History of Literacy in America

By mj37547
  • Apr 23, 1493

    Horn Book

    Horn Book
    Hornbook was for centuries a child's first introduction to reading. These books were imported to the colonies early in the American experience.
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    History of America

  • Introduction of Primer Book

    These books, which were actually prayer books, were first introduced in New England. (Moaghan and Barry, 1999).
  • Spelling

    At the turn of the 18th century, spelling books were introduced into the colonies (originally from England).
  • Noah Webster - First American Spelling Book

    Noah Webster - First American Spelling Book
    Positively impacted colonies at the time. (Monghan & Barry, 1999)
  • Spellers

    They were in use in England and were then introduced into the colonies. Comapred to the horn books and primers, these were a change because they became more comprehension-based. These did not focus as much on religion.
  • The English Reader

    Most widely used reader in the U.S. Lincoln thought it was the best schoolbook. (Monaghan & Barry, 1999)
  • American Dictionary of English Language

    American Dictionary of English Language
    This was by Noah Webster and was published a year after his famous dictionary (Monaghan & Barry, 1999).
  • John Watson - Classical Conditioning

    Classical Conditioning - a stimulus leads to a response, thus continuing Pavlov's research to get the same response again, in our case, for literacy. (Morrow)
  • Ivan Pavlov - Behaviorism

    Ivan Pavlov - Behaviorism
    Pavlov was prominent in the 1800s and early 1900s with his idea of Behaviorism. This connects to reading instruction because it is the idea that there should be rewards in school for students doing what they need to do. So from a reading perspective, if a young child is able to read a passage with no mistakes or is able to spell a list of words with no issues, then he should receive a reward to make sure the behavior is continued. (Morrow)
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    Fine tuning instructional practices (Pearson, 2002)

  • Noam Chomsky - 1957-1965

    Noam Chomsky - 1957-1965
    He stated humans are born to acquire the language of the environment they are born into. He further believed language is complex but children who are exposed to lots of language in their environment can easily acquire language before going to school (pearson, 2002).
  • Roger Brown - 1960s

    Roger Brown - 1960s
    He and his colleagues showed that children were active learners who inferred rules and tested them out. Mistakes they made could show us rule systems kids make for themselves (Pearson, 2002).
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    Linguistics Span

  • Charles Fries - 1962

    Charles Fries - 1962
    He stated that due to oral language, we do not need to be explicitly taught every reading component. Due to linguistics, we should automatically learn the necessary reading skills through oral language (Pearson, 2002).
  • Kenneth Goodman - 1965 and 1967

    Kenneth Goodman - 1965 and 1967
    He continued what Brown noted that children's mistakes show us their inner workings and comprehension. This shows that children were trying to make sense of what they read, so we should not solely focus on the mistakes that they make while reading. He further noted that readers use three cue systems to make sense of text: syntactic, semantic, and graphophonemic cues (Pearson, 2002).
  • Jeanne Chall - principles of reading

    Jeanne Chall - principles of reading
    Eight principles about reading instruction. She focused on having kids do SSR on engaging topics, phonics instruciton should occur over several years, not just the early grades, and students should be instructed in small groups and they should start off sloe and easy (moving based on own readiness levels) (Pearson, 2002).
  • Bartlett - Schema Theory - 1970s

    Bartlett - Schema Theory - 1970s
    We store memory by schema in our brain and modify schema when we learn new info to fit new data.
    1. rich, detailed account of everyday intuition that we understand and learn what is new based on what we already know.
    2. accounts for why we, as hmans disagree about interpetations of events - we approach the event with very different background experiences and knowledge.
    3. "It's all Greek to me" - someties we don't have enough background knwoledge to understand a new experience or text. (Pearson)
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    Schema Theory - 1970s to 1980s

  • Frank Smith - 1971

    Frank Smith - 1971
    Continued what Goodman said. Students should be immersed in literacy environments. Reading is not taught; it is something we learn to do. He further believed reading is making sense of a particular type of information in our environment. Teachers should help children read, instead of teach them to read. Individuals make sense of what they read based on what they already know (Pearson, 2002)
  • Comprehension - 1970s

    Comprehension - 1970s
    Center for the Study of Reading (started in 1976), focused national attention on comprehension. Focused on helping students learn strategies to help with comprehension. (Pearson, 2002)
  • Sociolinguistics - 1980s - "context"

    The word context expanded to include not only what was on the page, but also the instructional, noninstructional, and home/community contexts of literacy (reading occurred in context that was shaped by literacy event and shaped the event). (Pearson, 2002)
  • Literary Theory Perspective - 1980s

    Reader response theories - creating meaning for each text. (Pearson, 2002)
  • Louise Rosenblatt - 1980s

    Louise Rosenblatt - 1980s
    Meaning for a text is made in the transaction between reader and the text (not one or the other). Reading is something new and different from any of its inputs and influences. (Pearson, 2002)
  • Integrated Instruction - 1980s

    The idea that reading can be integrated into other subject areas or integrated across subject matter boundaries (Pearson, 2002).
  • Process Writing - Middle 1980s

    Lucy Calkins and Donald Graves - writing process - reading and writing are intertwined with each supporting the other. (Pearson, 2002)
  • 1990s - Whole Language

    By the early 1990s, whole language had become the conventional wisdom, the standard against which all else was referenced. (Pearson 2002)
  • Engagement Theory and CORI

    Engagement Theory and CORI
    CORI - Guthrie and Wigfield - engaged readers are better readers who will read more frequently (Tracey & Morrow, 2012).
  • NCLB

    President Bush put this into effect so that all students would receive a fair education where they are all given the opportunity to succeed. It further holds districts accountable for all students (NCLB, 2001)
  • Put Reading First

    Put Reading First
    The National Institute for Literacy completed a study and published their findings on early literacy instruction and the National Reading Panel identified five essential areas of literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocab, comprehension, and fluency (National Institute, 2001)
  • Common Core State Standards

    Implemented across the country to ensure that there is a common thread from grades k through twelve to prepare students for life after high school.