history of antarctica

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    the ancient greeks first came up the idea with antarctica, but they have never visited the place. they know about the arctic, and assumed there is another place similar.
  • james cook cross antarctic circle

    In January, James Cook crosses the Antarctic circle and circumnavigates Antarctica, though he doesn't sight land, deposits of rock seen in icebergs showed that a southern continent exists. His comment - "I make bold to declare that the world will derive no benefit from it".
  • captain thaddeus bellingshausen

    Captain Thaddeus Bellingshausen a Russian naval officer in the Vostok and Mirny made the first sighting of the continent, reaching 69° 21'S, 2° 14'W - describing an "icefield covered with small hillocks."
  • 1st known landing

    1st known landing on continental Antarctica by American sealer Captain John Davis, though this is not acknowledged by all historians.
  • most southern point

    British whaler James Weddell discovers the sea named after him and then reaches the most southerly point at that time 74° 15' S. No one else manages to penetrate the Weddell sea again for 80 years.
  • decided antarctica was a continemt

    Separate British, French and American expeditions establish the status of Antarctica as a continent after sailing along continuous coastline.
    In 1840, British naval officer and scientist James Clark Ross takes two ships, the Erebus and the Terror, to within 80 miles of the coast until stopped by a massive ice barrier - now called the Ross Ice Shelf. He also discovers the active volcano that he names after his ship Erebus, and identifies 145 new species of fish (not personally you understand -
  • first survive antarctica winter

    Adrien de Gerlache and the crew of the"Belgica" become trapped in pack ice off the Antarctic Peninsula in the first scientific expedition to the continent. They become the first to survive an Antarctic winter(involuntarily!) as their ship drifts with the ice (they didn't enjoy it).
  • first winter antarctica landmass

    Carsten Borchgrevink leads a British expedition that landed men at Cape Adare and built huts. This was the first time that anyone had wintered on the Antarctic landmass. Believed by some historians to be the first confirmed landing on continental Antarctica.
  • lead first expedition to try reaching south pole

    Captain Scott, UK, leads his first Antarctic expedition to try to reach the South Pole, with Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson. They are forced to turn back two months later having reached 82 degrees south, suffering from snow blindness and scurvy
  • mawson reach south pole

    Australian Douglas Mawson reaches the South Magnetic Pole.
  • shacleton lead expedition

    Shackleton leads expedition to within 156km / 97mls of the South Pole, turns back after supplies are exhausted
  • first time reach south pole

    Norwegian Roald Amundsen leads a five man expedition that reaches the South Pole for the first time.
  • scott die in antarctica after failing to be first to reach south pole

    Britain's Captain Robert Falcon Scott reaches the South Pole to discover he has been beaten by Amundsen.All of the five man team (Scott, Bowers, Evans, Oates and Wilson), are to perish on the return journey only 11 miles from supply depot. Bodies are not discovered until November
  • attempt first crossing of continent

    Shackleton returns to Antarctica in an attempt to complete the first crossing of the continent. The goal is not attained, but one of the greatest adventures of all time follows. Their ship is crushed in the sea ice and a small party sets out for South Georgia and the whaling station. The party is eventually rescued in 1917
  • whaling

    The beginning of large-scale factory ship whaling in the Ross Sea.
  • fly over antarctica

    Australian Sir George Wilkins and American Carl Benjamin Eielson are the first to fly over Antarctica around the peninsula region.
  • fly over continent, first women

    Lincoln Ellsworth - US - flies across the continent.
    Caroline Mikkelsen, Norway, is the first woman to set foot on Antarctica when she accompanies her husband, a whaling captain.
  • aircraft land at south pole

    US aircraft lands at South Pole. First people there since Scott and his team in 1912.
  • first cross antarctica unsupported

    Boerge Ousland (Norway) becomes first person to cross Antarctica unsupported. Taking 64 days from Berkner Island to Scott base towing a 180kg (400lb) sled and using skis and a sail.
  • international polar year

    International Polar Year - Actually Spans two years in order that researchers get the opportunity to work in both polar regions or work summer and winter if they wish.