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History of Education in the USA

By mito
  • Period: to

    History of Education in the USA

  • Period: to

    Edo Period in Japan: feudalism

  • Jamestown was founded in Virginia.

    Jamestown was founded in Virginia.
    The first English settlement in the Northe America.
  • The Mayflower arrives at Cape Cod.

    The Mayflower arrives at Cape Cod.
  • The first "free school" in Virginia opened.

    The first "free school" in Virginia opened.
    (The date can't be found)
  • Boston Latin School was founded.

    Boston Latin School was founded.
    Boston Latin School, the first American public school, was founded to educate the sons of elite Boston citizens. It is the oldest existing school in the US.
  • Havard College founded in Newtowne, Massachusetts

    Havard College founded in Newtowne, Massachusetts
    The first higher educational institution in the colonial America.
  • The College of William & Mary was founded in Virginia.

    The College of William & Mary was founded in Virginia.
    The 2nd college to open in colonial America.
  • Thomas Jefferson was born in Shadowell, Virginia.

    Thomas Jefferson was born in Shadowell, Virginia.
  • Noah Webster was born.

    Noah Webster was born.
    Noah Webster, the "Father of American Scholarship and Education" and the author of Blue Backed Speller, was born in West Hartford, Connecticut.
  • Declaration of Independence approved.

    Declaration of Independence approved.
    Jefferson wrote: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."
    Fact: Average Lifetime school attendance: less than 82 days.
  • Jefferson's "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge"

    Jefferson's "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge"
    Thomas Jefferson advocated 3 years of free public education for all men, and advanced education for the chosen few in Virginia. Between 1779 and 1817, the bill was thrice defeted.
    "Ignorance and despotism seem made for one another" (Jefferson to Robert Pleasants, 1796)
  • Webster's "Blue Back Speller" was published.

    Webster's "Blue Back Speller" was published.
    To create a new national identity, Noah Webster published a textbook called "Blue Back Speller" that was designed to teach students about the US and its inhabitants. Webster also promoted the new national language to use spelling different from British English. It became the forerunner of Webster's Dictionary of American English.
  • Horace Mann was born in Franklin, Massachusetts.

    Horace Mann was born in Franklin, Massachusetts.
    "American education reformer"
  • James Pillars invented blackboard.

    James Pillars invented blackboard.
  • Segregation of schools was outlawed in Massachusetts.

    Segregation of schools was outlawed in Massachusetts.
  • The 1st public high school, Boston English HS opened.

    The 1st public high school, Boston English HS opened.
  • Education in Mssachusetts

    Education in Mssachusetts
    Average attendance in 1837: 4 months
    Annual Per-Pupil Cost: $2.81
  • Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery.

    Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery.
  • Bishop John Hughes Led the Great School Debate in NYC.

    Bishop John Hughes Led the Great School Debate in NYC.
    Public school textbooks contained anti-Irish, anti-Catholic passages. Bishop John Hughes launched a public protest, demanding tax support for parochial schools.
    (the exact date not found)
  • NYC's Public School Society was replaced by NYC School Board of Education.

    NYC's Public School Society was replaced by NYC School Board of Education.
    The number of Irish children who enrolled in NYC public schools increased.
  • Philadelphia Bible Riot

    Philadelphia Bible Riot
    Anti-Irish sentiments escalated to a series of riots in Philadelphia. Two Catholic churches were burnt down, and 13 (or 14) people were killed and many injured.
  • A group of African Americans petitioned for the end of school segregation in Boston.

    A group of African Americans petitioned for the end of school segregation in Boston.
    About 90 people met in Boston's African Meeting House. They were encouraged by Fredrick Douglass, who told them that their goal was to send their children to the nearest, best public schools in their neighborhood.
  • Horace Man became the Secretary of the Massachusetts.

    Horace Man became the Secretary of the Massachusetts.
    Mann visited thousands of the schools in Massachusetts on horseback to learn the condition of education. He advocated the establishment of "common schools" where all children, elite and poor, share common knowledge free of tuition in order to receive equal chances for life.
  • Education in Massachusetts in 1848

    Education in Massachusetts in 1848
    Average Attendance: 7 months
    Annual Per-Pupil Cost: $4.80
    [In 1837: 4 months, $2.81]
  • Roberts v. Boston

    Roberts v. Boston
    Benjamin Roberts who lived in Boston wanted her 5 yo Sarah to attend not a segregated school but a neighborhood school. When Sarah was turned away from white-only schools, Benjamin sued the city, naming Sarah as Plaintiff.
  • John Hughes was elected to NYC's archbishop.

    John Hughes was elected to NYC's archbishop.
    Hughes used his powerful status in church to create a national system of Catholic schools, which became a major alternative education system in the US.
  • Catharine Beecher founded American Women's Educational Association.

    Catharine Beecher founded American Women's Educational Association.
    Catharine Beecher believed that women were natural teachers. She recruited and educated middle-class young women to be teachers, who then went out to West to teach settlers' children.
  • Segregated schools banned in Massachusetts.

    Segregated schools banned in Massachusetts.
    With the help of lawyers Charles Sumner and Robert Morris, Benjamin Roberts took the cause to the state legislature. As the result, segregated schools became illegal in the state of Massachusetts.
  • The first kindergarten in the US opened in Watertown, Wisconsin.

    The first kindergarten in the US opened in Watertown, Wisconsin.
  • The National Teachers Association was founded in Philadelphia.

    The National Teachers Association was founded in Philadelphia.
  • The US Civil War began.

    The US Civil War began.
  • Lincoln assainated; Civil War ended; Slavery abolished

    Lincoln assainated; Civil War ended; Slavery abolished
    Lincoln assassinated on March 3.
    Civil War ended on April 9.
    13th Amendment ratified on Dec. 6.
  • Department of Education created.

    Department of Education created.
    The goal was to help states establish effective school systems.
  • Period: to

    Meiji Era; Modern Japan

  • The 14th Amendment was ratified

    The 14th Amendment was ratified
    It guaranteed privileges of citizenship including due process and equal protection under the law including the right to vote for freed male slaves.
  • The 1st Indian boarding school opened in Carlisle, Penn.

    The 1st Indian boarding school opened in Carlisle, Penn.
    It became the model of 26 similar schools, all aiming at assimilating Indian children into the mainstream culture.
    It caused alienation and cultural dislocation of younger generations of Native people.
  • USA Public School Expenditures & Enrollment

    USA Public School Expenditures & Enrollment
    Public Schoold Expenditures in 1870: 63 millions ($8.29 per student).
    Public School Enrollment in 1870: 7.6 millions
  • Period: to

    Millions of immigrants arrived the US.

    Between 1890 and 1930, more than 22 millions immigrants landed the US; 3 millions of them were children. For them, schools were where their American dreams began.
  • USA Public School Expenditures

    USA Public School Expenditures
    Public School Expenditures in 1890: 141 millions ($11.10 per student). [up from 63 millions or $8.29 per student in 1870)
    Public School Enrollment in 1890: 12.7 millions (up from 7.6 millions in 1870).
  • John Dewey's Progressive Reform

    John Dewey's Progressive Reform
    John Dewey, the philosopher in the University of Chicago, published "The School and Society, which promoted progressive education, emphasizing learning by doing, not just by memorizing, and allowing each child to develop at his or her own pace. . He is known as the "Father of Progressive Education" or a progressive reformer.
  • World Fair in Paris

    World Fair in Paris
    The US exhibited their progressive education for the whole world to see. Child-centered education was new and experimental then.
  • American Education in 1900

    American Education in 1900
    Children in School in 1900: 50%
    Average Schooling: 5 years
    *2 millions children were working across America.
  • US Steel built a large steel mill at Gary, Indiana.

     US Steel built a large steel mill at Gary, Indiana.
    When US Steel opened its large steel mill at Gary, hundreds of immigrants moved in Gary to get jobs. The town hired William A Ward as superintendent. He was a diciple of John Dewey and established a large progressive public school to tap all kinds of talents of students.
  • William Wirt Became Superintendent in Gary, Indiana

    William Wirt Became Superintendent in Gary, Indiana
    William Wirt, superintendent in Gary, Indiana, implemented "Gary Plan"--a model school for Progressive education advocated by John Dewey. Over 200 cities adopted his model. Even Japanese visited the school to inspect the system.
  • Period: to

    Taisho Era: Democracy

  • Child Labor Law

    Child Labor Law
    Keating-Owen Child Labor Act was signed by President Woodrow Wilson. It prohibited the sale of goods manufactured by children.
  • American version of IQ test created.

    American version of IQ test created.
    Louis M. Terman and his team of Stanford University graduate students completed an American version of the Binet-Simon Scale.
  • The US joined WW I

    The US joined WW I
    The IQ test was used to determine the intelligence level of the soldiers.
  • US Entered WWI

    US Entered WWI
    US entered World War I. It marked the end of Progressivism.
  • John Mitchel Lost NYC Mayoral Election

    John Mitchel Lost NYC Mayoral Election
    NYC's progressive mayor John Mitchel wanted to adopt Gary Plan in NYC schools. His opponent John Hylan won the 1917 mayoral election and cancelled the Gary Plan immediately. NYC schools return to the more traditional system. They also published their own textbooks that focused on English language, intending to Americanize and socialize immigrant children.
  • WW I ended.

    WW I ended.
  • The Progressive Education Association founded.

    The Progressive Education Association founded.
    The goal was to reform American education.
  • Public School Expenditures $1 Billions

    Public School Expenditures in 1920: $1 billions
    17-year-old graduating high school: 17%
  • Tennessee vs John Scopes (the Monkey Trial)

    Tennessee vs John Scopes (the Monkey Trial)
    John Scopes, a high school biology teacher was charged, and later convicted, with the "heinous crime" of teaching evolution.
    *In 1968, the U.S. supreme Court finds the stat of Arkansas' law prohibiting the teaching of evolution in a public school or university unconstitutional.
  • The 1st SAT (Scholoastic Aptitude Test)

    The 1st SAT (Scholoastic Aptitude Test)
  • Period: to

    Showa Era: War & Peace

  • Great Depression began.

    Great Depression began.
    Oct. stock market crash triggered the Great Depression. The school funding was slashed, resulting school closures, teacher layoffs, and lower salaries.
  • The 1st successful school desegregation in California.

    The 1st successful school desegregation in California.
    Mexican-American children were allowed in regular public schools.
  • WW II began.

    WW II began.
  • The G.I. Bill signed by FDR

    The G.I. Bill signed by FDR
    Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
    2 millions veterans attended college or university, doubling the enrollment.
  • By 1945, 51% of American children graduated from HS.

    In 1900, it was 6%.
  • WW II ended.

    WW II ended.
  • 17-year-olds graduating high school: 45%

    17-year-olds graduating high school: 45%
    17-year-old graduating HS in 1900: 6 %
    In 1940s and 50s, Life Adjustment Education was offered for the average students (60% of students population). It included practical lessons on personal hygine, family, dating, cooking, and fly fishing...
  • National School Lunch Act

    National School Lunch Act
  • The US District Court in LA ruled against segregation of Mexican-American students.

    The US District Court in LA ruled against segregation of Mexican-American students.
  • Descrimination Fact in 1950

    Descrimination Fact in 1950
    African Americans segregated by law: 17 states
    Average schooling for Mexican-Americans: 5.4 years
    Disabled children not enrolled in school: 72%
  • Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka

    Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
    In 1951, 13 parents filed a class action law suit, demaning their rights to send their children to neighborhood "white" schools.
    In 1954, the US Spreme Court ruled that racial segregation of publich schools was unconstitutional.
  • Little Rock 9 entered Central HS escorted by a federal troop.

    Little Rock 9 entered Central HS escorted by a federal troop.
    On Sep. 4, Arkansas National Guard escorted 9 students out of school.
    On Sept. 25, President Eisenhower ordered the federal troop to escort students into the school.
  • The Soviet Union launched Sputnik.

    The Soviet Union launched Sputnik.
    The first satellite to orbit the Earth.
    It was viewed as a potential threat to American national security.
    It was also a blow to national pride.
  • The National Defense Education Act (NDEA)

    The National Defense Education Act (NDEA)
    The funding for scientific reserach as well as science, math, and foreign language education was increased as the result.
  • The 1st bilingual public school in the US in Miami was created.

    The 1st bilingual public school in the US in Miami was created.
    Coral Way Elementary School was for Cuban immigrant children arriving in Miami in a large number after the Cuban Revolution.
  • President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, TX.

    President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, TX.
    Schools were closed as the nation mouned its loss.
  • The Civil Rights Act became law.

    The Civil Rights Act became law.
    Lyndon Johnson, a former teacher in TX, signed the Civil Rights Act. The Act prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
    As a part of Lyndon Johnson's "War on Poverty," the act provids federal funds to hel low-income students.
    (Title I, bilingual education)
    *Also passed in 1965: "Higher Education Act" (to increase federal aid to higher education and provide for scholarships, student loans, and establish a National Teachers Corps)
    *Project Head Start also began to provide preschool education for children from low-income families.
  • Immigration Act of 1965

    Immigration Act of 1965
    Lynden Johnson signs the Act (also known as the Hart-Cellar Act).
    It resulted the sharp increase in the numbers of Asians and Latin American immigrants in the US. American classrooms became more diverse than ever.
  • The Equality of Educational Opportunity Study

    The Equality of Educational Opportunity Study
    Also called the "Coleman Report," this study was conducted in response to provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
    It concluded that African American children benefit from attending integrated schools, setting the stage for school "busing" to achieve desegregation.
  • The Bilingual Education Act became law.

    The Bilingual Education Act became law.
    It was made to give federal funding to help children whose first language was not English.
    Also known as Title VII, the law was repealed in 2002 and replaced by the No Child Left Behind Act.
  • Mexican-Americans Dropping out by 8th Grades: 75% in Texas

    Mexican-Americans Dropping out by 8th Grades: 75% in Texas
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.

    Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
    Nobel Prize winner and leader of the American Civil Rights Movement.
  • Herbert R. Kohl published "The Open Classroom"

    Herbert R. Kohl published "The Open Classroom"
    Kohl's book helped to promote open education.
    It emphasized student-centered classrooms and active, holistic learning.
  • Facts on Gender Inequality in 1970

    Facts on Gender Inequality in 1970
    Medical & law degrees awarded to women in 1970: 1 %
    High School athletes: 7.4 % is women in 1970.
  • Victory of Chicano Civil Rights Movement in Crystal City, TX

    Victory of Chicano Civil Rights Movement in Crystal City, TX
    Jose Angel Gutierrez, the leader of Chicano Civil Right Movement, led Mexican-American population to win the school board election. Four out of 7 seats were won by Mexcian-Americans. Gutierrez became the president of the schoold board and implemented various school reforms, including hiring Spanish-speaking teachers, celebrating Chicano history & culture in curriculum, etc.
  • Swann vs. Charlott-Mecklenburg Board of Education

    Swann vs. Charlott-Mecklenburg Board of Education
    The US Spreme Court approved bussing as a tool to correct racial inbalance in schools.
  • Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 became law.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 became law.
    Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in all aspects of education, including female participation in sports.
  • US Involvement in the Vietnam War ended

    US Involvement in the Vietnam War ended
    More than 58,000 service personnel were killed in action during the war.
  • The Rehabilitation Act became law.

    The Rehabilitation Act became law.
    It guarantees civil rights for people with disabilities , requiring schools to provide accommodations to students with disabilities.
  • Lau vs. Nichols Case in San Francisco

    Lau vs. Nichols Case in San Francisco
    The US Spreme Court ruled that the failure of the San Francisco School District to provide English language instruction to Chinese-American students with limited English proficiency violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • The Equal Educational Opportunities Act

    The Equal Educational Opportunities Act
    The Act prohibits discrimination and requires schools to take action to overcome barriers which prevent equal protection.
    This is important law for bilingual education.
  • The Education of All Handicapped Children Act became federal law.

    The Education of All Handicapped Children Act became federal law.
    This act guaranteed a free, appropriate public education that careter to individual needs for all handicapped children.
  • The National Association of Bilingual Education was founded.

    The National Association of Bilingual Education was founded.
  • Fact on Progress in Equality

    Fact on Progress in Equality
    African Americans with High School diplomas: 13.7% in 1950, 51 % in 1980.
    Medical & law degrees awarded to women: 0.095% in 1950, 30% in 1980.
    Average school attendance: 9 years in 1950, 12.5 years in 1980.
  • The Refugee Act of 1980

    The Refugee Act of 1980
    Jimmy Carter signed the act into law.
    It admits regugees for humanitarian reasons.
    It resulted in the resettlement of more than 3 million refugees in the US, including many school-age children.
  • Reagan Era began.

    Reagan Era began.
    Ronald Reagan called for the shift of focus from equality to excellence.
  • "A Nation at Risk" report published.

    "A Nation at Risk" report published.
    It called for a sweeping reform in public education.
    Basic education was emphasized, and computer science was included.
    Longer school day/year, more homework, and high-stakes testing.
    1983-1984: highter graduation requiremnets: 35 states.
  • Core Knowledge Foundation was established.

    Core Knowledge Foundation was established.
    E.D. Hirsch created Core Knowledge curriculum for preschool to 8th graders to give them equal opportunity to attain core knowledge.
    It's a teacher-centered approach: students are expected to learn the same knowldge at the same time.
    *In contrast, Progressive schools are student-centered: students leanr by doing with teachers as their coach.
  • Space Shuttle Challenger exploded.

    Space Shuttle Challenger exploded.
    Christa McAuliffe was chosen by NASA from among more than 11,000 applicants to be the first teacher to go to space. She and her fellow astronauts were killed in the explosion that occurred 73 seconds after the launch.
  • Period: to

    Heisei Era: Into the Future

  • The Milwaukee Parental Choice program was initiated.

    The Milwaukee Parental Choice program was initiated.
    Milwaukee voucher bill allowed selected low income students to attend private schools at the state's expense.
  • The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990

    The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990
    Increased annual immigration to 700,000.
    5,5000 diversity visas (Visa lottery)
  • Minnesota passed the first "charter school" law.

    Minnesota passed the first "charter school" law.
  • City Academy High School opened in St. paul, Minnesota.

    City Academy High School opened in St. paul, Minnesota.
    The nation's first charter school
  • Baltimore City Public Schools signed contract with EAI.

    Baltimore City Public Schools  signed contract with EAI.
    School privatizing project.
    EAI (Education Alternative Inc.) managed public schools in Baltimore for 5 years with 133 million price tag.
    Baltimore school board ended the contract in November, 1995.
  • Improving America's Schools Act (IASA)

    Improving America's Schools Act (IASA)
    Signed by Bill Clinton.
    It included the increased funding for bilingual and immigrant education, provisions for public charter schools, drop-out prevention, and educational technology.
  • Students in Cleveland, Ohio, were allowed to attend religeous schools with school vouchers.

    Students in Cleveland, Ohio, were allowed to attend religeous schools with school vouchers.
  • Alaska legislature enacted High School Graduation Qualify Exam.

    Alaska legislature enacted High School Graduation Qualify Exam.
    The 1st generation that was required to take the exam to get diploma was the graduating class of 2004.
  • California voters passed Proposition 227.

    California voters passed Proposition 227.
    All public school in California are required to give instruction in English only.
  • Columbine High School Massacre

    Columbine High School Massacre
    Two students killed 15 and wounded 23 at Littleton, Colorado.
  • Alternative Education Fact 2000-2001

    Alternative Education Fact 2000-2001
    Students schooled at home: 2.5%
    Limited voucher plans: Milwaukee, Cleveland, & Florida
    Students using publicly funded vouchers: 0.03%
  • 911 terrorist attacks on the US.

    911 terrorist attacks on the US.
    19 terrorists kiled 2976 people in New York, Pentagon, and Pennsylvania.
  • Fact about Public School 2001-2002

    Fact about Public School 2001-2002
    Public school enrollment: 47.8 millions
    Children enrolled in public school: almost 90%.
    "Children are 20% of our pupulation, but 100% of our future.
  • No Child Lef Behind Act (NCLB)

    No Child Lef Behind Act (NCLB)
    It reauthorized the ESEA of 1965 and replaced the Bilingual Education Act of 1968.
    It mandates high-stakes student testing, holds schools accountable for student achievement levels, and provides penalties for schools that do not make adequate yearly progress toward meeting the goals of NCLB.
  • Barack Obama became the 44th President of the US.

    Barack Obama became the 44th President of the US.
    He is the first African-American President ever elected in the US.
  • The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009

    The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009
    Provided more than 90 billion dollars for education, nearly half of which goes to local school districts to prevent layoffs and for school modernization and repair.