Captain Cook set off from Engladine in search of a southern continent.
Captain Cook reachd huge ice blocks
Captain Cook reached huge ice blocks that stopped him from travelling further south.He was the fist person to cross the Antarctic Circle and circumnavigate it too.
Captain Thaddeus Bellingshausen of Russia
Captain Thaddeus Bellinghausen, a russian naval officer in the Vostock and Mirney, made the first sightings of the continent,reaching 69° 21'S, 2° 14'W, describing it as being"icefield covered with small hillocks." on Jan 27th 1820.
3 Seperate Expeditions
3 men made separate voyages to the region.They were from the United Kingdom, France and the United States of America.All three men sailed across a continous coastline, which confirmed that Antarctica is in fact a continent.
1st man to walk on Antarctic Peninsula
American sealer, Captain John Davis, walked on the Antarctic Peninsula.
Lord Melville's men spent the entire winter on King George Island after their ship was carried away in a storm.
James Weddell of the United Kingdom
James Weddell, a british whaler, entered the sea and originally named it after King George IV but was later renamed Weddell Sea in 1900 in honour of James Weddell.He got as far south as 74° 15'S at that time.No one else managed to penetrate the Weddell sea again for 80 years.
Lieutenant Jules Dumont D'Urville of France
The King of France sent Lieutanent Jules Dumont D'Urville to claim southern lands for France. This led to the discovery of Joinville Island off the Antarctic Peninsula.
James Clark Ross of Great Britain
James Clark Ross became the first person to explore beyond the pack ice surrounding Antarctica . He discovered the gulf that is now the Ross Sea and also discovered an island containing two volcanoes. He named these volcanoes Erebus and Terror after his ships. The Ross Ice Shelf, which Ross actually called the Victoria Barrier, was also named after this explorer.
Naming of the East Antarctic coastline
D'Urville named the icy cliffs on the East Antarctic coastline after his wife, Adelie. He even named a species of penguin after her.
Lieutenent Charles Wilkes o the United States
Lieutenent Charles Wilkes of the United States headed a large expedition to perform scientific research. He covered ove 2,400 kilometres from Adelie Coast to Enderby Land, proving that Antarctica was a vast continent and not merely an island
Henryk Johan Bull
The first recorded landing on the Antarctic mainland occured when buisnessman Henryk Johan Bull went ashore ay Cape Adare, which faces New Zealand.
Adrien de Gerlache
Adrien de Gerlache and his crew were the first to survive an Antarctic winter after thir ship 'Belgica' became trapped in pack ice off the Antarctic Peninsula on the very first scientific expedition to Antarctica.
Robert Falcon Scott of United Kingdom
Robert Falcon Scott of the British Navy reached the Ross Sea with an expedition of scientists and explorers. Scott ventured inland across the Ross Ice Shelf. This was the first of many inland explorations.
Ernest Shackleton of the United Kingdom
Ernest Shackleton, who had been part of Scott's original team, was determined to find the South Magnetic Pole. He succeeded in his quest in January 1909. Until then, many had thought the pole was beneath a frozen sea.
Douglas Mawson of Australia
Douglas Mawson reaches the South Magnetic Pole.
The Race to the South Pole
The race to the South Pole was on between Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen and Robert Scott. Amundsen reached it firstby less than a month.
First Aeroplane voyage over the Antarctic Peninsula
Sir Hubert Wilkins, Australia, made the first aeroplane voyage over the Antarctic Peninsula.
First Plane over the South Pole
Richard Byrd of the United States Navy flew the first plane over the South Pole on a journey that lasted less than 16 hours.
Caroline Mickkelsen of Norway
Caroline Mickkelsen was the first woman to set foot on Antarctica while she accompanies her husband, a whaling captain (of course!).
America sends the largest ever expedition of over 4700 men, 13 ships and 23 airplanes to Antarctica
First land crossing of the Antarctic continent
Sir Vivian Fuchs, a Britain Geologist, led the first land crossing of the Antarctic continent. This expedition, which started on the 24th of November and was organised by the Commonwealth of Nations, covered a distance of 3 473 kilometres.
International Geophysical Year
12 nations establish over 60 stations in Antarctica. The beginning of international cooperation in Antarctica and the start of the process by which Antarctica becomes "non-national".
Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand
On January 18, Fuchs reached the South Pole and was greeted by New Zealander, Sir Edmund Hillary. Hillary, famous for being one of the first two men to climb Mount Everest in 1953,had journeyed south from Ross Island to meet Fuch's group. The two expedition groups then travelled north and arrived safely at Scott Base on March 2.
The Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty comes to effect. 48 countries have signed it and are willing to keep Antarctica as a land where are countries are free to share for scientific research.
Boerge Ousland of Norway
Boerge Ousland (Norway) becomes first person to cross Antarctica unsupported. Taking 64 days from Berkner Island to Scott base towing a 180kg (400lb) sled and using skis and a sail.
International Polar Year
Actually Spans two years in order that researchers get the opportunity to work in both polar regions or work summer and winter if they wish.