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Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 to July 17, 1912)

  • La Science et l'Hypothèse

    La Science et l'Hypothèse
    Henri Poincaré publishes one of his most famous books, Science and Hypothesis. In his book, he states that there are no absolute truths in science. He also states that many claims by science are just results of "conventions" (Lalande 596). He concluded that scientists would automatically choose the easier hypothesis to work with.
  • La Valeur de la Science

    La Valeur de la Science
    Poincaré publishes The Value of Science, which includes a more detailed take on his previous book Science and Hypothesis. He questions the philosophy of science and expresses that logic is linked to intuition. He notes that there are three types of intuition: an appeal to sense and to imagination, generalization by induction, and intuition of pure number (Heinzmann et al.).
  • Science et Méthode

    Science et Méthode
    Poincaré publishes his third book, Science and Method. In this book, he scrutinizes the methodology of science. According to Poincaré, since scientists are not able to observe everything, they are "forced to make a selection" (Poincaré 9). Poincaré also states that errors caused by "imperfections in our senses" are partially compensated by chance (Poincaré 10).
  • Dernières Pensées

    Dernières Pensées
    Last Thoughts by Poincaré was published posthumously. In this book, Poincaré streamlines the conception of the contingency of science. He writes, "What is the use of wondering whether in the world of intrinsic things the laws can vary with time whereas in a similar world the word “time” is perhaps meaningless? What this world consists of, we cannot say nor conjecture, we can only conjecture what it seems, or might seem to be to minds not too different from ours (Polizzi 2013)."