
• # Explorer 1, the first satellite launched by the United States

"Explorer 1 was the first satellite launched by the United States and was part of the U.S. participation in the International Geophysical Year. The mission followed the first two satellites the previous year; the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1 and 2, beginning the Cold War Space Race between the two nations." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explorer_1
• # Vanguard 1, the first satellite to have solar electric power

"It was an American satellite that was the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be successfully launched (following Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, and Explorer 1). Vanguard 1 was the first satellite to have solar electric power. Although communication with the satellite was lost in 1964, it remains the oldest man-made object still in orbit, together with the upper stage of its launch vehicle." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanguard_1
• # Sputnik 3, scientific satellite carried a large array of instruments

"It was a Soviet satellite launched on 15 May 1958 from Baikonur Cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM. The scientific satellite carried a large array of instruments for geophysical research of the upper atmosphere and near space."
• # The first NASA astronaut selection

"Fourteen pilots were directly involved with the X-15, although only twelve actually flew the vehicles. There was no formal selection process, since everyone chosen was already a qualified test pilot.Scott Crossfield and Alvin White were the prime and backup North American Aviation test pilots who first became involved with the project." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_astronauts_by_year_of_selection#1958
• # Explorer 4, spacecraft to study nuclear explosions in magnetosphere

"It was instrumented by Dr. James van Allen's group. The Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency had initially planned two satellites for the purposes of studying the Van Allen radiation belts and the effects of nuclear explosions upon these belts (and the Earth's magnetosphere in general), however Explorer 4 was the only such satellite launched as the other, Explorer 5, suffered launch failure." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explorer_4
• # The formation of NASA

"The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA /ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and space research. NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASA
• # Project Mercury: The first human spaceflight program of the United States

"An early highlight of the Space Race, its goal was to put a man into Earth orbit and return him safely, ideally before the Soviet Union. Taken over from the US Air Force by the newly created civilian space agency NASA, it conducted twenty uncrewed developmental flights (some using animals), and six successful flights by astronauts." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Mercury
• # Pioneer 1, the first lunar orbiter

"Pioneer 1 was an American space probe, the first under the auspices of NASA, which was launched by a Thor-Able rocket on 11 October 1958. It was intended to orbit the Moon and make scientific measurements, but due to a guidance error failed to achieve lunar orbit and was ultimately destroyed upon reentering Earth's atmosphere. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_1
• # Pioneer 3, discovered a second radiation belt around Earth

"This spacecraft was intended as a lunar probe, but failed to go past the Moon and into a heliocentric orbit as planned, but did reach an altitude of 102,360 km before falling back to Earth. The revised spacecraft objectives were to measure radiation in the outer Van Allen radiation belt using two Geiger-Müller tubes and to test the trigger mechanism for a lunar photographic experiment." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_3
• # The formation of UNOOSA (United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs)

"UNOOSA is tasked with promoting the peaceful use and exploration of space through international cooperation. Part of the United Nations Secretariat, it works with any of the 193 UN Member States to establish or strengthen the legal and regulatory frameworks for space activities, and assists developing countries in using space science and technology for sustainable socioeconomic development." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Office_for_Outer_Space_Affairs
• # The first stratospheric space dive

"The first stratospheric space dive was in 1959 when Colonel Joseph William Kittinger II (born July 27, 1928 in Tampa, Florida, United States) a former command pilot, career military officer and retired Colonel in the United States Air Force dived from a high-altitude balloon." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_diving#History
• # The treaty of Planetary protection

"The potential problem of lunar and planetary contamination was first raised at the International Astronautical Federation VIIth Congress in Rome in 1956.In 1959, planetary protection was transferred to the newly formed Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). COSPAR in 1964 issued Resolution 26 affirming that:.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_protection#History
• # The invention of Digital camera by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs

"The basis for digital camera image sensors is metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) technology, which originates from the invention of the MOSFET (MOS field-effect transistor). The NMOS active-pixel sensor was later invented by Tsutomu Nakamura's team at Olympus in 1985, which led to the development of the CMOS active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor) by Eric Fossum's team at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1993." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_camera
• # The invention of the first true monolithic IC chip by Robert Noyce

"Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor invented the first true monolithic IC chip. It was a new variety of integrated circuit, more practical than Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon, whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium. Noyce's monolithic IC put all components on a chip of silicon and connected them with copper lines." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit#First_integrated_circuits
• # The launch of Luna 8K72, the first Vostok rocket

"The Luna 8K72 vehicles were carrier rockets used by the Soviet Union for nine space probe launch attempts in the Luna programme between 23 September 1958 and 16 April 1960" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_(rocket)
• # The first Trans-lunar injection

"A trans-lunar injection (TLI) is a propulsive maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory that will cause it to arrive at the Moon. The first space probe to attempt TLI was the Soviet Union's Luna 1 on January 2, 1959 which was designed to impact the Moon. The burn however didn't go exactly as planned and the spacecraft missed the Moon by more than three times its radius and was sent into a heliocentric orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-lunar_injection
• # The launch of Luna 1, the first spacecraft to attain escape velocity from Earth

"Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Russian: Мечта [mʲɪt͡ɕˈta], lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover,[5] was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit. Intended as an impactor, Luna 1 was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme in 1959" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_1
• # Vanguard 2, the first weather satellite

" Vanguard 2 was the first weather satellite.The satellite was designed to measure cloud-cover distribution over the daylight portion of its orbit, for a period of 19 days, and to provide information on the density of the atmosphere for the lifetime of its orbit (about 300 years)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanguard_2
• # Pioneer 4, the first probe to escape from the Earth's gravity

"Pioneer 4 was an American spin-stabilized unmanned spacecraft launched as part of the Pioneer program on a lunar flyby trajectory and into a heliocentric orbit making it the first probe of the United States to escape from the Earth's gravity." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_4
• # North American X-15

"The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_American_X-15
• # Explorer 6, satellite to study trapped radiation of various energies

"It was an American satellite launched on August 7, 1959. It was a small, spheroidal satellite designed to study trapped radiation of various energies, galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetism, radio propagation in the upper atmosphere, and the flux of micrometeorites. It also tested a scanning device designed for photographing the Earth's cloud cover, and transmitted the first pictures of Earth via satellite." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explorer_6
• # Luna 2, the first spacecraft launched to the Moon

"Originally named the Second Soviet Cosmic Rocket and nicknamed Lunik 2 in contemporaneous media, was the sixth of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon, E-1 No.7." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_2
• # Vanguard 3, scientific satellite to study Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere

"The satellite was launched from the Eastern Test Range into a geocentric orbit. The objectives of the flight were to measure the Earth's magnetic field, the solar X-ray radiation and its effects on the Earth's atmosphere, and the near-Earth micrometeoroid environment. Instrumentation included a proton magnetometer, X-ray ionization chambers, and various micrometeoroid detectors." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanguard_3
• # The first image of the far side of the Moon

"Luna 3 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme. It was the first-ever mission to photograph the far side of the Moon and the third Soviet space probe to be sent to the neighborhood of the Moon." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_3
• # Explorer 7, scientific satellite to study solar x-ray and Lyman-alpha flux

"It was designed to measure solar x-ray and Lyman-alpha flux, trapped energetic particles, and heavy primary cosmic rays. Secondary objectives included collecting data on micrometeoroid penetration, molecular sputtering and studying the Earth-atmosphere heat balance." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explorer_7
• # The formation of NASA Ranger Program

"The Ranger program was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon. The Ranger spacecraft were designed to take images of the lunar surface, transmitting those images to Earth until the spacecraft were destroyed upon impact." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranger_program
• # The invention of Laser by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories

"A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser#History
• # The formation of Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center

"It is a Russian training facility responsible for training cosmonauts for their space missions. It is in Star City of Moscow Oblast, a name which may refer to the facility itself or to its grounds. Military doctor Colonel Yevgeny Karpov was appointed as the first chief of the cosmonaut training centre or Tsentr Podgotovki Kosmonavtov (TsPK) on 24 February 1960." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Gagarin_Cosmonaut_Training_Center
• # Pioneer 5, spin-stabilized space probe

"It was a spin-stabilized space probe in the NASA Pioneer program used to investigate interplanetary space between the orbits of Earth and Venus." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_5
• # TIROS-1, the first of a series of Television Infrared Observation Satellites

"TIROS-1 was the first successful low-Earth orbital weather satellite, and the first of a series of Television Infrared Observation Satellites.The TIROS-1 spacecraft was launched by NASA and partners at 06:40 EST on 1 April 1960, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, in the United States. Mission partners were NASA, the U.S. Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory, RCA, the U.S. Weather Bureau, and the U.S. Naval Photographic Interpretation Center." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIROS-1
• # Korabl-Sputnik 1, the first test flight of the Soviet Vostok programme

"It was the first test flight of the Soviet Vostok programme, and the first Vostok spacecraft. It was launched on May 15, 1960. Though Korabl-Sputnik 1 was unmanned, it was a precursor to the first human spaceflight, Vostok 1." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korabl-Sputnik_1
• # Vostok rocket, the first rockets designed for the human spaceflight programme

"Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM and was designed for the human spaceflight programme. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) and the first crewed spacecraft (Vostok) in human history. It was a subset of the R-7 family of rockets." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_(rocket_family)
• # Project Echo, the first passive communications satellite

"Project Echo was the first passive communications satellite experiment. Each of the two American spacecraft, launched in 1960 and 1964, was a metalized balloon satellite acting as a passive reflector of microwave signals. Communication signals were bounced off them from one point on Earth to another." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Echo
• # Korabl-Sputnik 2, the first spaceflight to send animals

"It was a Soviet artificial satellite, and the third test flight of the Vostok spacecraft. It was the first spaceflight to send animals into orbit and return them safely back to Earth. Launched on 19 August 1960, it paved the way for the first human orbital flight, Vostok 1, which was launched less than eight months later." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korabl-Sputnik_2
• # The early Planetary geology by Eugene Shoemaker

"Eugene Shoemaker is credited with bringing geologic principles to planetary mapping and creating the branch of planetary science in the early 1960s, the Astrogeology Research Program, within the United States Geological Survey. He made important contributions to the field and the study of impact craters, Selenography (study of the Moon), asteroids, and comets." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_geology
• # Mars 1M spacecraft, the first Soviet missions to explore Mars

"Mars 1M was a series of two unmanned spacecraft which were used in the first Soviet missions to explore Mars. They were the earliest missions of the Mars program. The Western media dubbed the spacecraft "Marsnik", a portmanteau of Mars and Sputnik." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_1M
• # The construction of Apollo command and service module

"The CSM was developed and built for NASA by North American Aviation starting in November 1961. It was initially designed to land on the Moon atop a landing rocket stage and return all three astronauts on a direct-ascent mission, which would not use a separate lunar module, and thus had no provisions for docking with another spacecraft." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_command_and_service_module#Command_module_(CM)
• # The invention of LIDAR measuring system by Malcolm Stitch

Lidar (/ˈlaɪdɑːr/, also LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a method for measuring distances (ranging) by illuminating the target with laser light and measuring the reflection with a sensor. Under the direction of Malcolm Stitch, the Hughes Aircraft Company introduced the first lidar-like system in 1961,shortly after the invention of the laser." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidar
• # Frances Northcutt, engineer for the technical staff on NASA's Apollo Program

"Frances "Poppy" Northcutt (born August 10, 1943) is a Texas attorney who began her career as a "computress" and then an engineer for the technical staff on NASA's Apollo Program during the space race. She was the first female engineer to work in NASA's Mission Control during Apollo 8." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frances_Northcutt
• # The formation of Syncom, Synchronous Communication Satellite program

"Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite") started as a 1961 NASA program for active geosynchronous communication satellites, all of which were developed and manufactured by Hughes Space and Communications. Syncom 2, launched in 1963, was the world's first geosynchronous communications satellite. Syncom 3, launched in 1964, was the world's first geostationary satellite." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syncom
• # The first use of Inertial navigation system for Apollo Guidance and Navigation systems for the Command Module and the Lunar Module

"In February 1961 NASA awarded MIT a contract for preliminary design study of a guidance and navigation system for Apollo. MIT and the Delco Electronics Div. of General Motors Corp. were awarded the joint contract for design and production of the Apollo Guidance and Navigation systems for the Command Module and the Lunar Module." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inertial_navigation_system#Guidance_in_human_spaceflight
• # The launch of Mercury-Redstone 2 (MR-2, the first to carry a chimpanzee on a suborbital flight

"Mercury-Redstone 2 (MR-2) was the penultimate test flight of the Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle prior to the first manned American space mission in Project Mercury. It was launched at 16:55 UTC on January 31, 1961 from LC-5 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. Mercury spacecraft No. 5 carried a chimpanzee named Ham on a suborbital flight, landing in the Atlantic Ocean 16 minutes and 39 seconds after launch." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Redstone_2
• # Venera 1, the first spacecraft to fly past Venus

"The first spacecraft to fly past Venus, as part of the Soviet Union's Venera programme." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_1
• # Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space

"The first human in space was Yuri Gagarin, who flew the Vostok 1 spacecraft, launched by the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 as part of the Vostok program." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Gagarin
• # Vostok spacecraft, the first human spaceflight

"The Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union. The first human spaceflight was accomplished with Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_(spacecraft)
• # Freedom 7, the first United States human spaceflight

"Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard. It was the first crewed flight of Project Mercury. The project had the ultimate objective of putting an astronaut into orbit around the Earth and return him safely." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Redstone_3
• # The launch of Vostok 2, by cosmonaut Gherman Titov the first study of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body

"Vostok 2 (Russian: Восток-2, Orient 2 or East 2) was a Soviet space mission which carried cosmonaut Gherman Titov into orbit for a full day on August 6, 1961 to study the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_2
• # OSCAR 1, the first amateur radio satellite

"OSCAR I (aka OSCAR 1) is the first amateur radio satellite launched by Project OSCAR into low Earth orbit. OSCAR I was launched December 12, 1961, by a Thor-DM21 Agena B launcher from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Lompoc, California. The satellite, a rectangular box (30 x 25 x 12 cm) weighing 10 kg., was launched as a secondary payload (ballast) for Corona 9029, also known as Discoverer 36, the eighth and final launch of a KH-3 satellite." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSCAR_1
• # The formation of National Centre for Space Studies (CNES)

"The National Centre for Space Studies (CNES) (French: Centre national d'études spatiales) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose"). Its headquarters are located in central Paris and it is under the supervision of the French Ministries of Defence and Research." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNES
• # The invention of Virtual reality by Morton Heilig

"Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity. He built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in 1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_reality#History
• # The formation of NASA Mariner Program

"The Mariner program was a 10-mission program conducted by the American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The program launched a series of robotic interplanetary probes, from 1962 to 1973, designed to investigate Mars, Venus and Mercury." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_program
• # The formation of ESO, European Southern Observatory

"The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, commonly referred to as the European Southern Observatory (ESO), is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organisation for ground-based astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO has provided astronomers with state-of-the-art research facilities and access to the southern sky."
• # John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth circling it three times

"Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) was the first American orbital spaceflight, which took place on February 20, 1962. Piloted by astronaut John Glenn and operated by NASA as part of Project Mercury, it was the fifth human spaceflight, preceded by Soviet orbital flights Vostok 1 and 2 and American sub-orbital flights Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Atlas_6
• # The launch of Orbiting Solar Observatory (abbreviated OSO)

"The Orbiting Solar Observatory (abbreviated OSO) Program was the name of a series of American space telescopes primarily intended to study the Sun, though they also included important non-solar experiments. Eight were launched successfully into low Earth orbit by NASA between 1962 and 1975 using Delta rockets." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbiting_Solar_Observatory
• # The launch of Kosmos 1 satellite

"Kosmos (Russian: Ко́смос, IPA: [ˈkozməs], Cosmos) is a designation given to many satellites operated by the Soviet Union and subsequently Russia. Kosmos 1, the first spacecraft to be given a Kosmos designation, was launched on 16 March 1962." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosmos_(satellite)
• # Ariel 1, the first British satellite in space

"Ariel 1 (also known as UK-1 and S-55), was the first British satellite, and the first satellite in the Ariel programme. Its launch in 1962 made the United Kingdom the third country to operate a satellite, after the Soviet Union and the United States. It was constructed in both the UK and the United States by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and SERC, under an agreement reached as the result of political discussions in 1959 and 1960." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ariel_1
• # Ranger 4, the first spacecraft to impact the far side of the Moon

"Ranger 4 was a spacecraft of the Ranger program, launched in 1962. It was designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to crashing upon the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranger_4
• # The launch of the first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

"The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) DMSP was initially known as Program 35. The first successful launch of a Program 35 spacecraft used a Scout X-2 rocket lifting off from Point Arguello near Vandenberg Air Force Base on August 23, 1962.This was P35-2; the earlier P35-1 launch on May 24, 1962 had failed to reach orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defense_Meteorological_Satellite_Program#Launch_history
• # Telstar 1, the first live broadcast of television from satellite

"It was the satellite that allowed the first live broadcast of television images between the United States and Europe. It remained active for only 7 months, a much shorter service life than today's artificial satellites. Although it no longer works, it is still in Earth orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telstar_1
• # Mariner 1, the first space probe to explore planet Venus

"Mariner 1 was the first spacecraft of the American Mariner program, designed for a planetary flyby of Venus." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_1
• # The launch on Vostok 3, Cosmonaut Andriyan Nikolayev orbited the Earth 64 times over nearly four days in space

"Vostok 3 (Russian: Восток-3, Orient 3 or East 3) was a spaceflight of the Soviet space program intended to determine the ability of the human body to function in conditions of weightlessness and test the endurance of the Vostok 3KA spacecraft over longer flights. Cosmonaut Andriyan Nikolayev orbited the Earth 64 times over nearly four days in space, August 11–15, 1962, a feat which would not be matched by NASA until the Gemini program (1965–1966)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_3
• # The launch of Vostok 4, the first time that more than one crewed spacecraft were in orbit at the same time

"Vostok 4 (Russian: Восток-4, Orient 4 or East 4) was a mission in the Soviet space program. It was launched in August 1962, a day after Vostok 3 with cosmonaut Pavel Popovich on board—the first time that more than one crewed spacecraft were in orbit at the same time. The two Vostok capsules came within 6.5 km (4.0 mi) of one another and ship-to-ship radio contact was established." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_4
• # Mariner 2, the first spacecraft to visit planet Venus

"An American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter. The first successful spacecraft in the NASA Mariner program, it was a simplified version of the Block I spacecraft of the Ranger program and an exact copy of Mariner 1." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_2
• # Alouette 1, the first Canadian satellite that studied the ionosphere

"The first satellite constructed by a country other than the Soviet Union or the United States. Canada was the fourth country to operate a satellite, as the British Ariel 1, constructed in the United States by NASA, preceded Alouette 1 by five months." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alouette_1
• # The build of Arecibo Observatory

"The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico. As of 2018, the observatory is operated by University of Central Florida, Yang Enterprises and UMET, under cooperative agreement with the US National Science Foundation (NSF)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory
• # The invention of Sketchpad, the ancestor of modern computer-aided design (CAD) programs

"Sketchpad (a.k.a. Robot Draftsman) was a computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis, for which he received the Turing Award in 1988, and the Kyoto Prize in 2012. It pioneered the way for human–computer interaction (HCI). Sketchpad is considered to be the ancestor of modern computer-aided design (CAD) programs as well as a major breakthrough in the development of computer graphics in general." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sketchpad
• # JoAnn Hardin Morgan, first female engineer at NASA

"JoAnn Hardin Morgan (December 4, 1940) is an American aerospace engineer who was a trailblazer in the United States space flight program as the first female engineer at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center and the first woman to serve as a senior executive at Kennedy Space Center. For her work at NASA, Morgan was honored by U.S. President Bill Clinton as a Meritorious Executive in 1995 and 1998." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JoAnn_H._Morgan
• # The formation of COMSAT (Communications Satellite Corporation)

"COMSAT Corporation was created by the Communications Satellite Act of 1962 and incorporated as a publicly traded company in 1963. The primary goal of COMSAT was to serve as a public, federally funded corporation intended to develop a commercial and international satellite communication system press. Although the corporation was government regulated, it was equally owned by some major communications corporations and independent investors." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COMSAT
• # The first commercial LaserDisc by MCA DiscoVision

"LaserDisc (abbreviated as LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as MCA DiscoVision (also known simply as “DiscoVision”) in the United States in 1978.Optical video recording technology, using a transparent disc, was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1963 (and patented in 1970 and 1990)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaserDisc
• # The first development of Cassette tape by Phillips

"The Compact Cassette or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape, audio cassette, or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback. It was developed by Philips in Hasselt, Belgium, and introduced in September 1963." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassette_tape
• # The first use of optical fibers for communications

"Jun-ichi Nishizawa, a Japanese scientist at Tohoku University, proposed the use of optical fibers for communications in 1963. Nishizawa invented the PIN diode and the static induction transistor, both of which contributed to the development of optical fiber communications." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber-optic_communication#History
• # The launch of Syncom 1, the first geosynchronous communications satellite

"Syncom 1 was intended to be the first geosynchronous communications satellite. It was launched on February 14, 1963 with the Delta B #16 launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral, but was lost on the way to geosynchronous orbit due to an electronics failure." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syncom#Syncom_1
• # Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space

"Born 6 March 1937) is a member of the Russian State Duma, engineer, and former cosmonaut. She is the first and youngest woman to have flown in space with a solo mission on the Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963. She orbited the Earth 48 times, spent almost three days in space, and remains the only woman to have been on a solo space mission." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentina_Tereshkova
• # The invention of Geosynchronous satellite by Harold Rosen

"Widely known as the "father of the geosynchronous satellite", Harold Rosen, an engineer at Hughes Aircraft Company, invented the first operational geosynchronous satellite, Syncom 2. It was launched on a Delta rocket B booster from Cape Canaveral July 26, 1963." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geosynchronous_satellite#History
• # Vela (satellite), to detect nuclear detonations

"Vela was the name of a group of satellites developed as the Vela Hotel element of Project Vela by the United States to detect nuclear detonations to monitor compliance with the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty by the Soviet Union." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vela_(satellite)
• # The formation of the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space

"National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Indonesian: Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional or LAPAN) is the Indonesian government space agency. It was established on November 27, 1963, by former Indonesian president Sukarno after one year's existence of an informal space agency organization. LAPAN is responsible for long-term civilian and military aerospace research." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Institute_of_Aeronautics_and_Space
• # The invention of Kardashev scale by Nikolai Kardashev

"The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement based on the amount of energy they are able to use. The measure was proposed by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev in 1964." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kardashev_scale
• # The Bell's theorem by John Stewart Bell

"Bell's theorem proves that quantum physics is incompatible with local hidden variable theories. It was introduced by physicist John Stewart Bell in a 1964 paper titled "On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox", referring to a 1935 thought experiment that Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen used to argue that quantum physics is an "incomplete" theory." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27s_theorem
• # The invention of BASIC programming language by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz and released at Dartmouth College

"BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)[1] is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use. The original version was designed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz and released at Dartmouth College in 1964. They wanted to enable students in fields other than science and mathematics to use computers." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BASIC
• # Ranger 6, obtained the first close-up images of the Moon's surface

"Ranger 6 was a lunar probe in the Ranger program, a robotic spacecraft series launched by NASA in the early and mid-1960s to obtain the first close-up images of the Moon's surface. It was designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranger_6
• # The launch od Zond 1, the second Soviet research spacecraft to reach Venus

"Zond 1 was a spacecraft of the Soviet Zond program. It was the second Soviet research spacecraft to reach Venus, although communications had failed by that time. It carried a 90 cm spherical landing capsule, containing experiments for chemical analysis of the atmosphere, gamma-ray measurements of surface rocks, a photometer, temperature and pressure gauges, and a motion/rocking sensor in case it landed in water." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_1
• # Gemini I, the first mission of NASA Gemini program

"Gemini 1 was the first mission in NASA's Gemini program. An uncrewed test flight of the Gemini spacecraft, its main objectives were to test the structural integrity of the new spacecraft and modified Titan II launch vehicle. It was also the first test of the new tracking and communication systems for the Gemini program and provided training for the ground support crews for the first manned missions." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemini_1
• # The formation of Guiana Space Centre

"The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) ) is a French and European spaceport to the northwest of Kourou in French Guiana, a region of France in South America. Operational since 1968, it is particularly suitable as a location for a spaceport." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guiana_Space_Centre
• # Ranger 7, the first to transmit close images of the lunar surface

"Ranger 7 was the first space probe of the United States to successfully transmit close images of the lunar surface back to Earth. It was also the first completely successful flight of the Ranger program. Launched on July 28, 1964, Ranger 7 was designed to achieve a lunar-impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranger_7
• # Syncom 3, the launch of the first geostationary communication satellite

"The first geostationary communication satellite was Syncom 3, launched on August 19, 1964, with a Delta D launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral. The satellite, in orbit approximately above the International Date Line, was used to telecast the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo to the United States." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geosynchronous_satellite#History
• # The formation of Intelsat Corporation

"Intelsat Corporation (formerly INTEL-SAT, INTELSAT, Intelsat) is a communications satellite services provider. Originally formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO, or INTELSAT), from 1964 to 2001 it was an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelsat
• # Voskhod 1, the launch of first multi-person crew space flight of Soviet space program

"Voskhod 1 (Russian: Восход-1; Восход is Russian for Sunrise) was the seventh crewed Soviet space flight. In October 1964 it achieved a number of "firsts" in the history of crewed spaceflight, being the first space flight to carry more than one crewman into orbit, the first flight without the use of spacesuits, and the first to carry either an engineer or a physician into outer space. It also set a crewed spacecraft altitude record of 336 km (209 mi)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voskhod_1
• # Mariner 3, the first space probe to explore planet Mars

"Mariner 3 (together with Mariner 4 known as Mariner-Mars 1964) was one of two identical deep-space probes designed and built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's Mariner-Mars 1964 project that were intended to conduct close-up (flyby) scientific observations of the planet Mars and transmit information on interplanetary space and the space surrounding Mars." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_3
• # The formation of Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy

"It is a Belgian federal scientific research institute. Created in 1964, its main tasks are research and public service in space aeronomy, which is the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere of the Earth and other planets, and of outer space. The scientists rely on ground-based, balloon-, air- or space-borne instruments and computer models." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgian_Institute_for_Space_Aeronomy
• # Mariner 4, obtained the first images of Mars planet

"Mariner 4 performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first close-up pictures of the Martian surface. It captured the first images of another planet ever returned from deep space; their depiction of a cratered, seemingly dead world largely changed the scientific community's view of life on Mars." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_4
• # The launch of Zond 2, soviet space probe to flyby Mars

"Zond 2 was a Soviet space probe, a member of the Zond program, and was the sixth Soviet spacecraft to attempt a flyby of Mars.It was launched on November 30, 1964 at 13:12 UTC onboard Molniya 8K78 launch vehicle from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, Russia. The spacecraft was intended to survey Mars but lost communication before arrival." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_2
• # San Marco 1, the first Italian satellite

"San Marco 1, also known as San Marco A, was the first Italian satellite. Built in-house by the Italian Space Research Commission (Italian: Commissione per le Ricerche Spaziali, CRS) on behalf of the National Research Council, it was the first of five as part of the Italian-US San Marco programme.The primary mission of the San Marco series was to conduct ionospheric (upper-atmosphere) research." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Marco_1
• # The early Geoengineering

"The 1965 landmark report "Restoring the Quality of Our Environment" by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson's Science Advisory Committee warned of the harmful effects of fossil fuel emissions, and also mentioned "deliberately bringing about countervailing climatic changes," including "raising the albedo, or reflectivity, of the Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_engineering#History
• # The discovery of Extremophile organisms by Thomas D. Brock

"Thomas Dale Brock (born September 10, 1926) is an American microbiologist known for his discovery of hyperthermophiles living in hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. In the late 1960s, Brock discovered high-temperature bacteria living in the Great Fountain region of Yellowstone, and with his colleague Hudson Freeze, they isolated a sample they named Thermus aquaticus." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_D._Brock
• # The discovery of Molniya orbit

"A Molniya orbit (Russian: Молния, IPA: [ˈmolnʲɪjə] (About this soundlisten), "Lightning") is a type of satellite orbit designed to provide communications and remote sensing coverage over high latitudes. It is a highly elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63.4 degrees, an argument of perigee of 270 degrees, and an orbital period of approximately half a sidereal day." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molniya_orbit#History
• # Ranger 8, obtained the first images for landing sites for Apollo missions

"Ranger 8 was a lunar probe in the Ranger program, a robotic spacecraft series launched by NASA in the early-to-mid-1960s to obtain the first close-up images of the Moon's surface. These pictures helped select landing sites for Apollo missions and were used for scientific study. During its 1965 mission, Ranger 8 transmitted 7,137 lunar surface photographs before it crashed into the Moon as planned." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranger_8
• # Alexei Leonov, the first cosmonaut conducting a spacewalk

"He was a Soviet and Russian cosmonaut, Air Force major general, writer, and artist. On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct a spacewalk, exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for 12 minutes and 9 seconds" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexei_Leonov
• # Ranger 9, designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory

"Ranger 9 was a Lunar probe, launched in 1965 by NASA. It was designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact. The spacecraft carried six television vidicon cameras—two wide-angle (channel F, cameras A and B) and four narrow-angle (channel P)—to accomplish these objectives." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranger_9
• # Gemini 3, the first crewed mission in NASA's Gemini program.

"This was the ninth crewed US spaceflight (including two X-15 flights over 100 kilometers), and the 17th world human spaceflight including eight Soviet flights. It was also the final crewed flight controlled from Cape Kennedy Air Force Station in Florida, before mission control functions were shifted to a new control center located at the newly opened Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemini_3
• # The launch of Intelsat I, the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit

"Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the proverb "The early bird catches the worm") was the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, on April 6, 1965.It was built by the Space and Communications Group of Hughes Aircraft Company (later Hughes Space and Communications Company, and now Boeing Satellite Systems) for COMSAT, which activated it on June 28, 1965." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelsat_I
• # The launch of Molniya 1 satellite

"The Molniya (Russian: Молния, IPA: [ˈmolnʲɪjə] (About this soundlisten), "Lightning") series satellites are military and communications satellites launched by the Soviet Union from 1965 to 2004.The first launch took place on June 4, 1964 and ended in failure when the 8K78 booster core stage lost thrust 287 seconds into launch due to a jammed servo motor.The first operational satellite, Molniya 1-1, was successfully launched on April 23, 1965." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molniya_(satellite)
• # Edward White, the first American astronaut to perform a spacewalk

"Edward Higgins "Ed" White II (November 14, 1930 – January 27, 1967) (Lt Col, USAF) was an American aeronautical engineer, U.S. Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.White was selected as one of the second group of astronauts. He was assigned as pilot of Gemini 4 alongside command pilot James McDivitt. On June 3, 1965, White became the first American to walk in space." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ed_White_(astronaut)
• # The launch of Zond 3 space probe, to flyby of the Moon's far side for to take high quality photographs

"Zond 3 was a 1965 space probe which performed a flyby of the Moon's far side, taking a number of quality photographs for its time. It was a member of the Soviet Zond program while also being part of the Mars 3MV project. It was unrelated to Zond spacecraft designed for manned circumlunar missions (Soyuz 7K-L1). It is believed that Zond 3 was initially designed as a companion spacecraft to Zond 2 to be launched to Mars during the 1964 launch window." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_3
• # The launch of Venera 3, the first space probe to entry to Venus planet

"Venera 3 (Russian: Венера-3 meaning Venus 3) was a Venera program space probe that was built and launched by the Soviet Union to explore the surface of Venus. It was launched on 16 November 1965 at 04:19 UTC from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, USSR. The probe comprised an entry probe, designed to enter the Venus atmosphere and parachute to the surface, and a carrier/flyby spacecraft." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_3
• # Astérix, the first French satellite

"Astérix, the first French satellite, was launched on November 26, 1965 by a Diamant A rocket from the CIEES launch site at Hammaguir, French Algeria." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ast%C3%A9rix_(satellite)
• # Alouette 2, designed to explore Earth's ionosphere

"Alouette 2 was a Canadian research satellite launched at 04:48 UTC on November 29, 1965, by a Thor Agena rocket with Explorer 31 from the Western test range at Vandenberg AFB in California. It was (like its predecessor Alouette 1, and Explorer 31) designed to explore the ionosphere." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alouette_2
• # Walter M. Schirra and Tom Stafford the first to perform a space rendezvous

"Walter M. Schirra and Tom Stafford were first to perform a space rendezvous, piloting their Gemini 6A spacecraft and station-keeping one foot (30 cm) from Gemini 7 for over 5 hours." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_rendezvous#First_successful_rendezvous
• # Pioneer 6, solar orbiter

"Pioneer 6, 7, 8, and 9 were space probes in the Pioneer program. They were a series of solar-orbiting, spin-stabilized, solar cell- and battery-powered satellites designed to obtain measurements on a continuing basis of interplanetary phenomena from widely separated points in space.[1] They were also known as Pioneer A, B, C, and D. The fifth (Pioneer E) was lost in a launch accident, and therefore did not receive a numerical designation."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_6,_7,_8,_and_9
• # The development of Apollo Guidance Computer

"The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) is a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo command module (CM) and Apollo Lunar Module (LM). The AGC provided computation and electronic interfaces for guidance, navigation, and control of the spacecraft." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Guidance_Computer
• # Gemini missions, the first space food

"Several of the food issues from the Mercury missions were addressed for the later Gemini missions (1965–1966). Tubes (often heavier than the foods they contained) were abandoned. Gelatin coatings helped to prevent bite-sized cubes from crumbling. Simpler rehydration methods were developed. The menus also expanded to include items such as shrimp cocktail, chicken and vegetables, toast squares, butterscotch pudding, and apple juice." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_food#Early_history
• # Judy Sullivan, biomedical engineer in Apollo program

"Judy Sullivan (born 1943) is an American retired biomedical engineer who worked for NASA during the Apollo 11, Apollo 10, Apollo 9, Apollo 8 and Gemini 12 missions. For the Apollo 9 and Apollo 11 missions, she was lead biomedical engineer. Sullivan was the only woman in her department, and one of only a relative few women working for NASA in a technical role at that time. She was the first woman engineer hired by NASA for spacecraft testing." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judy_Sullivan
• # The construction of the Apollo Lunar Module

"The Apollo Lunar Module, or simply Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander spacecraft that was flown from lunar orbit to the Moon's surface during the U.S. Apollo program." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Lunar_Module
• # The formation of NASA Lunar Orbiter Program

"The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States from 1966 through 1967. Intended to help select Apollo landing sites by mapping the Moon's surface, they provided the first photographs from lunar orbit and photographed both the Moon and Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Orbiter_program
• # The formation of NASA Surveyor Program

"The Surveyor program was a NASA program that, from June 1966 through January 1968, sent seven robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon. Its primary goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of soft landings on the Moon. The Surveyor craft were the first American spacecraft to achieve soft landing on an extraterrestrial body. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveyor_program
• # Luna 9, the first to achieve a soft landing on the Moon

"First spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, or any planetary body other than Earth, and to transmit photographic data to Earth from the surface of another planetary body." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_9
• # Neil Armstrong and David Scott the first to rendezvous and dock

"The first docking with an Agena was successfully performed under the command of Neil Armstrong on Gemini 8 on March 16, 1966. Manual dockings were performed on three subsequent Gemini missions in 1966." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Docking_and_berthing_of_spacecraft#History
• # Luna 10, the first artificial satellite of the Moon

"Luna 10 (E-6S series) was a 1966 Soviet Luna program, robotic spacecraft mission, also called Lunik 10. It was the first artificial satellite of the Moon.Luna 10 conducted extensive research in lunar orbit, gathering important data on the strength of the Moon's magnetic field, its radiation belts, and the nature of lunar rocks (which were found to be comparable to terrestrial basalt rocks), cosmic radiation, and micrometeoroid density." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_10
• # Surveyor 1, the first US lunar soft-lander

"Surveyor 1 was the first lunar soft-lander in the uncrewed Surveyor program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, United States). This lunar soft-lander gathered data about the lunar surface that would be needed for the crewed Apollo Moon landings that began in 1969." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveyor_1
• # The first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory

"The first OAO was launched successfully on 8 April 1966, carrying instruments to detect ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma ray emission. Before the instruments could be activated, a power failure resulted in the termination of the mission after three days.The spacecraft was out of control, so that the solar panels could not be deployed to recharge the batteries that would supply power to the electrical and electronic equipment on board." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbiting_Astronomical_Observatory
• # Lunar Orbiter 1, the first US spacecraft to orbit the Moon

"The Lunar Orbiter 1 robotic spacecraft, part of NASA's Lunar Orbiter program, was the first American spacecraft to orbit the Moon. It was designed primarily to photograph smooth areas of the lunar surface for selection and verification of safe landing sites for the Surveyor and Apollo missions. It was also equipped to collect selenodetic, radiation intensity, and micrometeoroid impact data." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Orbiter_1
• # Lunar Orbiter 2, obtained images for selection and verification of safe landing

"The Lunar Orbiter 2 robotic spacecraft, part of the Lunar Orbiter Program, was designed primarily to photograph smooth areas of the lunar surface for selection and verification of safe landing sites for the Surveyor and Apollo missions. It was also equipped to collect selenodetic, radiation intensity, and micrometeoroid impact data." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Orbiter_2
• # The first Soyuz launcher

"The Soyuz (Russian: Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed in the 1960s by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Kuybyshev, Soviet Union. It was commissioned to launch Soyuz spacecraft as part of the Soviet human spaceflight program, first with 8 uncrewed test flights, followed by the first 19 crewed launches" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_(rocket)
• # The lanch of Biosatellite-1, NASA launched three satellites named Biosatellite 1, 2 and 3 between 1966 and 1969.

"NASA launched three satellites named Biosatellite 1, 2 and 3 between 1966 and 1969.The Biosatellite 1, also known abbreviated as Biosat 1 and as Biosatellite A, was the first unmanned artificial satellite belonging to the U.S. Biosatellite program for biological research." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biosatellite_program
• # The discovery of Janus, Saturn moon by Audouin Dollfus

"Janus was identified by Audouin Dollfus on 15 December 1966 and given the temporary designation S/1966 S 2. Previously, Jean Texereau [fr] had photographed Janus on 29 October 1966 without realising it. Voyager 1 confirmed this orbital configuration in 1980" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janus_(moon)
• # The discovery of Epimetheus, Richard Walker

"Audouin Dollfus observed a moon on 15 December 1966, which he proposed to be named "Janus". On 18 December, Richard Walker made a similar observation which is now credited as the discovery of Epimetheus. However, at the time, it was believed that there was only one moon, unofficially known as "Janus", in the given orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epimetheus_(moon)
• # Beatrice Hicks, developed a gas density switch of Apollo program

"Beatrice Alice Hicks (January 2, 1919 – October 21, 1979) was an American engineer, the first woman engineer to be hired by Western Electric, and both co-founder and first president of the Society of Women Engineers. During her time there, Hicks developed a gas density switch that would be used in the U.S. space program, including the Apollo moon landing missions." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatrice_Hicks
• # Christine Darden, worked in the computer pool at NASA

"Dr. Christine Darden (born September 10, 1942, as Christine Mann) is an American mathematician, data analyst, and aeronautical engineer who devoted much of her 40-year career in aerodynamics at NASA to researching supersonic flight and sonic booms. Darden started working in the computer pool in 1967 at NASA, after she had completed an M.S. in mathematics at Virginia State University and taught there." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christine_Darden
• # North_American_X-15, the first suborbital flight

"The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft. The X-15 set speed and altitude records in the 1960s, reaching the edge of outer space and returning with valuable data used in aircraft and spacecraft design." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_American_X-15
• # The formation of Interkosmos space program

"Interkosmos (Russian: Интеркосмос) was a Soviet space program,designed to help the Soviet Union's allies with manned and unmanned space missions.Following the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, there were talks between NASA and Interkosmos in the 1970s about a "Shuttle-Salyut" program to fly Space Shuttle missions to a Salyut space station,in the 1980s even considering flights of the future Soviet shuttles from the Buran programme to a future US space station." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interkosmos
• # Surveyor 3, explorer to Moon surface

"Surveyor 3 was the third lander of the American unmanned Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon in 1967. It was the first mission to carry a surface-soil sampling-scoop. It was visited by Apollo 12 astronauts in 1969, and remains the only probe visited by humans on another world. They brought back some parts of it to study, including its TV camera." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveyor_3
• # Ariel 3, the first entirely British built satellite

"It was a satellite in the Ariel programme, a satellite partnership between the US and UK. Three of the onboard experiments continued research from the first two missions and two experiments were designed for new research topics. It was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 5 May 1967, making it the first satellite of the program to launch from the West coast. Ariel 3 was shut down in September 1969, and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere 14 Dec. 1970." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ariel_3
• # Venera 4, space probe to explore Venus planet

"Venera 4 (Russian: Венера-4 meaning Venera 4), also designated 4V-1 No.310 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. The probe comprised an entry probe, designed to enter the Venus atmosphere and parachute to the surface, and a carrier/flyby spacecraft, which carried the entry probe to Venus and served as a communications relay for the entry probe." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_4
• # Surveyor, Moon surface explorer

"Surveyor 5 was the fifth lunar lander of the American uncrewed Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon. Surveyor 5 landed on Mare Tranquillitatis in 1967. A total of 19,118 images were transmitted to Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveyor_5
• # Orbita, the first Soviet-Russian system of broadcasting and delivering TV signals via satellites

"It is considered to be the first national network of satellite television.Orbita ground station. Khabarovsk.1977
The Orbita system is based on communication satellites in highly elliptical Molniya orbits, as well as on many ground downlink TV stations for reception and relaying TV signals to antennas of TV sets of many local areas." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbita_(TV_system)
• # Igla, the first automated docking of Soyuz

"The Igla (Russian: Игла, "Needle") docking system was a Soviet radio telemetry system for automated docking of Soyuz spacecraft.The first prototypes were made in late 1965. On 30 October 1967, the first automated docking of Soyuz unmanned spacecraft took place." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Docking_and_berthing_of_spacecraft#History
• # Surveyor 6, lunar lander obtained 30,027 images

"Surveyor 6 was the sixth lunar lander of the American uncrewed Surveyor program that reached the surface of the Moon. Surveyor 6 landed on the Sinus Medii. A total of 30,027 images were transmitted to Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveyor_6
• # Apollo 4, the first uncrewed test flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle

"Apollo 4 (also known as AS-501) was the first uncrewed test flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the type used by the U.S. Apollo program to send the first astronauts to the Moon. The space vehicle was assembled in the Vertical Assembly Building, and was the first to be launched from Launch Complex 39 at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida, facilities built specially for the Saturn V." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_4
• # The discovery of the first pulsar

"The first pulsar was observed on November 28, 1967, by Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish. They observed pulses separated by 1.33 seconds that originated from the same location in the sky, and kept to sidereal time."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar#History_of_observation
• # WRESAT, the first australian satellite

"WRESAT was launched on 29 November 1967 using a modified American Redstone rocket with two upper stages known as a Sparta from the Woomera Test Range in South Australia." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WRESAT
• # Surveyor 7, transmitted 21,091 images to Earth

"Surveyor 7 was the seventh and last lunar lander of the American uncrewed Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon. A total of 21,091 pictures were transmitted to Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveyor_7
• # The invention of Laser communication in space

"In January 20, 1968, the TV camera of the Surveyor 7 lunar lander successfully detected two argon lasers from Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and Table Mountain Observatory in Wrightwood, California" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_communication_in_space
• # Apollo 5, the first uncrewed flight of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM)

"Apollo 5 (also known as AS-204), was the first uncrewed flight of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM), which would later carry astronauts to the lunar surface. It lifted off on January 22, 1968, with a Saturn IB rocket on an Earth-orbital flight." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_5
• # The launch of Zond 4, the first Soviet experiments towards crewed circumlunar spaceflight

"Zond 4, part of the Soviet Zond program and an uncrewed version of Soyuz 7K-L1 crewed Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards crewed circumlunar spaceflight. It was launched to test the spaceworthiness of the new capsule and to gather data about flights in circumterrestrial space." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_4
• # Apollo 6, the second A-type mission of the United States Apollo program

"Apollo 6 (also known as AS-502), launched on April 4, 1968, was the second A-type mission of the United States Apollo program, an uncrewed test of the Saturn V launch vehicle. It was also the final uncrewed Apollo test mission." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_6
• # The launch of Zond spacecraft, the second to travel and circle the Moon

"Zond 5 (Russian: Зонд 5, lit. 'Probe 5') was a spacecraft of the Soviet Zond program. In September 1968 it became the second spaceship to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first to return safely to Earth. Zond 5 carried the first terrestrial organisms to the vicinity of the Moon, including two tortoises, fruit fly eggs, and plants.[4] The tortoises underwent biological changes during the flight." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_5
• # Apollo 7, the first crewed flight of Apollo Program

"Apollo 7 was an October 1968 human spaceflight mission carried out by the United States. It was the first mission in the United States' Apollo program to carry a crew into space. It was also the first U.S. spaceflight to carry astronauts since the flight of Gemini XII in November 1966. The AS-204 mission, also known as "Apollo 1", was intended to be the first crewed flight of the Apollo program." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_7
• # Apollo TV cameras used in Apollo Program

"The Apollo program used several television cameras in its space missions in the late 1960s and 1970s; some of these Apollo TV cameras were also used on the later Skylab and Apollo–Soyuz Test Project missions. These cameras varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each successive model. Two companies made these various camera systems: RCA and Westinghouse." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_TV_camera
• # The launch of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2)

"OAO-2 carried 11 ultraviolet telescopes. It observed successfully until January 1973, and contributed to many significant astronomical discoveries. Among these were the discovery that comets are surrounded by enormous haloes of hydrogen, several hundred thousand kilometres across, and observations of novae which found that their UV brightness often increased during the decline in their optical brightness." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbiting_Astronomical_Observatory#OAO-2
• # Apollo 8, first crewed spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit and the first to reach the Moon

"Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit and the first to reach the Moon, orbit it, and return. Its three-astronaut crew — Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders — were the first humans to fly to the Moon, to witness and photograph an Earthrise, and to escape the gravity of a celestial body." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8
• # The first A trans-Earth injection (TEI), maneuver used in Apollo 8

"A trans-Earth injection (TEI) is a propulsion maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory which will intersect the Earth's Sphere of influence, usually putting the spacecraft on a Free return trajectory." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-Earth_injection
• # Earthrise, Apollo 8 photograph of Earth from Moon surface

"Earthrise is a photograph of Earth and some of the Moon's surface that was taken from lunar orbit by astronaut William Anders on December 24, 1968, during the Apollo 8 mission.[1][2][3] Nature photographer Galen Rowell declared it "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken""
• # The formation of German Aerospace Center

"is the national center for aerospace, energy and transportation research of Germany. Its headquarters are located in Cologne and it has multiple other locations throughout Germany. The DLR is engaged in a wide range of research and development projects in national and international partnerships. In addition to conducting its own research projects, DLR also acts as the German space agency." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Aerospace_Center
• # The invention of Digital video camera

"The basis for digital video cameras are metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) image sensors. The first practical semiconductor image sensor was the charge-coupled device (CCD), invented in 1969, based on MOS capacitor technology. Following the commercialization of CCD sensors during the late 1970s to early 1980s, the entertainment industry slowly began transitioning to digital imaging and digital video over the next two decades." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_video#History
• # The launch of Meteor, the first meteorogical satellite of Soviet space program

"The Meteor spacecraft are weather observation satellites launched by the Soviet Union and Russia. The Meteor satellite series was initially developed during the 1960s.The Meteor satellites[clarification needed] were designed to monitor atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures, humidity, radiation, sea ice conditions, snow-cover, and clouds." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteor_(satellite)
• # The first Wireless network by ALOHAnet

"The first professional wireless network was developed under the brand ALOHAnet in 1969 at the University of Hawaii and became operational in June 1971. The first commercial wireless network was the WaveLAN product family, developed by NCR in 1986.
1973 – Ethernet 802.3, 1991 – 2G cell phone network, June 1997 – 802.11 "Wi-Fi" protocol first release, 1999 – 803.11 VoIP integration" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_network#History
• # Margaret Hamilton, developed on-board flight software for NASA's Apollo program

"Margaret Heafield Hamilton (born August 17, 1936) is an American computer scientist, systems engineer and business owner. She was director of the Software Engineering Division of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, which developed on-board flight software for NASA's Apollo program. She later founded two software companies—Higher Order Software in 1976 and Hamilton Technologies in 1986, both in Cambridge, Massachusetts." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Hamilton_(software_engineer)
• # Katherine Johnson, made the calculations of orbital mechanics

"Katherine Johnson (August 26, 1918 – February 24, 2020) was an American mathematician whose calculations of orbital mechanics as a NASA employee were critical to the success of the first and subsequent U.S. crewed spaceflights. During her 35-year career at NASA and its predecessor, she earned a reputation for mastering complex manual calculations and helped pioneer the use of computers to perform the tasks." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katherine_Johnson
• # International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS)

"This were the third and fourth in a series of Canadian satellites launched to study the ionosphere. After the success of Canada's Alouette 1, Canada and the United States jointly sent up three more satellites in the ISIS program. The first was named Alouette 2 (after originally being named ISIS-X). As was the case for the Alouette satellites, RCA Victor of Montreal was the prime contractor for both ISIS 1 and 2." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISIS_(satellite)
• # Mariner 6 and 7, to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars

"Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 (Mariner Mars 69A and Mariner Mars 69B) were two unmanned NASA space probes that completed the first dual mission to Mars in 1969 as part of NASA's wider Mariner program. Mariner 6 was launched from Launch Complex 36B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station[3] and Mariner 7 from Launch Complex 36A at Cape Kennedy." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_6_and_7
• # The foundation of AMSAT-NA Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation

"AMSAT-NA was founded in 1969 in Washington, D.C. to continue the efforts begun by Project OSCAR. Its first project was to coordinate the launch of OSCAR 5, constructed by students at the University of Melbourne.[1] Some design modifications were needed and were made by AMSAT members, and the satellite was successfully launched on January 30, 1970, on a NASA Thor Delta launch vehicle." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMSAT#History
• # Apollo 9, the first flight of the full Apollo spacecraft

"Apollo 9 was a March 1969 human spaceflight, the third in NASA's Apollo program. Flown in low Earth orbit, it was the second crewed Apollo mission that the United States launched via a Saturn V rocket, and was the first flight of the full Apollo spacecraft: the command and service module (CSM) with the Lunar Module (LM)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_9
• # Apollo 10, the fourth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program

"Apollo 10 was a May 1969 human spaceflight, the fourth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program, and the second (after Apollo 8) to orbit the Moon. It was the F mission: a "dress rehearsal" for the first Moon landing, testing all the components and procedures just short of actually landing." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_10
• # Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon.

"Commander Neil Armstrong and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin formed the American crew that landed the Apollo Lunar Module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:17 UTC. He became the first person to step onto the lunar surface six hours and 39 min later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC; Aldrin joined him 19 minutes later. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and they collected 47.5 pounds of lunar material to bring back to Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11
• # The Apollo 11 broadcast through Parkes Observatory

"When Buzz Aldrin switched on the TV camera on the Lunar Module, three tracking antennas received the signals simultaneously. They were the 64-metre (210 ft) Goldstone antenna in California, the 26-metre (85 ft) antenna at Honeysuckle Creek near Canberra in Australia, and the 64-metre (210 ft) dish at Parkes." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkes_Observatory
• # Maspalomas Station, the receiving station from Apollo 11 crew

"Maspalomas Station supported a number of prominent NASA missions, including the Apollo program, the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project and the Skylab space station. For the Apollo 11 mission that landed the first humans on Moon in July 1969, Maspalomas Station acted as one of the receiving station for transmissions from the Apollo crew and relayed them to Houston using an analog link via London." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maspalomas_Station
• # Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin the first American astronauts to perform the first EVA on the lunar surface

"American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin performed the first EVA on the lunar surface on July 21, 1969 (UTC), after landing their Apollo 11 Lunar Module spacecraft. This first Moon walk, using self-contained portable life support systems, lasted 2 hours and 36 minutes." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extravehicular_activity#Apollo_lunar_EVA
• # The formation of Indian Space Research Organisation

"The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO, /ˈɪsroʊ/) (Hindi; IAST: bhārtīya antrikṣ anusandhān saṅgṭhan) is the space agency of the Government of India and has its headquarters in the city of Bengaluru. Its vision is to "harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research & planetary exploration". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Space_Research_Organisation
• # The discovery of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko by Klim Ivanovich Churyumov

"Churyumov–Gerasimenko was discovered in 1969 by Klim Ivanovich Churyumov of the Kiev University's Astronomical Observatory, who examined a photograph that had been exposed for comet Comas Solà by Svetlana Ivanovna Gerasimenko on 11 September 1969 at the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute. Churyumov–Gerasimenko was the destination of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission, launched on 2 March 2004" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/67P/Churyumov%E2%80%93Gerasimenko"
• # The foundation of NASDA National Space Development Agency of Japan

"It was a Japanese national space agency established on October 1, 1969 under the National Space Development Agency Law only for peaceful purposes. Based on the Space Development Program enacted by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), NASDA was responsible for developing satellites and launch vehicles as well as launching and tracking them." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Space_Development_Agency_of_Japan
• # Azur, the first german scientific satellite

"Azur (also called GRS-A) was West Germany's first scientific satellite. Launched on 8 November 1969 it studied the Van Allen belts, solar particles, and aurorae. The construction of the satellite was carried out by Ludwig Bölkow, one of the aeronautical pioneers of Germany, and with the participation of other German companies."
• # Apollo 12, the second to land on the Moon

"Apollo 12 was the sixth crewed flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. It was launched on November 14, 1969, from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, four months after Apollo 11. Commander Charles "Pete" Conrad and Apollo Lunar Module Pilot Alan L. Bean performed just over one day and seven hours of lunar surface activity while Command Module Pilot Richard F. Gordon remained in lunar orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_12
• # The first development of the nickel hydrogen battery

"The development of the nickel hydrogen battery started in 1970 at Comsat and was used for the first time in 1977 aboard the U.S. Navy's Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2). Currently, the major manufacturers of nickel-hydrogen batteries are Eagle-Picher Technologies and Johnson Controls, Inc." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel%E2%80%93hydrogen_battery#History
• # The discovery of Zodiacal light by Pioneer 10 space probe

"The Zodiacal light (also called false dawn when seen before sunrise) is a faint, diffuse, and roughly triangular white glow that is visible in the night sky and appears to extend from the Sun's direction and along the zodiac, straddling the ecliptic. Sunlight scattered by interplanetary dust causes this phenomenon.The Pioneer 10 spacecraft observations in the 1970s linked zodiacal light with the interplanetary dust cloud in the Solar System." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zodiacal_light
• # The invention of Floppy disk by IBM

"The first commercial floppy disks, developed in the late 1960s, were 8 inches (200 mm) in diameter; they became commercially available in 1971 as a component of IBM products and then were sold separately beginning in 1972 by Memorex and others.The term "floppy disk" appeared in print as early as 1970, and although IBM announced its first media as the "Type 1 Diskette" in 1973, the industry continued to use the terms "floppy disk" or "floppy"." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floppy_disk
• # Ohsumi, the first japanese satellite

" is the first Japanese satellite put into orbit. It was launched on February 11, 1970 at 04:25 UTC with a Lambda 4S-5 rocket from Uchinoura Space Center by Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo, now part of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Japan became the fourth nation after the USSR, United States and France to release an artificial satellite into successful orbit on its own." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohsumi_(satellite)
• # Apollo 13, the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank

"Apollo 13 was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the Moon. The craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, 1970, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon, and returned safely to Earth on April 17."
• # Apollo 13 oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed

"Apollo 13 was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the Moon. The craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, 1970, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon, and returned safely to Earth on April 17." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_13
• # The Earth Day

"Earth Day is an annual event celebrated around the world on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First celebrated in 1970, it now includes events coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network in more than 193 countries." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_Day
• # Dong Fang Hong I, the first space satellite of the People's Republic of China (PRC)

"It was the first space satellite of the People's Republic of China (PRC), launched successfully on 24 April 1970 as part of the PRC's Dongfanghong space satellite program. At 173 kg (381 lb), it was heavier than the first satellites of other countries. The satellite carried a radio transmitter which broadcast the de facto national anthem of the same name. The broadcast lasted for 20 days while in orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dong_Fang_Hong_I
• # Luna 16, first robotic probe to land on the Moon

"Luna 16, also known as Lunnik 16, was an uncrewed space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program. It was the first robotic probe to land on the Moon and return a sample of lunar soil to Earth.The sample was returned from Mare Fecunditatis. It represented the first lunar sample return mission by the Soviet Union and was the third lunar sample return mission overall, following the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_16
• # The formation of NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

"NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4 and formed on October 3, 1970, after U.S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Oceanic_and_Atmospheric_Administration#History
• # The launch of Zond 8, the last in the series of circumlunar spacecraft of Soviet Zond Program

"Zond 8, also known as L-1 No.14, was the last in the series of circumlunar spacecraft, a member of the Soviet Zond program, designed to rehearse a piloted circumlunar flight, an uncrewed version of Soyuz 7K-L1 crewed circumlunar flight spacecraft. The project was initiated in 1965 to compete with the Americans in the race to the Moon but lost its importance once three astronauts circled the Moon on the Apollo 8 mission in December 1968." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_8
• # Zond 8, the last in the series of circumlunar spacecraft

"Zond 8, also known as L-1 No.14, was the last in the series of circumlunar spacecraft, a member of the Soviet Zond program, designed to rehearse a piloted circumlunar flight, an uncrewed version of Soyuz 7K-L1 crewed circumlunar flight spacecraft. The project was initiated in 1965 to compete with the Americans in the race to the Moon but lost its importance once three astronauts circled the Moon on the Apollo 8 mission in December 1968." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_8
• # Luna 17, the first robotic rover onto the surface of the Moon

"Luna 17 was launched from an Earth parking orbit towards the Moon and entered lunar orbit on 15 November 1970. The spacecraft softly landed on the Moon in the Sea of Rains. The spacecraft had dual ramps by which the payload, Lunokhod 1, descended to the lunar surface. Lunokhod 1 was a lunar vehicle formed of a tub-like compartment with a large convex lid on eight independently powered wheels." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_17
• # Lunokhod 1, the first space rover for sample of lunar soil automatically extracted and brought to Earth.

"It was the first of two robotic lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of its Lunokhod program. The Luna 17 spacecraft carried Lunokhod 1 to the Moon in 1970. Lunokhod 1 was the first remote-controlled robot "rover" to freely move across the surface of an astronomical object beyond the Earth. It was also the first wheeled craft on another celestial body." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunokhod_1
• # The launch of Soyuz 7K-LOK, a Soviet crewed spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon

"The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (Russian: Лунный Орбитальный Корабль, romanized: Lunniy Orbitalny Korabl meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet crewed spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1. The LOK would carry two cosmonauts, acting as a mother ship for the LK Lander which would land one crew member to the surface." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_7K-LOK
• # LK, soviet lunar lander for Soyuz 7K-L3 lunar expedition

"Sergei Korolev, the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the 1950s and 1960s, planned to adopt the same lunar orbit rendezvous concept as seen in the Apollo Program. The lunar expedition spacecraft L3 was to consist of a Soyuz 7K-L3 Command Ship (a variant of the Soyuz) and a LK Lander. L3 would carry a two-man crew atop a single three-stage superheavy N-1 booster." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LK_(spacecraft)
• # Uhuru, the first satellite for the purpose of X-ray astronomy

"Uhuru was the first satellite launched specifically for the purpose of X-ray astronomy. It was also known as the X-ray Explorer Satellite, SAS-A (for "Small Astronomy Satellite" A, being first of the three-spacecraft SAS series), SAS 1, or Explorer 42." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uhuru_(satellite)
• # The launch of Uhuru X-ray Explorer Satellite

"Uhuru was the first satellite launched specifically for the purpose of X-ray astronomy. It was also known as the X-ray Explorer Satellite, SAS-A (for "Small Astronomy Satellite" A, being first of the three-spacecraft SAS series), SAS 1, or Explorer 42. The observatory was launched on December 12, 1970 into an initial orbit of about 560 km apogee, 520 km perigee, 3 degrees inclination, with a period of 96 minutes." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uhuru_(satellite)
• # Venera 7, the first spacecraft landing to planet Venus

"Venera 7 (Russian: Венера-7, meaning Venus 7) was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus. When it landed on the Venusian surface on 15 December 1970, it became the first spacecraft to soft land on another planet and first to transmit data from there back to Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_7
• # The invention of email by Ray Tomlinson

"Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices. Ray Tomlinson is credited as the inventor of email; in 1971, he developed the first system able to send mail between users on different hosts across the ARPANET, using the @ sign to link the user name with a destination server." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Email
• # The data analysis of Genesis Rock, Apollo 15 lunar sample

"The Genesis Rock is a sample of Moon rock retrieved by Apollo 15 astronauts James Irwin and David Scott in 1971 during the second lunar EVA, at Spur crater. It is currently stored at the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility in Houston, Texas. It is sample number 15415. Dating of pyroxenes from other lunar anorthosite samples gave a samarium–neodymium age of crystallization of 4.46 billion years." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genesis_Rock
• # The invention of Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMTP

"Various forms of one-to-one electronic messaging were used in the 1960s. Users communicated using systems developed for specific mainframe computers. As more computers were interconnected, especially in the U.S. Government's ARPANET, standards were developed to permit exchange of messages between different operating systems.SMTP traces its roots to two implementations described in 1971" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simple_Mail_Transfer_Protocol#History
• # Apollo 14, the first to land in the lunar highlands

"Apollo 14 was the eighth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program, the third to land on the Moon, and the first to land in the lunar highlands. It was the last of the "H missions," targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_14
• # Salyut 1 (DOS-1), the first space station launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union

"The Salyut program followed this with five more successful launches of seven more stations. The final module of the program, Zvezda (DOS-8), became the core of the Russian segment of the International Space Station and remains in orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_1
• # The launch of Mars 3 space probe

"Mars 3 was a robotic space probe of the Soviet Mars program, launched May 28, 1971, nine days after its twin spacecraft Mars 2. The probes were identical robotic spacecraft launched by Proton-K rockets with a Blok D upper stage, each consisting of an orbiter and an attached lander. After the Mars 2 lander crashed on the Martian surface, the Mars 3 lander became the first spacecraft to attain a soft landing on Mars, on December 2, 1971." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_3
• # Mariner 9, Mars orbiter, obtained images of Mars natural satellites

"It was a robotic space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the NASA Mariner program. After the occurrence of dust storms on the planet for several months following its arrival, the orbiter managed to send back clear pictures of the surface. Mariner 9 successfully returned 7329 images over the course of its mission, which concluded in October 1972." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_9
• # Apollo 15, the first J mission and longer scientific stay on the Moon

"Apollo 15 was the ninth crewed mission in the United States' Apollo program, and the fourth to land on the Moon. It was the first J mission, with a longer stay on the Moon and a greater focus on science than earlier landings. Apollo 15 saw the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_15
• # Luna 19, extended the systematic study of lunar gravitational fields

"Luna 19 extended the systematic study of lunar gravitational fields and location of mascons (mass concentrations). It also studied the lunar radiation environment, the gamma-active lunar surface, and the solar wind. Photographic coverage via a television system was also obtained." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_19
• # The formation of Swedish National Space Agency

"It is a Government agency in Sweden operating under the Swedish Ministry of Education and Science. SNSA distributes government grants to research and development, initiates research and development in space and remote sensing, and is the Swedish contact in international cooperation. SNSA has twenty-one employees (2018) and its office is situated in the Solna Municipality, within Stockholm." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swedish_National_Space_Agency
• # Pioneer 10, first spacecraft to complete the first mission to the planet Jupiter

"Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing 258 kilograms (569 pounds), that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.[3] Thereafter, Pioneer 10 became the first of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity needed to leave the Solar System." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_10
• # The Pioneer plaque

"The first plaque was launched with Pioneer 10 on March 2, 1972.The original idea, that the Pioneer spacecraft should carry a message from mankind, was first mentioned by Eric Burgess when he visited the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, during the Mariner 9 mission. He approached Carl Sagan, who had lectured about communication with intelligent extraterrestrials at a conference in Crimea." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_plaque
• # Apollo 16, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon

"Apollo 16 was the tenth crewed mission in the United States Apollo space program, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon, and the second to land in the lunar highlands. The second of Apollo's "J missions," it was crewed by Commander John Young, Lunar Module Pilot Charles Duke and Command Module Pilot Ken Mattingly. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_16
• # The launch of Landsat 1the first meteorological satellite of Program Landsat 1

"Landsat 1 (LS-1), formerly named ERTS-A and ERTS-1, was the first satellite of the United States' Landsat program. It was a modified version of the Nimbus 4 meteorological satellite and was launched on July 23, 1972, by a Delta 900 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landsat_1
• # "The blue marble", Apollo17 photograph of Earth

"The Blue Marble is an image of Earth taken on December 7, 1972, from a distance of about 29,000 kilometers (18,000 miles) from the planet's surface.It was taken by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft on its way to the Moon, and is one of the most reproduced images in history." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blue_Marble
• # Apollo 17, the final Moon landing mission of NASA's Apollo program

"Apollo 17 (December 7–19, 1972) was the final Moon landing mission of NASA's Apollo program, and remains the most recent time humans have travelled beyond low Earth orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_17
• # The origin of Naming of moons

"The naming of moons has been the responsibility of the International Astronomical Union's committee for Planetary System Nomenclature since 1973. That committee is known today as the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naming_of_moons
• # The development of the first touchscreen by Frank Beck and Bent Stumpe

"Frank Beck and Bent Stumpe, engineers from CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), developed a transparent touchscreen in the early 1970s, based on Stumpe's work at a television factory in the early 1960s. Then manufactured by CERN, and shortly after by industry partners,it was put to use in 1973." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Touchscreen#History
• # The development of VoIP Internet Telephony

"The early developments of packet network designs by Paul Baran and other researchers were motivated by a desire for a higher degree of circuit redundancy and network availability in the face of infrastructure failures than was possible in the circuit-switched networks in telecommunications of the mid-twentieth century." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voice_over_IP#History
• # The discovery of comet Kohoutek by Luboš Kohoutek

"Comet Kohoutek, formally designated C/1973 E1, 1973 XII, and 1973f, was first sighted on 7 March 1973 by Czech astronomer Luboš Kohoutek. It attained perihelion on 28 December that same year. Comet Kohoutek is a long-period comet; its previous apparition was about 150,000 years ago, and its next apparition will be in about 75,000 years." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Kohoutek
• # Salyut 2, the first Almaz military space station to fly of the Salyut programme

"Salyut 2 (OPS-1) (Russian: Салют-2 meaning Salute 2) was a Soviet space station which was launched in 1973 as part of the Salyut programme. It was the first Almaz military space station to fly. Within two weeks of its launch, the station had lost attitude control and depressurised, leaving it unusable. Its orbit decayed and it re-entered the atmosphere on 28 May 1973, without any crews having visited it." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_2
• # The first handheld mobile phone by Martin Cooper

"Prior to 1973, mobile telephony was limited to phones installed in cars and other vehicles.[31] Motorola was the first company to produce a handheld mobile phone. On April 3, 1973, Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, made the first mobile telephone call from handheld subscriber equipment, placing a call to Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs, his rival." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_mobile_phones#The_cellular_concept
• # The launch of OPS-1 (Salyut 2), the first Almaz station

"The first Almaz station (OPS-1 or Almaz 101.1) was launched on April 3, 1973. For purposes of military secrecy, it was publicly designated Salyut 2 upon reaching orbit. A crew was prepared to fly to the station but an accident days after the launch left OPS-1 disabled and depressurized." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almaz
• # Pioneer 11, robotic space probe to study asteroid belt

"Pioneer 11 (Pioneer G) is a 259-kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays. It was the first probe to encounter Saturn and the second to fly through the asteroid belt and by Jupiter. Thereafter, Pioneer 11 became the second of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_11
• # Kosmos 557 DOS-3, the third space station of the Salyut programme

"Kosmos 557 (Russian: Космос 557 meaning Cosmos 557) was the designation given to DOS-3, the third space station in the Salyut program. It was originally intended to be launched as Salyut-3, but due to its failure to achieve orbit on May 11, 1973, three days before the launch of Skylab, it was renamed Kosmos-557." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosmos_557
• # Skylab, the first United States space station, launched by NASA

"Occupied for about 24 weeks between May 1973 and February 1974. It was operated by three separate three-man crews: SL-2, SL-3 and SL-4. Major operations included an orbital workshop, a solar observatory, Earth observation, and hundreds of experiments." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab
• # The development of Ethernet by Xerox PARC

"Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974 It was inspired by ALOHAnet, which Robert Metcalfe had studied as part of his PhD dissertation. The idea was first documented in a memo that Metcalfe wrote on May 22, 1973, where he named it after the luminiferous aether once postulated to exist as an "omnipresent, completely-passive medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves." " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet#History
• # Skylab 2, the first crewed mission to Skylab, the first U.S. orbital space station

"Skylab 2 (also SL-2 and SLM-1) was the first crewed mission to Skylab, the first U.S. orbital space station. The mission was launched on an Apollo command and service module by a Saturn IB rocket on May 25, 1973, and carried a three-person crew to the station. The name Skylab 2 also refers to the vehicle used for that mission. The Skylab 2 mission established a twenty-eight-day record for human spaceflight duration." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab_2
• # Skylab 3, the second crewed mission to the first American space station, Skylab

"The mission began July 28, 1973, with the launch of three astronauts in the Apollo command and service module on the Saturn IB rocket, and lasted 59 days, 11 hours and 9 minutes. A total of 1,084.7 astronaut-utilization hours were tallied by the Skylab 3 crew performing scientific experiments in the areas of medical activities, solar observations, Earth resources, and other experiments." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab_3
• # Mariner 10, the first spacecraft to perform flybys of multiple planets

"Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on 3 November 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus. It was the first spacecraft to perform flybys of multiple planets. Mariner 10 was launched approximately two years after Mariner 9 and was the last spacecraft in the Mariner program. (Mariner 11 and Mariner 12 were allocated to the Voyager program and redesignated Voyager 1 and Voyager 2.)" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_10
• # Skylab 4, the third crewed Skylab mission and placed the third and final crew aboard the first American space station

"The mission started on November 16,1973 with the launch of three astronauts on an Apollo command and service module on a Saturn IBrocket from the Kennedy Space Center,Florida and lasted 84 days,one hour and 16 minutes. A total of 6,051 astronaut-utilization hours were tallied by Skylab4 astronauts performing scientific experiments in the areas of medical activities,solar observations, Earth resources,observation of the CometKohoutek and other experiments." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab_4
• # The first Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

"The GOES system uses geosynchronous satellites that, since the launch of SMS-1 in 1974, have been a basic element of U.S. weather monitoring and forecasting. The procurement, design, and manufacture of GOES satellites is overseen by NASA." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geostationary_Operational_Environmental_Satellite
• # The invention of Internet Protocol by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn

"In May 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published a paper entitled "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication". The paper's authors, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, described an internetworking protocol for sharing resources using packet switching among network nodes." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol#Version_history
• # Altair 8800 the invention of the first personal computer by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS)

"1974 saw the introduction of what is considered by many to be the first true "personal computer", the Altair 8800 created by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS). Based on the 8-bit Intel 8080 Microprocessor, the Altair is widely recognized as the spark that ignited the microcomputer revolution as the first commercially successful personal computer." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer#History
• # Westar 1, the first domestic and commercially geostationary communications satellite

"Westar 1 was America's first domestic and commercially launched geostationary communications satellite, launched by Western Union (WU) and NASA on April 13, 1974. It was built by Hughes for Western Union, using the HS-333 platform of spin-stabilized satellites. Westar 1 was the first of five Westar satellites launched by Western Union from 1974 to 1982." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westar_1
• # Salyut 3, the second Almaz military space station of the Salyut programme

"Salyut 3 (Russian: Салют-3; also known as OPS-2 or Almaz 2) was a Soviet space station launched on 25 June 1974. It was the second Almaz military space station, and the first such station to be launched successfully. It was included in the Salyut program to disguise its true military nature.Due to the military nature of the station, the Soviet Union was reluctant to release information about its design, and about the missions relating to the station." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_3
• # The discovery of Leda, Jupiter moon by Charles T. Kowal

"It was discovered by Charles T. Kowal at the Mount Palomar Observatory on September 14, 1974, after three nights' worth of photographic plates had been taken (September 11 through 13; Leda appears on all of them). It was named after Leda, who was raped by Zeus, the Greek equivalent of Jupiter (who came to her in the form of a swan). Kowal suggested the name and the IAU endorsed it in 1975." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leda_(moon)
• # Arecibo message

"The Arecibo message is a 1974 interstellar radio message carrying basic information about humanity and Earth sent to globular star cluster M13. It was meant as a demonstration of human technological achievement, rather than a real attempt to enter into a conversation with extraterrestrials." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecibo_message
• # IBM 5100, the first commercially available portable computer

"The IBM 5100 Portable Computer is a portable computer (one of the first) introduced in September 1975, six years before the IBM Personal Computer. It was the evolution of a prototype called the SCAMP (Special Computer APL Machine Portable) that was developed at the IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center in 1973." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_5100
• # The first Betamax magnetic tape for video by SONY

"Betamax (also called Beta, as in its logo) is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette format of magnetic tape for video. It was developed by Sony and was released in Japan on May 10, 1975. The first Betamax device introduced in the United States was the LV-1901 console, which included a 19-inch (48 cm) color monitor, and appeared in stores in early November 1975." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betamax
• # The formation of ESA, the European Space Agency

"It is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris. ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight the launch and operation of uncrewed exploration missions to other planets and the Moon; Earth observation, science and telecom; designing launch vehicles; and maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Space_Agency
• # Venera 9, the first to return images from Venus planet

"Venera 9 (Russian: Венера-9 meaning Venus 9), manufacturer's designation: 4V-1 No. 660, was a Soviet unmanned space mission to Venus. It consisted of an orbiter and a lander. It was launched on June 8, 1975, at 02:38:00 UTC and had a mass of 4,936 kilograms (10,882 lb). The orbiter was the first spacecraft to orbit Venus, while the lander was the first to return images from the surface of another planet." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_9
• # The launch of ESA Cos-B satellite

"COS-B was the first European Space Research Organisation mission to study cosmic gamma ray sources. COS-B was first put forward by the European scientific community in the mid-1960s and approved by the ESRO council in 1969. The mission consisted of a satellite containing gamma-ray detectors, which was launched by NASA on behalf of the ESRO on August 9, 1975." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cos-B
• # The discovery of Themisto, Jupiter moon by Charles Kowal

"Themisto was first discovered by Charles T. Kowal and Elizabeth Roemer on September 30, 1975, reported on October 3, 1975, and designated S/1975 J 1. However, not enough observations were made to establish an orbit and it was subsequently lost." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Themisto_(moon)
• # The use of astronomical unit AU

"A variety of unit symbols and abbreviations have been in use for the astronomical unit. In a 1976 resolution, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) had used the symbol A to denote a length equal to the astronomical unit. In the astronomical literature, the symbol AU was (and remains) common. In 2006, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) had recommended ua as the symbol for the unit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomical_unit#History_of_symbol_usage
• # Sol day in Mars

"Sol (borrowed from the Latin word for sun) is a Mars solar day; that is, a Mars-day. A sol is the apparent interval between two successive returns of the Sun to the same meridian (sundial time) as seen by an observer on Mars.It is one of several units for timekeeping on Mars.The sol was originally adopted in 1976 during the Viking Lander missions and is a measure of time mainly used by NASA when, for example, scheduling the use of the Mars rover." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sol_(day_on_Mars)
• # The launch of Marisat 1, the first maritime communications satellite

"Marisat 1 (or Marisat F1) is a communications satellite operated by COMSAT. Marisat 1 was the first of a series of Marisat COMSAT maritime communications satellites." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marisat_1
• # The first Apple I computer by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak

"The Apple Computer 1, originally released as the Apple Computer, also known later as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976. It was designed and hand-built by Steve WozniakThe idea of selling the computer came from Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_I
• # LAGEOS Laser Geometric Environmental Observation Survey deployment,

"These are a series of two scientific research satellites designed to provide an orbiting laser ranging benchmark for geodynamical studies of the Earth. Each satellite is a high-density passive laser reflector in a very stable medium Earth orbit (MEO)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LAGEOS
• # Salyut 5, OPS-3 Soviet space station of the Salyut programme

"Salyut 5 (Russian: Салют-5 meaning Salute 5), also known as OPS-3, was a Soviet space station. Launched in 1976 as part of the Salyut programme, it was the third and last Almaz space station to be launched for the Soviet military. Two Soyuz missions visited the station, each manned by two cosmonauts. A third Soyuz mission attempted to visit the station, but failed to dock, whilst a fourth mission was planned but never launched." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_5
• # Viking 1, the first of two spacecraft to sent to Mars

"Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft (along with Viking 2) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program. On July 20, 1976, it became the second spacecraft to soft-land on Mars, and the first to successfully perform its mission. (The first spacecraft to soft-land on Mars was the Soviet Union's Mars 3 on December 2, 1971, which stopped transmitting after 14.5 seconds.) Viking 1 held the record for the longest Mars surface mission of 2307 days." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viking_1
• # The first VHS Video Home System by Victor Company of Japan (JVC)

"VHS (short for Video Home System)is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan (JVC) in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976, and in the United States on August 23, 1977." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VHS
• # The first Approach and Landing Tests of Space Shuttle Program

"The Approach and Landing Tests were a series of taxi and flight trials of the prototype Space Shuttle Enterprise, conducted in 1977 to test the vehicle's flight characteristics both on its own and when mated to the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, prior to the operational debut of the Shuttle system." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Approach_and_Landing_Tests
• # The launch of ESA GEOS geostationary multi-experiment satellite

"GEOS was a geostationary multi-experiment satellite dedicated to magnetospheric research. The instruments for this project were provided by multiple European institutions. When GEOS was launched in 1977, the launcher malfunctioned and the planned orbit was not achieved. A modified qualification model of the same payload was successfully launched in 1978 and remained in operation until 1982 when it was turned off." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Space_Research_Organisation#GEOS
• # The launch of TKS-1 (Kosmos 929)

"The TKS spacecraft (Russian: Транспортный корабль снабжения, Transportnyi Korabl’ Snabzheniia, Transport Supply Spacecraft, GRAU index 11F72) was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TKS_(spacecraft)#TKS-1_(Kosmos_929)
• # The launch of HEAO-1 High Energy Astronomy Observatory 1

"HEAO-1 was an X-ray telescope launched in 1977. HEAO-1 surveyed the sky in the X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.2 keV – 10 MeV), providing nearly constant monitoring of X-ray sources near the ecliptic poles and more detailed studies of a number of objects by observations lasting 3–6 hours. It was the first of NASA's three High Energy Astronomy Observatories." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Energy_Astronomy_Observatory_1

"The Wow! signal was a strong narrowband radio signal received on August 15, 1977 by Ohio State University's Big Ear radio telescope in the United States, then used to support the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The signal appeared to come from the direction of the constellation Sagittarius and bore the expected hallmarks of extraterrestrial origin."
• # Voyager 2, space probe to study the outer planets

"Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets. Part of the Voyager program, it was launched 16 days before its twin, Voyager 1, on a trajectory that took longer to reach Jupiter and Saturn but enabled further encounters with Uranus and Neptune.[4] It is the only spacecraft to have visited either of these two ice giant planets. Voyager 2 is the fourth of five spacecraft to achieve the Solar escape velocity." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyager_2
• # Voyager 1, the NASA space prove to study the outer solar system

"Voyager 1 was launched 16 days after its twin, Voyager 2. Having operated for 42 years, 8 months and 15 days as of May 21, 2020, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and to transmit data to Earth." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyager_1
• # Salyut 6 DOS-5, the eighth Soviet orbital space station of the Salyut programme

"Salyut 6 (Russian: Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5. It was launched on 29 September 1977 by a Proton rocket. Salyut 6 was the first space station to receive large numbers of crewed and uncrewed spacecraft for human habitation, crew transfer, international participation and resupply, establishing precedents for station life and operations which were enhanced on Mir and the International Space Station." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_6
• # The launch of ESA NASA International Sun-Earth Explorer 2 (ISEE-2)

"The International Sun-Earth Explorer 2 (ISEE-2 a.k.a. ISEE-B) was a space probe used to study magnetic fields near the Earth. ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 were launched on October 22, 1977, and they re-entered on September 26, 1987.The instruments on board ISEE-2 were designed to measure electric and magnetic field properties." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISEE-2
• # The launch of ESA Meteosat-1 satellites first generation

"The first generation of Meteosat satellites, Meteosat-1 to Meteosat-7, provided continuous and reliable meteorological observations from space to a large user community. Meteosat-1 to 7 have all now retired. When operational the Meteosat First Generation provided images every half-hour in three spectral channels (Visible, Infrared) and Water Vapour, via the Meteosat Visible and Infrared Imager (MVIRI) instrument. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteosat#First_generation
• # The discovery of Allan Hills 77005, the first martian meteorite found in Antartica

"Allan Hills 77005 is a Martian meteorite that was found in the Allan Hills of Antarctica in 1977 by a Japanese National Institute of Polar Research mission team and ANSMET. Like other members of the group of SNCs (shergottite, nakhlite, chassignite), ALH-77005 is thought to be from Mars." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Hills_77005
• # The discovery of Chicxulub crater by Glen Penfield and Antonio Camargo

"The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.Its center is located offshore near the town of Chicxulub, after which the crater is named. It was formed when a large asteroid or comet about 11 to 81 kilometers (6.8 to 50.3 miles) in diameter, known as the Chicxulub impactor, struck the Earth. The date of the impact coincides precisely with the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater
• # The launch of the first GPS Global Positioning System

"The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally NAVSTAR GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Space Force. It is one of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System
• # The discovery of 81P/Wild by Paul Wild

"Comet 81P/Wild, also known as Wild 2 (pronounced "vilt two") (/ˈvɪlt/ VILT), is a comet named after Swiss astronomer Paul Wild, who discovered it on January 6, 1978, using a 40-cm Schmidt telescope at Zimmerwald, Switzerland. NASA's Stardust Mission launched a spacecraft, named Stardust, on February 7, 1999. It flew by Wild 2 on January 2, 2004, and collected particle samples from the comet's coma" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/81P/Wild
• # Progress 1, the first cargo spacecraft

"Progress 1 (Russian: Прогресс 1), was a Soviet unmanned Progress cargo spacecraft which was launched in 1978 to resupply the Salyut 6 space station. It was the maiden flight of the Progress spacecraft, and used the Progress 7K-TG configuration. It carried supplies for the EO-1 crew aboard Salyut 6, which consisted of Soviet cosmonauts Yuri Romanenko and Georgy Grechko." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progress_1
• # The launch of International Ultraviolet Explorer, astronomical observatory satellite

"The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) was an astronomical observatory satellite primarily designed to take ultraviolet spectra. The satellite was a collaborative project between NASA, the UK Science Research Council and the European Space Agency (ESA). The mission was first proposed in early 1964, by a group of scientists in the United Kingdom, and was launched on January 26, 1978 aboard a NASA Delta rocket." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Ultraviolet_Explorer
• # The launch of ESA Orbital Test Satellite

"The Orbital Test Satellite programme was an experimental satellite system inherited by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 1975 from its predecessor, the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO). The first of the pair of OTS satellites (OTS-1) was lost at launch in the failure of its US Delta launcher in September 1977." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbital_Test_Satellite
• # The discovery of Charon, Pluto moon by James W. Christy

"Charon was discovered by United States Naval Observatory astronomer James Christy, using the 1.55-meter (61 in) telescope at United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). On June 22, 1978, he had been examining highly magnified images of Pluto on photographic plates taken with the telescope two months prior." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charon_(moon)
• # The launch of Einstein Observatory

"Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2) was the first fully imaging X-ray telescope put into space and the second of NASA's three High Energy Astrophysical Observatories. Named HEAO B before launch, the observatory's name was changed to honor Albert Einstein upon its successfully attaining orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_Observatory
• # The discovery of Thebe, Jupiter moon by Stephen P. Synnott and Voyager 1

"Thebe was discovered by Stephen P. Synnott in images from the Voyager 1 space probe taken on March 5, 1979, and was initially given the provisional designation S/1979 J 2. In 1983 it was officially named after the mythological nymph Thebe who was a lover of Zeus—the Greek equivalent of Jupiter." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thebe_(moon)
• # Walkman TPS-L2, the world's first low-cost personal stereo by Sony

"Walkman is a brand of portable media players manufactured by Sony. The original Walkman, released in 1979, was a portable cassette player that allowed people to listen to music of their choice on the move. Its popularity made "walkman" a unofficial term for personal stereos of any producer or brand." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walkman
• # The discovery of Adratea, Jupiter moon by David C. Jewitt

"Adrastea was discovered by David C. Jewitt and G. Edward Danielson in Voyager 2 probe photographs taken on July 8, 1979, and received the designation S/1979 J 1. Although it appeared only as a dot, it was the first moon to be discovered by an interplanetary spacecraft." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrastea_(moon)
• # Th launch of Ariane 1, the first ESA rocket in the Ariane family of expendable launch systems

"Ariane 1 was the first rocket in the Ariane family of expendable launch systems. It was developed and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), which had been formed in 1973, the same year that development of the launch had commenced.Ariane 1 was the first launcher to be developed with the primary purpose of sending commercial satellites into geosynchronous orbit. " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ariane_1
• # The invention of USB flash drive by Fujio Masuoka

"The basis for USB flash drives is flash memory, a type of floating-gate semiconductor memory invented by Fujio Masuoka in the early 1980s. Flash memory uses floating-gate MOSFET transistors as memory cells.M-Systems, an Israeli company, were granted a US patent on November 14, 2000, titled "Architecture for a [USB]-based Flash Disk", and crediting the invention to Amir Ban, Dov Moran and Oron Ogdan, all M-Systems employees at the time." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USB_flash_drive
• # The formation of Arianespace

"Arianespace SA is a multinational company founded in 1980 as the world's first commercial launch service provider.[2] It undertakes the operation and marketing of the Ariane programme.[3] The company offers a number of different launch vehicles: the heavy-lift Ariane 5 for dual launches to geostationary transfer orbit, the Soyuz-2 as a medium-lift alternative, and the solid-fueled Vega for lighter payloads." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arianespace
• # Solar Maximum Mission, satellite to study solar flares

"The Solar Maximum Mission satellite (or SolarMax) was designed to investigate Solar phenomena, particularly solar flares. It was launched on February 14, 1980. The SMM was the first satellite based on the Multimission Modular Spacecraft bus manufactured by Fairchild Industries, a platform which was later used for Landsats 4 and 5[1] as well as the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_Maximum_Mission
• # The discovery of Calypso, Saturn moon by Dan Pascu, P. Kenneth Seidelmann, William A. Baum, and Douglas G. Currie

"Calypso is a moon of Saturn. It was discovered in 1980, from ground-based observations, by Dan Pascu, P. Kenneth Seidelmann, William A. Baum, and Douglas G. Currie, and was provisionally designated S/1980 S 25 (the 25th satellite of Saturn discovered in 1980)" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calypso_(moon)
• # The discovery of Telesto, Saturn moon by Bradford, A. Smith Harold Reitsema, Stephen M. Larson, John W. Fountain

"It was discovered by Smith, Reitsema, Larson and Fountain in 1980 from ground-based observations, and was provisionally designated S/1980 S 13. In the following months, several other apparitions were observed: S/1980 S 24, S/1980 S 33, and S/1981 S 1.
In 1983 it was officially named after Telesto of Greek mythology. It is also designated as Saturn XIII or Tethys B."
• # The discovery of Helene, Saturn moon by P. Laques J. Lecacheux

"It was discovered by Pierre Laques and Jean Lecacheux in 1980 from ground-based observations at Pic du Midi Observatory, and was designated S/1980 S 6. In 1988 it was officially named after Helen of Troy, who was the granddaughter of Cronus (Saturn) in Greek mythology. Helene is also designated Saturn XII (12), which it was given in 1982, and Dione B." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helene_(moon)
• # The discovery of Prometheus, Saturn moon by Voyager 1

"It was discovered in 1980 (in 24 October) from photos taken by the Voyager 1 probe, and was provisionally designated S/1980 S 27.In late 1985 it was officially named after Prometheus, a Titan in Greek mythology.It is also designated Saturn XVI." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheus_(moon)
• # The discovery of Atlas, Saturn moon by Richard Terrile and Voyager 1

"Atlas was discovered by Richard Terrile in 1980 (some time before November 12) from Voyager photos and was designated S/1980 S 28. In 1983 it was officially named after Atlas of Greek mythology, because it "holds the rings on its shoulders" like the Titan Atlas held the sky up above the Earth. It is also designated Saturn XV." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_(moon)
• # The theory of cosmic inflation

"Inflation theory was developed in the late 1970s and early 80s, with notable contributions by several theoretical physicists, including Alexei Starobinsky at Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Alan Guth at Cornell University, and Andrei Linde at Lebedev Physical Institute." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflation_(cosmology)"
• # STS-1, the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program.

"The first orbiter, Columbia, launched on 12 April 1981 and returned on 14 April, 54.5 hours later, having orbited the Earth 36 times. Columbia carried a crew of two – mission commander John W. Young and pilot Robert L. Crippen. It was the first American crewed space flight since the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project in 1975." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-1
• # The discovery of Larissa, Neptune moon by Harold J. Reitsema, William B. Hubbard, Larry A. Lebofsky and David J. Tholen

"It was first discovered by Harold J. Reitsema, William B. Hubbard, Larry A. Lebofsky and David J. Tholen, based on fortuitous ground-based stellar occultation observations on May 24, 1981, given the temporary designation S/1981 N 1 and announced on May 29, 1981" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larissa_(moon)
• # The discovery of Pallene, Saturn moon by Voyager 2 (first discovery) Cassini Imaging Team

"After the discovery in 2004, it was realized that Pallene had been first photographed on August 23, 1981, by the space probe Voyager 2. It had appeared in a single photograph and had been provisionally named S/1981 S 14 and estimated to orbit 200,000 km from Saturn. Because it had not been visible in other images, it had not been possible to compute its orbit at the time, but recent comparisons have shown it to match Pallene's orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallene_(moon)
• # Venera 13, space probe to explore planet Venus

"Venera 13 (Russian: Венера-13 meaning Venus 13) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. Venera 13 and 14 were identical spacecraft built to take advantage of the 1981 Venus launch opportunity and launched 5 days apart, Venera 13 on 30 October 1981 at 06:04 UTC and Venera 14 on 4 November 1981 at 05:31 UTC, both with an on-orbit dry mass of 760 kg (1,680 lb)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_13
• # STS-2, First reuse of a manned orbital space vehicle. First test of Canadarm robot arm

"STS-2 was the second Space Shuttle mission conducted by NASA, and the second flight of the orbiter Columbia.The mission launched on 12 November 1981 and landed two days later on 14 November. STS-2 marked the first time that a crewed, reusable orbital vehicle returned to space.This mission tested the Shuttle Imaging Radar as part of the OSTA-1 payload, along with a wide range of other experiments including the Shuttle robotic arm, commonly known as Canadarm." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-2
• # STS3, First and only landing at White Sands, New Mexico

"STS-3 was NASA's third Space Shuttle mission, and was the third mission for the Space Shuttle Columbia. It launched on 22 March 1982, and landed eight days later on 30 March. The mission involved extensive orbital endurance testing of the Columbia itself, as well as numerous scientific experiments. STS-3 was the first shuttle launch with an unpainted external tank, and the only mission to land at the White Sands Space Harbor near Las Cruces, New Mexico." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-3
• # Salyut 7, the first crewed spaceflight of the Salyut programme

"Salyut 7 (Russian: Салют-7; English: Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991. It was first crewed in May 1982 with two crew via Soyuz T-5, and last visited in June 1986, by Soyuz T-15." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_7
• # Svetlana Savitskaya, the first woman to perform a spacewalk

"Svetlana Yevgenyevna Savitskaya (Russian: Светла́на Евге́ньевна Сави́цкая; born 8 August 1948) is a retired Soviet aviator and cosmonaut who flew aboard Soyuz T-7 in 1982, becoming the second woman in space. On her 1984 Soyuz T-12 mission she became the first woman to fly to space twice, and the first woman to perform a spacewalk." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svetlana_Savitskaya
• # STS-4, Columbia begins its final test flight from Launch Complex 39A of KSC

"STS-4 was the fourth NASA Space Shuttle mission, and also the fourth for Space Shuttle Columbia. Carrying a crew of two, the mission launched on Sunday, June 27th, 1982,and landed a week later on July 4th,Independence Day in the United States
STS-4 was the final test flight for the shuttle; it was thereafter officially declared to be operational. Columbia carried numerous scientific payloads during the mission, as well as military missile detection systems" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-4
• # The development of Compact disc by Phillips and Sony

"Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_disc
• # STS-5, First Extravehicular activity of program canceled due to suit problems

"STS-5 was the fifth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia. It launched on 11 November 1982 and landed five days later on 16 November. STS-5 was the first shuttle mission to deploy communications satellites into orbit, and the first officially "operational" shuttle mission." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-5
• # The formation of Netherlands Institute for Space Research

"SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research is the Dutch expertise institute for space research. The Institute develops and uses innovative technology for research in space, focusing on astrophysical research, Earth science and planetary research. SRON has a line of research into new and more sensitive sensors for X-rays and infrared radiation." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands_Institute_for_Space_Research
• # The formation of Israel Space Agency

"It is a governmental body, a part of Israel's Ministry of Science and Technology, that coordinates all Israeli space research programs with scientific and commercial goals. The agency was founded by the theoretical physicist Professor Yuval Ne'eman in 1983 to replace the National Committee for Space Research which was established in 1960 to set up the infrastructure required for space missions." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel_Space_Agency
• # The launch of Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

"The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was the first-ever space telescope to perform a survey of the entire night sky at infrared wavelengths. Following the end of its mission, the 1.1 metric-ton satellite was not deorbited and constitutes a space hazard.Launched on 25 January 1983, its mission lasted ten months." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IRAS
• # Soyuz T-15, a crewded mission to the Mir and Salyut 7 space station

"Soyuz T-15 (Russian: Союз T-15, Union T-15) was a crewed mission to the Mir and Salyut 7 space stations and was part of the Soyuz programme. It marked the final flight of the Soyuz-T spacecraft, the third generation Soyuz spacecraft, which had been in service for seven years from 1979 to 1986. This mission marked the first time that a spacecraft visited, and docked with, two space stations in the same mission." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_T-15
• # STS-6, First flight of Challenger

"STS-6 was the sixth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the maiden flight of the Space Shuttle Challenger. Launched from Kennedy Space Center on 4 April 1983, the mission deployed the first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, TDRS-1, into orbit, before landing at Edwards Air Force Base on 9 April. STS-6 was the first Space Shuttle mission during which a spacewalk was conducted, and hence was the first in which the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was used." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-6
• # The launch of ESA EXOSAT, European X-ray Observatory Satellite

"The European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT), originally named HELOS, was an X-ray telescope operational from May 1983 until April 1986 and in that time made 1780 observations in the X-ray band of most classes of astronomical object including active galactic nuclei, stellar coronae, cataclysmic variables, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, clusters of galaxies, and supernova remnants." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EXOSAT
• # The launch of ESA Eutelsat I F-1

"Eutelsat I F-1, also known as European Communications Satellite 1 (ECS-1) was a communications satellite operated by the European Telecommunications Satellite Organisation. Launched in 1983, it was operated in geostationary orbit at a longitude of 13° East, before moving to several other locations later in its operational life, before it was finally decommissioned in 1996." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutelsat_I_F-1
• # STS-7, First American woman in space, Sally Ride

"STS-7 was NASA's seventh Space Shuttle mission, and the second mission for the Space Shuttle Challenger. During the mission, Challenger deployed several satellites into orbit. The shuttle launched from Kennedy Space Center on June 18, 1983, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on June 24. STS-7 was notable for carrying Sally Ride, America's first female astronaut." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-7
• # Sally Ride, the first American woman in space in 1983

"Sally Kristen Ride (May 26, 1951 – July 23, 2012) was an American astronaut and physicist. Born in Los Angeles, she joined NASA in 1978 and became the first American woman in space in 1983. Ride was the third woman in space overall, after USSR cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova (1963) and Svetlana Savitskaya (1982)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sally_Ride
• # STS-8, First flight of an African American in space, Guion Bluford

"STS-8 was the eighth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the third flight of the Space Shuttle Challenger. It launched on August 30, 1983 and landed on September 5, conducting the first night launch and night landing of the Space Shuttle program. It also carried the first African-American astronaut, Guion Bluford." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-8
• # Guion Bluford, the first African-American astronaut

"Guion Stewart Bluford Jr. (born November 22, 1942) is an American aerospace engineer, retired U.S. Air Force officer and fighter pilot, and former NASA astronaut, who is the first African American and the second person of African descent to go to space. Before becoming an astronaut, he was an officer in the U.S. Air Force, where he remained while assigned to NASA, rising to the rank of colonel." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guion_Bluford
• # The beginning of ARISS - Amateur Radio on the International Space Station project

"Amateur-satellite service Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) - operating in the Amateur-satellite service - is a project sponsored by various entities and carried out by astronauts and cosmonauts on the International Space Station who also have an amateur radio license." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amateur_Radio_on_the_International_Space_Station
• # STS-9, Flight of Ulf Merbold, first European Space Agency Astronaut on a shuttle mission

"STS-9 (also referred to as STS-41-A and Spacelab 1) was the ninth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the sixth mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Launched on November 28, 1983, the ten-day mission carried the first Spacelab laboratory module into orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-9
• # Ulf Merbold, first member of the European Space Agency Astronaut Corps

"Dr. Ulf Dietrich Merbold (born June 20, 1941) is the first West German citizen and second German native (after Sigmund Jähn) to have flown in space. He is also the first member of the European Space Agency Astronaut Corps to participate in a spaceflight mission and the first non-US citizen to reach orbit in a US spacecraft. In 1983, he was selected as the prime payload specialist, and in 1983 he flew on board the Columbia on the STS-9 mission." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulf_Merbold
• # The development of Kurs, radio telemetry system

"Kurs (Ukrainian and Russian: Курс, lit. 'Course') is a radio telemetry system used by the Soviet and later Russian space program.Kurs was developed by the Research Institute of Precision Instruments (Russian: НИИ Точных Приборов, romanized: NII Tochnikh Priborov) before 1985 and manufactured by the Kiev Radio Factory (Ukrainian: Київський Радіозавод, romanized: Kyyivskyy Radiozavod)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurs_(docking_navigation_system)
• # Discman D-50, the first portable CD player by Sony

"A portable CD player is a portable audio player used to play compact discs. The first audio player released was the Discman D-50 by Sony." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discman
• # STS-41-B, first untethered spacewalk by Bruce McCandless II

"STS-41-B was the tenth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Challenger. It launched on February 3, 1984, and landed on February 11 after deploying two communications satellites. It was also notable for including the first untethered spacewalk." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-41-B
• # Bruce McCandless II, the first untethered spacewalk

"Bruce McCandless II (June 8, 1937 – December 21, 2017) was a U.S. naval officer and aviator, electrical engineer, and NASA astronaut. In 1984, during the first of his two Space Shuttle missions, he completed the first untethered spacewalk by using the Manned Maneuvering Unit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_McCandless_II
• # STS-41-C, to repair the malfunctioning Solar Maximum Mission

"STS-41-C was NASA's 11th Space Shuttle mission, and the fifth mission of Space Shuttle Challenger. The launch, which took place on April 6, 1984, marked the first direct ascent trajectory for a shuttle mission. During the mission, Challenger's crew captured and repaired the malfunctioning Solar Maximum Mission" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-41-C
• # STS-41-D, the first mission of Space Shuttle Discovery

"STS-41-D was the 12th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the first mission of Space Shuttle Discovery. It was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 30 August 1984, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on 5 September. Three commercial communications satellites were deployed into orbit during the six-day mission, and a number of scientific experiments were conducted." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-41-D
• # STS-41-G, the first shuttle mission to carry a crew of seven, including the first crew with two women

"It was the first shuttle mission to carry a crew of seven, including the first crew with two women (Sally Ride and Kathryn Sullivan), the first American EVA involving a woman (Sullivan), the first Australian-born person to journey into space and the first astronaut with a beard (Paul Scully-Power) and the first Canadian astronaut (Marc Garneau)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-41-G
• # Earth Radiation Budget Satellite deployment

"The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) was a NASA scientific research satellite within NASA's ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) Research Program - a three-satellite mission, designed to investigate the Earth's radiation budget It also carried an instrument that studied stratospheric aerosol and gases." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_Radiation_Budget_Satellite
• # Anna L. Fisher, she became the first mother in space

"Anna Lee Fisher (born August 24, 1949) is an American chemist, emergency physician, and a former NASA astronaut. Formerly married to fellow astronaut Bill Fisher, and the mother of two children, in 1984 she became the first mother in space. During her career at NASA, she has been involved with three major programs: the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station and the Orion project." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Lee_Fisher
• # STS-51-A, the first time a shuttle deployed two communications satellites

"STS-51-A was the 14th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the second flight of Space Shuttle Discovery. The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center on November 8, 1984, and landed just under eight days later on November 16. STS-51-A marked the first time a shuttle deployed two communications satellites, and retrieved from orbit two other communications satellites." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-A
• # The formation of SETI Institute

"The SETI Institute is a not-for-profit research organization incorporated in 1984 whose mission is to explore, understand, and explain the origin and nature of life in the universe, and to apply the knowledge gained to inspire and guide present and future generations. It aims for discovery and for sharing knowledge as scientific ambassadors to the public, the press, and the government. SETI stands for the "search for extraterrestrial intelligence"." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SETI_Institute
• # The launch of Vega 1 and Vega 2, space probe to explore Venus and flyby Halley's Comet

"The Vega program (Cyrillic: ВеГа) was a series of Venus missions that also took advantage of the appearance of comet 1P/Halley in 1986. Vega 1 and Vega 2 were uncrewed spacecraft launched in a cooperative effort among the Soviet Union (who also provided the spacecraft and launch vehicle) and Austria, Bulgaria, France, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Federal Republic of Germany in December 1984." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vega_program
• # The formation of National Space Program

"The National Space Program was a set of policies and organisations under the Keating Government created with the goals of developing a national space industry in Australia. When the Howard Government came to power in 1996 the program was abolished following the advice of the Bureau of Industry Economics." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Space_Program
• # The first lithium-ion battery prototype

"A research team managed by Akira Yoshino of Asahi Chemical, Japan, to build the first lithium-ion battery prototype in 1985, a rechargeable and more stable version of the lithium battery; Sony commercialized the lithium-ion battery in 1991." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_battery#Lithium_and_lithium-ion_batteries
• # STS-51-C, the 100th human spaceflight to achieve orbit

"STS-51-C was the 15th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the third flight of Space Shuttle Discovery. It launched on January 24, 1985, and made the fourth shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January 27. STS-51-C was the first shuttle mission to deploy a dedicated United States Department of Defense (DoD) payload, and consequently many mission details remain classified." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-C
• # STS-51-D, First impromptu Extravehicular activity of program to fix Syncom F3

"STS-51-D was the 16th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the fourth flight of Space Shuttle Discovery. The launch of STS-51-D from Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, on April 12, 1985 was delayed by 55 minutes, after a boat strayed into the restricted Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) recovery zone. STS-51-D was the third shuttle mission to be extended." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-D
• # The launch of Foton-1 re-entry capsule

"Foton (or Photon) is the project name of two series of Russian science satellite and reentry vehicle programs. Although unmanned, the design was adapted from the manned Vostok spacecraft capsule. The primary focus of the Foton project is materials science research, but some missions have also carried experiments for other fields of research including biology." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foton_(satellite)
• # STS-51-B, First mission with Spacelab module in a fully operational configuration

"STS 51-B was the 17th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the seventh flight of Space Shuttle Challenger. The launch of Challenger on April 29, 1985 was delayed by 2 minutes and 18 seconds, due to a launch processing failure. Challenger was initially rolled out to the pad to launch on the STS-51-E mission. Conducted experiments in microgravity" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-B
• # STS-51-G, Al Saud became the first Arab, the first Muslim, and the first member of a royal family to fly into space

"STS-51-G was the 18th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the fifth flight of Space Shuttle Discovery. The seven-day mission launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on June 17, 1985, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on June 24. Sultan bin Salman Al Saud of Saudi Arabia was on board as a payload specialist; Al Saud became the first Arab, the first Muslim, and the first member of a royal family to fly into space" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-G
• # The launch of ESA Giotto spacecraft

"Giotto was a European robotic spacecraft mission from the European Space Agency. The spacecraft flew by and studied Halley's Comet and in doing so became the first spacecraft to make close up observations of a comet. On 13 March 1986, the spacecraft succeeded in approaching Halley's nucleus at a distance of 596 kilometers. It was named after the Early Italian Renaissance painter Giotto di Bondone." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giotto_(spacecraft)
• # STS-51-F, Challenger Abort to Orbit

"STS-51-F (also known as Spacelab 2) was the 19th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program and the eighth flight of Space Shuttle Challenger. It launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on July 29, 1985, and landed just under eight days later on August 6.While STS-51-F's primary payload was the Spacelab 2 laboratory module, the payload that received the most publicity was the Carbonated Beverage Dispenser Evaluation." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-F
• # STS-51-J, the first flight of Space Shuttle Atlantis

"STS-51-J was the 21st NASA Space Shuttle mission and the first flight of Space Shuttle Atlantis. It launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 3 October 1985, carrying a payload for the U.S. Department of Defense, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on 7 October." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-J
• # STS-61-A, Mission funded by West Germany. First Dutchman in space, Wubbo Ockels

"STS-61-A (also known as D-1) was the 22nd mission of NASA's Space Shuttle program. It was a scientific Spacelab mission, funded and directed by West Germany – hence the non-NASA designation of D-1 (for Deutschland-1). STS-61-A was the ninth and last successful flight of Space Shuttle Challenger. STS-61-A holds the current record for the largest crew - eight people - aboard any single spacecraft for the entire period from launch to landing." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-61-A
• # STS-61-B, first Mexican in space, Rodolfo Neri Vela

"STS-61-B was NASA's 23rd Space Shuttle mission, and its second using Space Shuttle Atlantis. The shuttle was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 26 November 1985. During STS-61-B, the shuttle crew deployed three communications satellites, and tested techniques of constructing structures in orbit. Atlantis landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, at 16:33 EST on 3 December 1985, after 6 days and 21 hours in orbit." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-61-B
• # Rodolfo Neri Vela, the first Mexican, and the second Latin American to have traveled to space.

"Rodolfo Neri Vela (born 19 February 1952) is a Mexican scientist and astronaut who flew aboard a NASA Space Shuttle mission in the year 1985. He is the first Mexican, and the second Latin American to have traveled to space.Vgf Neri was a Payload Specialist aboard the STS-61-B Atlantis mission, from (November 26 to December 3, 1985)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodolfo_Neri_Vela
• # The discovery of Puck, Uranus moon by Stephen P. Synnott and Voyager 2

"Puck is an inner moon of Uranus. It was discovered in December 1985 by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The name Puck follows the convention of naming Uranus's moons after characters from Shakespeare. The orbit of Puck lies between the rings of Uranus and the first of Uranus's large moons, Miranda." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puck_(moon)
• # The formation of EUMESAT, The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites

"The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is an intergovernmental organisation created through an international convention agreed by a current total of 30 European Member States.EUMETSAT's primary objective is to establish, maintain and exploit European systems of operational meteorological satellites." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Organisation_for_the_Exploitation_of_Meteorological_Satellites
• # The discovery of Juliet, Uranus moon by Stephen P. Synnott and Voyager 2

"Juliet is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on 3 January 1986, and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 2." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juliet_(moon)
• # The discovery of Portia, Uranus moon by Stephen P. Synnott and Voyager 2

"Portia is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on 3 January 1986, and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 1.The moon is named after Portia, the heroine of William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice. It is also designated Uranus XII" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portia_(moon)
• # The discovery of Cressid, Uranus moon by Stephen P. Synnott and Voyager 2

"It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on 9 January 1986, and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 3. It was named after Cressida, the Trojan daughter of Calchas, a tragic heroine who appears in William Shakespeare's play Troilus and Cressida (as well as in tales by Geoffrey Chaucer and others). It is also designated Uranus IX." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cressida_(moon)
• # STS61-C, the first time that Columbia, the first space-rated Space Shuttle orbiter to be constructed, had flown since STS-9

"STS-61-C was the 24th mission, and the seventh mission of Space Shuttle Columbia.The mission launched from Florida's Kennedy Space Center on 12 January 1986, and landed six days later on 18 January. STS-61-C's crew included the second African-American shuttle pilot, future NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, the first Costa Rican-born astronaut, Franklin Chang-Diaz, and the second sitting politician to fly in space, Representative Bill Nelson (D-FL). " https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-61-C
• # The discovery of Rosalind, Uranus moon by Stephen P. Synnott and Voyager 2

"Rosalind is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on 13 January 1986, and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 4. It was named after the daughter of the banished Duke in William Shakespeare's play As You Like It. It is also designated Uranus XIII" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalind_(moon)
• # The discovery of Desdemona, Uranus moon by Stephen P. Synnott and Voyager 2

"Desdemona is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on 13 January 1986, and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 6. Desdemona is named after the wife of Othello in William Shakespeare's play Othello. It is also designated Uranus X" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desdemona_(moon)
• # The discovery of Belinda, Uranus moon by Stephen P. Synnott and Voyager 2

"Belinda is an inner satellite of the planet Uranus. Belinda was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on 13 January 1986 and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 5. It is named after the heroine of Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock. It is also designated Uranus XIV." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belinda_(moon)
• # The discovery of Cordelia, Uranus moon by Richard J. Terrile and Voyager 2

"Cordelia is the innermost known moon of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 20, 1986, and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 7. It was not detected again until the Hubble Space Telescope observed it in 1997. Cordelia takes its name from the youngest daughter of Lear in William Shakespeare's King Lear. It is also designated Uranus VI" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordelia_(moon)
• # The discovery of Ophelia, Uranus moon by Richard J. Terrile / Voyager 2

"Ophelia is a moon of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 20, 1986, and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 8. It was not seen until the Hubble Space Telescope recovered it in 2003. Ophelia was named after the daughter of Polonius, Ophelia, in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet. It is also designated Uranus VII" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ophelia_(moon)
• # The discovery of Bianca, Uranus moon by Bradford A. Smith / Voyager 2

"Bianca is an inner satellite of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 23, 1986, and was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 9.It was named after the sister of Katherine in Shakespeare's play The Taming of the Shrew. It is also designated Uranus VIII" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bianca_(moon)
• # Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

"The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster was a fatal incident in the United States space program that occurred on Tuesday, January 28, 1986, when the Space Shuttle Challenger (OV-099) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members aboard. The crew consisted of five NASA astronauts, one payload specialist, and a civilian schoolteacher." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Challenger_disaster
• # The construction of Mir Space Sation

"It was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir
• # The formation of Space Research and Technology Institute

"It is one of the primary research bodies in the field of space science in Bulgaria. The mission of SRTI-BAS is to conduct fundamental and applied studies in the field of Space Physics, Remote Sensing of the Earth and Planets, and Aerospace Systems and Technologies." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Research_and_Technology_Institute
• # The development of the first Video Graphics Array by IBM

"Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a graphics standard for video display controllers first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers. Through widespread adoption, the term has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640×480 resolution characteristic of the VGA hardware." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_Graphics_Array
• # Mir EO-2, the second long duration expedition to the Soviet space station Mir

"The mission was divided into two parts (sometimes called (a) and (b), the division occurring when one of the two crew members, Aleksandr Laveykin, was replaced part way through the mission by Aleksandr Aleksandrov. Laveykin was replaced because ground-based doctors had diagnosed him with minor heart problems." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir_EO-2
• # Soyuz TM-2, spacecraft used to launch a long duration Mir EO-2 crew to the Soviet space station Mir

"Soyuz TM-2 was the spacecraft used to launch a long duration crew to the Soviet space station Mir, which was uncrewed at the time. TM-2 was launched in February 1987, and it was first crewed spaceflight of the Soyuz-TM spacecraft, and the second crewed spaceflight to Mir (the first being Soyuz T-15). The crew of the long duration expedition, Mir EO-2, who were launched by TM-2 consisted of Soviet cosmonauts Yuri Romanenko and Aleksandr Laveykin." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_TM-2
• # The launch of Energia Buran rocket

"Energia (Russian: Энергия, Energiya, "Energy") (GRAU 11K25) was a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift partially recoverable launch system for a variety of payloads including the Buran spacecraft. Control system main developer enterprise was the Khartron NPO "Electropribor"." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energia
• # Soyuz TM-4, Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov the first to stay in space 366 days

"Soyuz TM-4 was the fourth crewed spacecraft to dock with the space station Mir. It was launched in December 1987, and carried the first two crew members of the third long duration expedition, Mir EO-3. These crew members, Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov, would stay in space for just under 366 days, setting a new spaceflight record." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_TM-4
• # Mir_EO-3, the third expedition to the Mir Space Sation

"The crew consisted of 3 people, Musa Manarov (Commander), Vladimir Titov (Flight Engineer) and Valeri Polyakov (Research Doctor). Manarov and Titov arrived at the station in December 1987 on Soyuz TM-4, while Polyakov arrived much later, in August 1988 on Soyuz TM-6. After the arrival of Polyakov, medical experiments became more intensive." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir_EO-3
• # The formation of Italian Space Agency

"The Italian Space Agency (Italian: Agenzia Spaziale Italiana; ASI) is a government agency established in 1988 to fund, regulate and coordinate space exploration activities in Italy. The agency cooperates with numerous national and international entities who are active in aerospace research and technology." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Space_Agency
• # The launch of Phobos 1, space probe

"Phobos 1 was an uncrewed Soviet space probe of the Phobos Program launched from the Baikonour launch facility on 7 July 1988.Its intended mission was to explore Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. The mission failed on 2 September 1988 when a computer malfunction caused the end-of-mission order to be transmitted to the spacecraft." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phobos_program
• # Gamma Cephei Ab, the first detected exoplanet later confirmed

"The first indications of Gamma Cephei Ab were reported in July 1988. The planet was tentatively identified by a Canadian team of astronomers, which was led by Bruce Campbell, Gordon Walker, and Stephenson Yang, while its existence was also announced by Anthony Lawton and P. Wright in 1989." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_Cephei_Ab
• # STS-26, the first post-Challenger flight

"STS-26 was the 26th NASA Space Shuttle mission and the seventh flight of the orbiter Discovery. The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 29 September 1988, and landed four days later on 3 October. STS-26 was declared the "Return to Flight" mission, being the first mission after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster of 28 January 1986."