Brown v. Board of EducationThe U.S. Supreme Court made a landmark decision on May 17, 1954 in the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka case.
The members of the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. source: Brown v. Board of Education. (2021, March 05). Retrieved March 09, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_v._Board_of_Education
Geneva AccordsThe Geneva Accords divided Vietnam between the Northern communists and the Southern anti-communists.
France agreed to withdraw their troops and the country was divided at the 17th parallel, pending elections within two years to choose a president and reunite the country. source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, May 1). 1954 Geneva Conference. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954_Geneva_Conference?scrlybrkr=060c8164.
Montgomery Bus BoycottRosa Park's actions led to the Bus Boycott which was a protest campaign against racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
It resulted in the Formation of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and made Martin Luther King a national leader. In 1956, the Supreme Court declared segregation in Public transit illegal. source: 1960s Notes
Montgomery Bus Boycott. (2021, March 05). Retrieved March 08, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgomery_bus_boycott
Little Rock NineThe Little Rock Nine were nine African-American students going to the Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The Governor of Arkansas prevented them from enrolling at first but after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, they attended. When integration began on September 4, 1957, the Arkansas National Guard was called in to "preserve the peace". source:
Little Rock Nine. (2021, March 05). Retrieved March 09, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Rock_Nine
First artificial satellite, Sputnik 1On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union sent the very first satellite into outer space called Sputnik 1.
This was the beginning of the space race between the United States and the Russians, the Soviet Union took the first steps. source:
Sputnik 1. (2021, March 09). Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik_1
First dog in orbit (Laika), Sputnik 2On November 3, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first living animal, a dog called Laika, into Earth orbit.
This event paved the way for human spaceflight during the upcoming years. source:
Laika. (2021, March 09). Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laika
The New LeftThe New Left SLATE student political party is formed at the University of California, Berkeley.
It was a pioneer organization of the New Left and precursor of the Free Speech Movement and formative counterculture era, was a campus political party at the University of California, Berkeley from 1958 to 1966. source:
“SLATE.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 3 Jan. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SLATE.
First Imaging weather satelliteOn April 1, 1960, the United States launched TIROS-1 which was was the first successful low-Earth orbital weather satellite.
It paved the way for more accurate weather projections in the future. source:
TIROS-1. (2020, December 31). Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIROS-1
Students for a Democratic SocietyThe Student League for Industrial Democracy changes its name to Students for a Democratic Society (SDS).
It becomes later the most notable radical student political organization of the counterculture era. source:
“Students for a Democratic Society.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Apr. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Students_for_a_Democratic_Society.
First animals returned alive from space, Sputnik 5On August 19, 1960, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 5 on which Belka and Strelka, two dogs, spent a day in space.
With them returning to Eearth alive, the Russians proved that human orbital flights are possible and paved the way for the first human orbital flight, Vostok 1. source:
Korabl-Sputnik 2. (2021, February 24). Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korabl-Sputnik_2
First televised presidential debateThe first televised presidential debate before the 1960 election between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon launched a new era in American politics: the television age. source:
1960s_Notes; Bettman, Photograph by. “Behind the Scenes of the First Televised Presidential Debates 60 Years Ago.” History & Culture, 25 Sept. 2020, www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/09/behind-scenes-first-televised-presidential-debates-nixon-jfk-1960/
World SeriesThe 1960 World Series was played between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the New York Yankees.
In the 7th game in the World Series, Bill Mazeroski hit a home run that allowed the Pittsburgh Pirates to win the championship over the New York Yankees. This was the first time the World Series was ended by a home run and is still the only time it has happened in a final game. source:
“1960 World Series.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Mar. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960_World_Series.
Inauguration of John F. KennedyKennedy became the 35th and youngest President of the United States of America. source:
“Inauguration of John F. Kennedy.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 3 Feb. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inauguration_of_John_F._Kennedy?scrlybrkr=060c8164
Executive Order 10914One of JFK's first accomplishments as President of the United States was a doubling of the quantity of surplus food distributed to needy families which is a very important achievement because he helped a lot of families that needed it. source:
Plans for Food for Peace programAnother big accomplishment in his first days as President was designating George McGovern as Food for Peace director and presenting his plans for what would become the Food for Peace program which would order more food and money to be given to Cuban refugees. source:
First live televised presidential press conferenceJFK holds the first regular live televised press conference in the State Department Auditorium on January 25, 1961. source:
“60th Anniversary of the First Live Televised Presidential News Conference.” Govinfo, www.govinfo.gov/features/anniversary-live-presidential-broadcast.
First Humanoid animal Ham (chimpanzee) in SpaceOn January 31, 1961, the United States launched the first non-human hominid into space.
The mission was a test prior to the first crewed American space mission in Project Mercury. source:
Ham (chimpanzee). (2021, March 02). Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ham_(chimpanzee)
First human launched into outer spaceYuri Gagarin becomes the first human launched into outer space. President Kennedy congratulates the Soviet Premier on the successful launch. source:
“Vostok 1.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Jan. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_1.
First United States human spaceflightAlan Shepard is launched on Freedom 7, the first American in outer space source:
“Mercury-Redstone 3.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Dec. 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Redstone_3.
First crewed mission lasting a full dayVostok 2 was a space mission by the Soviet Union which carried Gherman Titov into orbit for a full day on August 6, 1961.
The mission studied the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body. source:
Vostok 2. (2021, February 17). Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_2
Cuban Missile CrisisKennedy announces the discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba what makes the Cuban missile crisis public. source:
“Cuban Missile Crisis.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Feb. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis#/media/File:Soviet-R-12-nuclear-ballistic_missile.jpg.
Freedom RidersThe Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode national busses into the deep south. The South reacted with violence against the riders which gained national attention.
After that, the Federal Government banned segregation in all travel facilities including waiting rooms, rest rooms, & lunch counters. source: 1960s Notes
Freedom Riders. (2021, February 18). Retrieved March 09, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_Riders?scrlybrkr=060c8164
Presidential Commission on the Status of WomenThe President's Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW) was established to advise the President of the United States on issues about the status of women. John F. Kennedy' signed the Executive Order 10980 which created the Commission on December 14, 1961. source:
“Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Dec. 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidential_Commission_on_the_Status_of_Women.
Wilt Chamberlain's 100 points in one NBA gameOn March 2, 1962, the Philadelphia Warriors played the New York Knicks. Wilt Chamberlain scored 100 points to contribute to the win against the Knicks. This is still the highest point total scored in a NBA game. source:
“Wilt Chamberlain's 100-Point Game.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 5 Apr. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilt_Chamberlain%27s_100-point_game.
End of Cuban Missile CrisisThe President's brother and U.S. Attorney Robert Kennedy made a deal with the USSR: The Soviets would remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for a promise by U.S. leaders not to invade Cuba. source:
“Cuban Missile Crisis.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 4 Jan. 2010, www.history.com/topics/cold-war/cuban-missile-crisis.
1962 midterm electionsThe members of the 88th United States Congress are elected. The Democrats lose seats in the House to the Republicans, but maintain their majority, they also increase their majority in the Senate. source:
“1962 United States Elections.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Jan. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1962_United_States_elections.
Bob DylanOn May 27, 1963, Bob Dylan releases his second studio album "The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan".
Bob Dylan became an important voice of the movement. source:
“The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Apr. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Freewheelin%27_Bob_Dylan.
Equal Pay Act of 1963The Equal Pay Act of 1963 is a United States labor law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex. President John F. Kennedy signed it on June 10, 1963. source:
“Equal Pay Act of 1963.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Mar. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equal_Pay_Act_of_1963.
First woman in spaceOn June 16, 1963, Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to have flown into space in the Vostok 6 Mission by the Soviet Union.
She also is the only woman ever to to have been on a solo space mission. source:
Vostok 6. (2021, February 17). Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_6
John F. Kennedy's speech in Berlin "Ich bin ein Berliner"President Kennedy held a famous speech in West Berlin, Germany. JFK promised West Germany support of the United States after East Germany built the Berlin Wall.
The people in Germany loved his speech and him even saying in German he is a Berliner which would lead to a good connection between Germany and the United States in the future. source:
Ich bin ein Berliner. (2021, March 01). Retrieved March 09, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ich_bin_ein_Berliner
Martin Luther King's speech "I have a dream"The "I have a dream"-speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. was the highlight of the March on Washington on August 28 1963.
The March supported JFK to push congress to pass his Civil Rights Bill. source: 1960s Notes
I have a dream. (2021, February 08). Retrieved March 08, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_Have_a_Dream?scrlybrkr=060c8164#/media/File:Martin_Luther_King_-_March_on_Washington.jpg
Assassination of John F. KennedyThe 35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy was shot in Dallas, Texas.
30 minutes after that, he died and Vice President Johnson became President. Kennedy was the eighth President to die in office, and the fourth to be assassinated. Conspiracy theories posit that the assassination involved people or organizations in addition to Oswald. source: JFK Assassination. (2021, March 02). March 09, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_John_F._Kennedy
Civil Rights Act of 1964On July 2, 1964 President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
It is the most important act since Reconstruction and banned discrimination in public facilities & employment based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. source: 1960s Notes
Lyndon Johnson signing civil Rights ACT, July 2, 1964.JPG. (2013, January 14). Retrieved March 08, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964#/media/File:Lyndon_Johnson_signing_Civil_Rights_Act,_July_2,_1964.jpg
Gulf of Tonkin Incident - ResolutionThe Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a result of the Gulf of Tonkin incident, which was an alleged attack on U.S. destroyers. The incident led to the escalation and start of the Vietnam War. President Johnson asked Congress for war powers and on August 7, 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which gave LBJ full authority for the war. source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, May 1). Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_of_Tonkin_Resolution.
Free Speech MovementThe Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a massive, long-lasting student protest which took place during the 1964–65 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
Mario Savio was one of its leaders. source:
“Free Speech Movement.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Mar. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Speech_Movement.
1964 Olympic GamesIn 1964, one of the best organized and most successful Olympic Games in history were held in Japan. Japan was the first Asian nation ever to host the Olympics. 25 world records were broken and 52 of 61 possible Olympic records were also broken. source:
29, Connor Kraus April, et al. “1960s Sports: History, Facts, MVPs & Champions.” RetroWaste, www.retrowaste.com/1960s/sports-in-the-1960s/.
First multi-person crew (3), Voskhod 1The seventh crewed soviet spaceflight on October 12 1964, Voskhod 1, achieved a number of "firsts" in the history of crewed spaceflight.
It was the first spaceflight with more than one crewman, the first spaceflight without the use of spacesuits and the first to carry either an engineer or a physician into outer space. There was no room for the spacesuits nor the payload capacity. source:
Voskhod 1. (2021, February 17). Retrieved March 16, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voskhod_1
Operation Rolling ThunderOn March 2, 1965, Operation Rolling Thunder, the bombing of North Vietnam by the United States started.
It lasted for about 9 months and resulted in strategic U.S. failure. source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, April 19). Operation Rolling Thunder. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Rolling_Thunder.
March for Voting Rights ActCivil Rights Activists, more than 25,000 of them, led a march under protection of Federal troops from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.
The march would lead to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which was signed by Johnson two days later. Three years later, more than 1 million black Americans were registered to vote. source: 1960s Notes
Voting Rights Act of 1965. (2021, March 06). Retrieved March 09, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voting_Rights_Act_of_1965
First "space walk", Voskhod 2On March 18, 1965, the Soviet Union achieved the first extra-vehicular activity ("space walk") with the launch of Voskhod 2.
Alexei Leonov became the first person to leave the spacecraft in a specialized spacesuit and go for a space walk. source:
Voskhod 2. (2021, February 06). Retrieved March 16, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voskhod_2
Voting Rights Act of 1965On August 6, 1965 President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which was another landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States.
It prohibits racial discrimination in voting by banning poll taxes and making literacy tests illegal. It also gave Fed Government power to register voters where locals prevented blacks from voting. source: 1960s Notes
Voting Rights Act 1965 (2021, March 06). Retrieved March 08, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voting_Rights_Act_of_1965
National Organization for WomenOn June 30, 1966, the NOW was founded. It's an American feminist organization that consists of 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and in Washington, D.C. source:
“National Organization for Women.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Apr. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Organization_for_Women.
FIFA World Cup FinalThe 1966 FIFA World Cup Final was a soccer match in London. England won 4–2 against West Germany. It was the first and only time England has hosted or won the World Cup. The game is remembered for the controversial third goal awarded to England. For all the German fans watching the game at that time, it was clearly no goal. source:
“1966 FIFA World Cup Final.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 25 Mar. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1966_FIFA_World_Cup_Final.
Barbara JordanOn January 10, 1967, Barbara Jordan was elected to the Texas Senate. She was the first African-American woman in the Texas legislature. source:
“Barbara Jordan.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Mar. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbara_Jordan.
First Super BowlThe very first super bowl was played on January 15, 1967 at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, California. The National Football League (NFL) champion Green Bay Packers defeated the American Football League (AFL) champion Kansas City Chiefs by the score of 35–10.
Football was on its way to becoming the most popular sport in America. source:
“Super Bowl I.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Mar. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_Bowl_I?scrlybrkr=060c8164.
Birth control pill becomes legalOn April 7, 1967, the birth control pill made the cover of the TIME magazine. The pill became legal in the U.S. in the 1960s and on June 7, 1965, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a landmark ruling on contraception, which would have a profound affect on women’s lives. source:
“Birth Control in the United States.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 9 Apr. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birth_control_in_the_United_States.
Tet OffensiveThe Tet Offensive was a series of attacks on South Vietnamese by North Vietnamese. It was a major escalation and turning point of the Vietnam War, the United States started to scale back its involvement in the war. source:
National Geographic Society. (2014, December 12). Tet Offensive. National Geographic Society. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/thisday/jan30/tet-offensive/.
Mỹ Lai massacreThe My Lai Massacre was the mass murder of unarmed South Vietnamese civilians by United States troops.
This war crime was later called "the most shocking episode of the Vietnam War". source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, May 7). Mỹ Lai massacre. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%E1%BB%B9_Lai_massacre.
Assassination of Martin Luther KingThe African-American civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. was shot on April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee.
His death lead to a wave of riots all over the nation. The biggest riots took place in Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Chicago, and Kansas City. source:
Martin Luther King Jr. (2021, March 05). Retrieved March 09, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King_Jr.
Civil Rights Act of 1968On April 11, 1968 President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 into law.
It banned discrimination in selling or renting a home. source: 1960s Notes
Civil rights act of 1968. (2021, March 04). Retrieved March 08, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1968?scrlybrkr=060c8164#/media/File:Lbjsigningbill.jpg
Robert Kennedy AssassinationJohn F. Kennedy's brother, Robert Kennedy was assassinated on June 6, 1968. He was the frontrunner for the Democrats and ran for President for the next election. source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, May 8). Robert F. Kennedy. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_F._Kennedy.
1968 United States presidential electionOn November 5, 1968, Richard Nixon was the new elected president of the United States of America.
Nixon promised his voters to finally end the war in Vietnam. source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, May 11). 1968 United States presidential election. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_United_States_presidential_election.
First humans on the MoonOn July 20, 1969, the United States achieved the very first crewed moon landing. Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong became the first person to step onto the lunar surface.
Armstrong's first step on the moon was worldwide live on TV. His words "one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind" became famous. It effectively ended the Space Race and fulfilled a proposed goal from JFK. source:
Apollo 11. (2021, March 12). Retrieved March 16, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11
Woodstock festivalOn August 15, 1969, the Woodstock festival begins with an estimated 300,000–500,000 people gathering in upstate New York for "3 Days of Peace & Music" at the watershed event in counterculture history.
The festival is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history as well as a defining event for the counterculture generation. source:
“Woodstock.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Apr. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodstock.
Kent State shootingsThe Vietnam war protests at the Kent State University in Ohio on May 4, 1970 turned out violent. Protesters burned the ROTC building and 4 protesters were shot dead, with 8 more wounded. source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, May 6). Kent State shootings. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_shootings.
Paris Peace accordsOn January 27, 1973, the United States, North Vietnam and South Vietnam sign the Peace Treaty to finally establish peace in Vietnam and end the war. source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, April 25). Paris Peace Accords. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Peace_Accords.
Fall of SaigonOn April 30th, the North Vietnamese captured Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, after the fighting between North & South Vientam resumed and the South surrendered.
The American troops flee. source:
Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, May 10). Fall of Saigon. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_of_Saigon.