History of Public Education

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    Early religious schools

    Mandated education begins
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    Continued struggle for equality

    Struggle for quality, equal education for women, Native Americans and African Americans
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    District schools

    One-room district schools most common institutions
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    Common schools

    Common schools pioneered by Horace Mann, bringing about the first state board of education
  • WI School Law

    Elementary education free for children ages 4-20
  • Morrill Act

    Land grant colleges formed
  • Bilingual Edu. Act

    Designed to provide assistance to non-English speaking children, but fell short of actual educational equity for Hispanic and Chinese students, among others
  • Carlisle School

    Cultural replacement in Native American education
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    Women's rights

    Women gain status and recognition in the field of education, with Ella Flagg Young becoming the first superintendent of an American school system
  • Second Morrill Act

    Eliminated exclusions for black Americans; George Washington Carver attended Iowa State Univ in 1891
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    Assimilation and acculturation

    Schools focued on these for immigrant children iin the early 20th century
  • Early 1900's

    business/factory model implemented; tracking as a result of IQ testing
  • Progressivism

    Dewey pushes for individualism, social responsibility and life experiences. Focus is on cooperation and communication, and attempted to eliminate traditional curriculum
  • Post WWII: Basics and Systemic Instruction

    "Back to the Basics" movement, with cometition and suspicion regarding communism and the Cold War. Included the NDEA to strengthen math and science skills, as well as Flesch's focus on literacy. Push toward including technology, with standards-based design as a present outcome
  • Brown v. Board of Edu

    Prohibit school segregation based on race. Start of civil rights in the school system, which was not always peaceful
  • ESEA

    Compensatory education and the equalization of educational opportunity for all children, even those living in poverty
  • Humanistic education

    Includes free, open and deschooling...existentialist beliefs focused on independence and individual freedom. Criticized traditional curriculum and teacher roles. Resulted in lowered test scores, illiteracy and the need for remedial education for employees
  • A Nation At Risk

    Belief that national security is jeapardized as a result of 1970's educational philosophy. Stress need for basic skills and technological literacy
  • No Child Left Behind/Back to Basics...again

    Reformat of ESEA to provide quality education for all populations, including the underserved and undereducated.. Back to basics again with higher standards, more substantive curriculum and achievement tests. Look to hold schools and educators accountable