History of Laws and Policies Effecting ELL Programs

Timeline created by shanonzqt
  • Spanish-English Bilingual Programs in New Mexico

    Spanish-English Bilingual Programs in New Mexico
    When New Mexico was considered just a territory, the lawmakers decided to implement a law requiring Spanish-English bilingual programs. At this time we were just a developing country and the fact that they took the initiative to start the program shows the concern for the education of the state.
  • Meyer v. Nebraska

    Meyer v. Nebraska
    This court ruling gives states the authority to decide the language instruction in public schools. If the states have the authority to decide instruction, then depending on what representatives believe about ELL programs will dictate how much instruction the ELLs will receive.
  • Farrington v. Tokushige

    Farrington v. Tokushige
    This court ruling gives states the authority to decide the language instruction in public schools. If the states have the authority to decide instruction, then depending on what representatives believe about ELL programs will dictate how much instruction the ELLs will receive.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    This court ruling established that ELLs, as well as any other student, cannot be segregated from other students throughout their education. This was a pivotal time in education as well as the civil rights movement in America. Not only would this ruling help African American receive an opportunity for an integrated education, it would also include the ELLs as well.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    This act was part of Lyndon B. Johnson's War on Poverty initiative during his administration. The key components of the act were funds, policies, and procedures that effect lower income families. Many of the families of ELLs are lower income and this act would have been beneficial for the ELLs to receive an education under this act.
  • Bilingual Education Act of 1968

    Bilingual Education Act of 1968
    Bilingual education act was the first initiative to address the unique needs of bilingual students. Some lawmakers viewed this push for bilingual programs as experiments more than actual policy that should be followed through. This act should increase the importance of the bilingual education which is beneficial for the ELLs to have programs readily available. Later, this act would be replaced by the No Child Left Behind policy of 2001.
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    Title VII - Bilingual Education Act

    Title VII provided grants to schools and other institutions through a competitive grant process. The act included children of Limited English Speaking Ability (LESA). However, the act did not provide a definitive purpose and goal for bilingual education which lead to confusion and disagreements between educators and lawmakers, Reauthorization of the Title VII helped alleviate some of the issues with clarification of the purpose and goals of the act.
  • Lau v. Nichols

    Lau v. Nichols
    The school district argued that the Chinese American students were given the same education as other student in the mainstream classroom even though the Chinese American students were not fluent in English. Justice William Douglass ruled in favor of the students stating they did not receive a meaningful education. The ruling help bring the issue of ELL programs to the media then to the American public.
  • Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA)

    Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA)
    This act states that no state can deny equal educational opportunities based on race, color, sex, or national origin and school districts must provide instructional programs to overcome language barriers. This act helps provide instructional programs to ELLs all of the country without any regard to their race, gender, color, sex, or national origin. It is a step in the right direction to try to level the playing field for the ELLs.
  • Department of Education

    Department of Education
    The Department of Education was founded in 1980.
  • Castaneda v. Pickard

    Castaneda v. Pickard
    This ruling resulted in the Castaneda standards:
    1) ELL programs must be based on sound educational theory
    2) ELL programs must be implemented with acceptable resources and experienced teachers
    3) ELL programs must be evaluated to determine effectiveness This resulted in the reluctance of the courts to mandate ELL programs. ELL programs would've taken a turn for the worse with less backing from the courts, then there wouldn't set any precedents and push the importance of ELL programs.
  • Proposition 227

    Proposition 227
    Proposition 227 was approved by California voters as part of the English for the Children initiatives, which placed restrictions on bilingual education programs. The restriction on bilingual education programs would have placed restraints on what is taught in the ELLs native language if they would have taught in the native language at all.
  • Proposition 203

    Proposition 203
    Proposition 203 was approved by Arizona voters as part of the English for the Children initiatives, which placed restrictions on bilingual education programs. The restriction on bilingual education programs would have placed restraints on what is taught in the ELLs native language if they would have taught in the native language at all.
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
    During George Bush Jr.'s administration, the Title VII Bilingual Education Act was replaced by Title III - Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students. There are two requirements for school districts to meet: teach English and follow standards of individual states. Native Language instruction is optional. Title I-Improving the Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged helps all children have a fair, equal opportunity to obtain a high quality education.
  • World Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA)

    World Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA)
    This is a Wisconsin led state initiative to develop common ELP standards and assessments. Later in 2012, ACCESS for ELLs was administered to almost one million ELLs in 27 states. WiDA has helped school districts identify students that need to be placed in the ELL program and provides a small snapshot of their language abilities.
  • Question 2

    Question 2
    Question 2 was approved by Massachusetts voters as part of the English for the Children initiatives, which placed restrictions on bilingual education programs. The restriction on bilingual education programs would have placed restraints on what is taught in the ELLs native language if they would have taught in the native language at all.
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)
    During the Barrack Obama administration, this act provided $44 billion in funding for education. Race to the Top (RTTT) was an initiative of the administration to help schools obtain grant money totaling $4 billion to offset the lack of funding due to NCLB. This grant money was a way for school districts to obtain the money they needed for the ELL programs when NCLB blocked funding because of low test scores.
  • Common Core State Standards

    Common Core State Standards
    This was a state led initiative to develop language arts and mathematics standards. The standards are designed to keep the bar set high and prepare students for college work and the real world workforce. CCSS identifies the student knowledge and skill needs but does not require strict teaching methods. Common materials aligned to CCSS can be used nationally and includes specific language standards designed to help all students, as well as ELLs, develop precise language skills.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act Flexibility

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act Flexibility
    With adding flexibility to this act, states could be granted flexibility of the accountability requirements of NCLB. The three key principles were: college and career readiness programs must be in place, there needs to be development of differentiated supports/assessments, accountability standards, and support, and finally strong supports for effective instruction and leadership in schools. The three principles would help provide ELLs with an excellent educational program.
  • Seal of Biliteracy

    Seal of Biliteracy
    The Seal of Biliteracy was established in California to recognize bilingual skills on high school diplomas. This would help ELLs become more marketable when applying for positions that would need a bilingual employee. All the hard work in the ELL program is finally recognized.
  • Next Generation Science Standards

    Next Generation Science Standards
    New science standards were developed by national science and science education associations. Over half the United States is in cooperation with implementing the science standards in school districts. With the new standards for science, there will be opportunities for ELLs to expand their scientific knowledge in their science classrooms.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Every Student Succeeds Act
    An act that maintains Title III should have separate funding for the education of English Learners. This funding will help ESL program grow and obtain resources to benefit ELL students.