EDUCATION IN THE COLONIAL ERA - THE FIRST SCHOOLSThe first school in Bolivia was founded in La Paz by Father Alfonso Bárgano, in 1571.
In Chuquisaca in 1599, Bishop Alonso Ramírez founded the Seminary College, also called San Cristóbal or Colegio Colorado, for the badge that was given, a red medallion. On February 22, 1621, by order of the viceroy Prince of Esquilache, Don Francisco Borja, the Santiago School was founded, named later by Royal Decree of April 10, 1621, San Juan Bautista, or Colegio Azul, for the distinctive of that color.
THE RISE OF THE BOLIVIAN UNIVERSITYIn 1623, the "Blue College" was transformed with enjoyment of preeminence and immunities of the royal schools to give degrees of Bachelor's School, Bachelor's College, Teacher and Doctor of Arts, Theology, Canons and Laws, with value in any University.
On March 27, 1624, Viceroy Prince of Esquilache, recognizes the "Blue College" as the rank of Royal and Pontifical University with the name of San Francisco Javier.
EDUCATION IN THE COLONIAL ERA - JESUIT MISSIONS OF MOXOS AND CHIQUITOSOnly in the Jesuit missions in the Moxos and Chiquitos reductions was an education
addressed to the natives, which was deeply rooted in the daily needs and in the conditions of the region inhabited by the natives. His methods were practical and oriented to the resolution of the problems posed by the productive activity and economic population. Art was not far behind and formed great artists and musicians. Until their expulsion from the country developed a great educational work.
EDUCATION IN THE COLONIAL ERA - (SCHOOL FOR POOR CHILDREN))Education remained classist, just sons of knights were allowed to it's access.
It was not until 1792 that Fray José San Alberto, Archbishop of
La Plata, founded the "San Alberto" Poor Girls School in Chuquisaca. He was convinced that State progress depended on the good or bad education of youth. Therefore, the main State work should be the education of children. Good manners are the product of Education during the first years.
EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLICBy Decree of December 11, 1825, Bolívar and Rodríguez, initiated the Legislation
school. The recitals establish that education is the first duty of the Government; what should be Uniform and General; that establishments of this genre must comply with the laws of the State and that the health of a Republic depends on the morality that education acquires citizens and childhood.
The Teaching PlanIn elementary school should taught reading and writing, religion, morals and agriculture. In the provincial capitals, in addition to the primary schools, secondary schools should be established to improve reading and reading, writing, religion and morals,Spanish, the four rules of arithmetic, agriculture, industry and veterinary. In the Capitals of Departments, in addition to those mentioned, central schools should be established to fully teach the arithmetic,
grammar, drawing and design.
The Lancasterian SchoolDuring the government of Andrés de Santa Cruz, it was prioritized the foundation of universities, the improvement of seminars and public education was neglected.
The absence of qualified teachers prevented him from carrying out his plans. As teaching method for the privileged students, the Lancasterian was adopted, marginalizing the discursive method and Rodriguez's conference type. Monitors and bedeles were created to monitor and exhort the students to read and study.
The right instruction of every citizenThe National Convention of 1851 that drafted and promulgated the VI Constitution of Bolivia introduced the right to education for all citizens and placed free education under the supervision of State and demanded the morality and capacity of the teachers. It set up the creation of schools for girls since until then they only existed for men. It established the free primary education.
The Pacific War and EducationThis period was of deep chaos in
education, decrees came and went, for example, Dr. Julio Méndez Minister of Instruction approved the Decree of March 29, 1879, which delivered secondary and optional education to private companies .
These measures did not improve teaching, as the programs were too charged. Primary education was divided at three levels: Elementary Elementary Grade (1st and 2nd); Middle School (3rd and 4th)
and Elementary Primary.
Teachers TrainingThe teachers training consisted in a scholarship program to go to study in Chile in the field of education.
Later, the First Normal School was created in Sucre on June 6th, which was detecting the defects and the virtues of the Bolivian teachers: enthusiasts at the first impulse, but quick to discourage the first obstacle; students were intelligent, imaginative but lacking scientific spirit. It was proposed to train people of action, capable, persevering and endowed with scientific curiosity.
AYLLU SCHOOL OF WARISATAIn 1931, education had only benefited whites, a few mestizos and nothing to indigenous. Until Elizardo Pérez appeared, who discovered the creative power of the natives through Avelino Siñani and formulated it in his central thesis «The Rural School must be for the Indian ». This idea led Elizardo and Avelino to found the Warisata school in 1931, in the Aymara community.
The 1952 Revolution and Peasant EducationThe president Víctor Paz Estenssoro promoted the educational reform and the constitution of the Code of Bolivian Education, in whose preparation organizations such as the COB, the Church, the private schools and the Bolivian University among others. It was the first code that gathered all the provisions on education were in force. It gives them unity and content through philosophy educational and educational policy present in the document.
Educational counterreform of 1968Since the government of René Barrientos, School education comprised four areas:Regular and systematic education, Adult Education, Special Education, Extracurricular education or cultural extension.Regular Education comprised three levels: Primary (Prebasic, Basic, Intermediate), Middle(Common, Differentiated) and Higher(Humanist,Technical)
To carry out this reform, all teaching positions were declared vacant, in order to
re-enroll them under other less favorable working conditions for teachers.
The Educational Policy of OvandoHis government stated the education must be national, democratic, scientific
Proposed eight courses in primary education. Subdivide high school education into two high school classes: academic and technical. For the first proposes three specialties: Socio-Economic, Chemical-Biological and Physical-Mathematical Sciences.
Suggests the creation of the chair of Special Education in the Normal. To fulfill literacy, it was necessary to train adult educators in modern literacy techniques.
The reform of General Bánzer of 1973It seeks to promote the updating of the curriculum and the improvement of
pedagogical techniques because it is affirmed that, only on the basis of a Body of Objectives will it be possible determine the structure and functionality of the system and the development of new plans and programs. In this sense, the new regulation established the aims of national education:
Educate to build a Nationalist State of Order and Labor, of Peace and Justice; achieve the
Bolivian training according to need.
The Democratic Opening and Education of SilesPreaident Hernán Siles Zuazo attacked the problem of illiteracy by approving the National Plan for Literacy and Popular Education (SENALEP), which looked for the development of literacy programs with methodologies appropriate to the Bolivian reality, depending on the cultural and ethno-linguistic peculiarities of the Bolivian population.
It was finally suppressed in 1993.
Proposal for Educational ReformDuring the government of Jaime Paz Zamora, the Ministry of Education presented a proposal for educational reform whose main points were:
- The problem of teacher salaries.
- Reform as a gradual, progressive, congruent, globalizing and, essentially, process
- Education for work and participation of women.
- Decentralization of the education service.
- Expansion of the offer of schooling.
- Teacher training (normal or university).
The government of Sánchez de LozadaThe MNR returned to power with President Sánchez de Lozada, who endorsed the Reform project Educational, showing a new vision in the country, which gives continuity to the projects of the previous government.
This education project also contemplates the administrative restructuring of the System National Education and the National Secretary of Education.
The Productive Socio-Community Educational Model in Bolivia with the Education Law No. 070 “Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez”The fundamentals of the Curriculum are based on the Bolivian reality: The political and ideological foundation is decolonizing; the philosophical foundation proposes to live well; the sociological foundation, the plural condition; the epistemological foundation, cultural plurality; and the psychopedagogical foundation, community learning, taking into account the four methodological moments namely: practice, theory, assessment and production.