Growth/role of Federal Government

  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    Under this act, certain products from the colonies such as sugar, tobacco, and indigo, could only be shipped to England, in an effort to help British merchants. The acts required that all goods going from anywhere in Europe to the American colonies must pass through England first. The Navigation Acts met much resistance from the colonies. They were also resisted by the Dutch, a British trading rivalry, because Britain didnt want them trading with America.
  • Dominion of New England

    Dominion of New England
    This was led by Sir Edmund Andros, and it revoked the charters of all the colonies from NJ to Maine and placed immense powers in the hands of Andros. Under direct British control, the colonies became angry because it was just another restriction the British had put on them.
  • Salutary neglect

    Salutary neglect
    British politics during the reigns of George I and II helped to foster a desire for more self-government in the American colonies. During this period of salutary neglect, British policies were most concerned with defending their territory at home and abroad and strengthening the economy and trade. Strict control of political affairs in the colonies was not a priority at the time, which the colonies were happy about. Therefore, British politics at the time weakened its hold in America.
  • Molasses Act

    Molasses Act
    Parliament enacted this law to tighten British control over colonial trade. It was specifically to limit trade between America and the French, who had been giving the colonies molasses from the French West Indies. The act put high duties on imported molasses, but the colonies resisted and continued to smuggle French molasses in spite of British efforts to prevent it. This was another way that the colonies rebelled against British legislation during the era.
  • Albany Congress

    Albany Congress
    Delegates from seven northern and middle colonies met at this to coordinate their policies concerning further westward settlement and concerning the natives. The representatives couldn't agree on main points, so the Governor of VA sent George Washington (militia officer) to stop the French construction in PA. Washington was defeated there, and native tribes decided to support the French. This was one of the events that led to teh Seven Years War.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    This treaty ended the French & Indian/ 7 Years War, and more importantly ended French influence in the Americas. Most French territory in America was given to the British, who now controlled over half of the continent. Although the British and the colonies celebrated their victory together, tensions arose between the two that led to colonial rebellion.
  • Currency Act

    Currency Act
    This act was one of the several measures British prime minister George Grenville took to reform the trading relationship between Britain and America. It made the printing of paper money illegal in the colonies. The impact of this bill was significant because there was a lack of hard currency in the colonies.
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    This act was also passed by Grenville because the colonies were importing large amounts of French molasses. It increased penalties for colonial smuggling and ensured that colonists would pay the British a duty for all molasses brought into the colonies. The post-war economy was already suffering, and Grenville's acts only made it worse.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    This act proposed by Grenville created the greatest resentment in the colonies. It required a purchased stamp on all printed material purchased in the colonies: newspapers, wills, official documents, etc. It was controversial in the colonies because it was the first time Parliament directly taxed the colonies, rather than self-imposed. The other purpose of this act was to raise revenue for the British troops in America. It was repealed because British merchants feared it would hurt their profits
  • Quartering Act

    Quartering Act
    This was seen as the final straw for the colonists. It insisted that colonial governments provide food and accommodations for British troops stationed in the colonies, in an effort to help defend Britain.The colonists perceived that they were paying for the troops that were there to control the colonies, which made them furious.
  • Stampt Act Congress

    Stampt Act Congress
    Nine colonies met together at this Congress, where representatives reaffirmed the principle that taxation of the colonies be imposed only from within the colonies, and not Britain. This was significant because it helped persuade the British Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act soon after.
  • Declaratory Act

    Declaratory Act
    After the colonies celebrated the repeal of the Stamp Act, this law was passed which stated that Parliament had the right to tax and pass legislation regarding the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." This muted the colonists' rejoicing and they became fearful again of the Parliament's future measures.
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    Charles Townshend had a large hand in creating policy concerning the American colonies. He decided to propose new duties on glass, paper, and tea in an attempt to extract more income for the government from colonial trade. The acts were different from pervious duties on colonial trade; these were for goods produced in Britain.Also, income from these acts would be used to pay the salaries of British officials in the colonies. The colonies felt Parliament shouldn't use their power to raise revenue
  • Committee Of Correspondence

    Committee Of Correspondence
    Samuel Adams established this group in Boston, and similar groups were created throughout MA, VA, and other colonies. They were designed to share information on British activities in the Americas, as well as to share details of demonstrations, protests, etc. Some argue that these committees were the first permanent machinery of protest in the colonies.
  • Tea Act

    Tea Act
    This act provided the American colonies with cheap tea, but at the same time would force the colonists to admit that Parliament had a right to tax them. The Sons of Liberty resisted this in several colonies, with the most dramatic event being the Boston Tea Party.
  • Intolerable Acts

    Intolerable Acts
    In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British passed these acts to punish the colonies. The port of Boston was closed except for military ships and ships permitted by British customs officials. It also prohibited local meetings within the colonies, and put the Quartering Act into effect again.
  • Declaration of Rights and Grievances

    Declaration of Rights and Grievances
    John Adams proposed this compromise at the Continental Congress which stated that the colonists would not object to measures designed to regulate their external commerce. The colonies would resist any measures that taxed them without their consent. This was a way for the colonists to get their message across to Parliament.
  • Suffolk Resolves

    Suffolk Resolves
    These were sent from Suffolk County, MA to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. It called for the citizens of the colonies to prepare to take up arms against the British. It also stated that the colonies would continue to boycott English imports and approve the efforts of MA to operate a colonial government free from British control until the Intolerable Acts were repealed.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    The purpose of the second meeting was to get the American colonies ready for war. It authorized the printing of paper money to buy supplies for the war, established a committee to supervise foreign relations with other countries, and created a Continental army under George Washington. Many delegates hoped that conflict could be avoided with the British after these measures. The Congress also sent the Olive Branch Petition to George III as a final gesture for peace.
  • Bicameral Legislatures

    Bicameral Legislatures
    Adopted by the authors of the US Constitution, this was a legislative structure consisting of two houses. Membership of the states in one house (House of Representatives) is determined by population, while in the Senate, all states have equal representation. This was a conscious effort to broaden the base of American government .
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    This document established the first government of the US; the federal government was given limited powers and the states were given much power. The main oform of government was a unicameral legislature, in which each state would have one vote.Since the national government could not tax, they printed large amounts of paper money called Continentals which caused inflation and economic distress.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    This treaty ended the Revolutionary War. Great Britain agreed to recognize American independence and gave Americans the territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.
  • Northwest Ordinances

    Northwest Ordinances
    These bills authorized the sale of lands in the Northwest Territory to raise money for the federal government, and laid out procedures for territories to attain statehood.
    1784: provided governmental structures for the territories and a system by which a territory could become a state.
    1785: spelled out the terms for the orderly sale NW land.
    1787:any territory with 60,000 white males could apply for statehood, provided a bill of rights for settlers, and prohibited slavery north of Ohio River.
  • Virginia Plan

    Virginia Plan
    This was drafted by James Madison, and adopted by delegates to the convention that created the Constitution. This plan proposed a stronger central government than had existed under the Articles of Confederation. It prevented too much power being placed in the hands of one person or persons and stated that the powers of the federal government be divided amongst officials of executive, judicial, and legislative branches.
  • New Jersey Plan

    New Jersey Plan
    As the Constitution was being drafted and debated over, the NJ Plan was created and stated that the legislature should have a great deal of power to regulate trade, and that it should consist of one legislative house (unicameral), with each state having one vote. The plan was unpopular with larger states.
  • Great Compromise

    Great Compromise
    This was the Connecticut plan that stated that one house of the Congress would be based on population (House of Representatives) while in the other house states would have equal representation (Senate). Neither the Virginia or New Jersey Plans were effected because this was the final plan to be adopted.
  • Electoral College

    Electoral College
    This was created after the Great Compromise, since many representatives were still skeptical of the national government's power. The Electoral College voted for the chief executive of the national government, and membership to it would be chosen by individual states. This diminished fears of the federal government's massive power.
  • Three-Fifths Compromise

    Three-Fifths Compromise
    This was created at the Constitutional Convention, since there was great controversy over how slaves should be counted in determining membership in the House of Representatives. To increase their representation, Southern states argued that slaves should be counted as people, whereas Northerners argued they should not count since they could not vote. The compromise arrived at was that each slave would count as three-fifths of a free person.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    These are the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, protecting the freedoms of speech, press, right to bear arms, and other basic rights of American citizens. Antifederalists unanimously supported the addition of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution because they would be added protections against the tyranny of the federal government. Therefore, when it was passed, it quieted the Antifederalists and their fears of authoritarian government.
  • Proclamation of Neutrality

    Proclamation of Neutrality
    This was passed by Washington, and allowed American merchants to prosper by trading with both Britain and France during the French Revolution. This put America in a relatively neutral position, and asserted Washington's foreign policies as president.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    Many settlers in Western frontier territory in the early 1790s questioned the power that the federal government had over them. In 1794, settlers in the Ohio territory refused to pay federal excise taxes on whiskey and attacked tax officials who were supposed to collect these taxes. Large numbers of whiskey rebels threatened to attack Pittsburgh and other cities. President Washington was thus forced to send in federal troops to put down the rebellion, asserting power of the federal government.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    This treaty between the US & Britain was designed to ease increasing tensions between the two nations. Chief Justice John Jay negotiated with the British after they searched and seized American ships. The British did make some concessions to the Americans, including abandoning the forts they occupied in the interior of the continent. However, Britain refused to make concessions to America over the rights of American ships. Tensions over this issue would eventually be a cause of the War of 1812.
  • Alien & Sedition Acts

    Alien & Sedition Acts
    These laws were proposed by John Adams and threatened the rights of Americans as a way of tightening security within the US.
    Alien: This act gave the president the right to deport any immigrant who was felt to be dangerous to the peace and safety of the US.
    Sedition: This act stated that the administration could prohibit any attacks on the president of Congress that were deemed to be malicious.
  • Kentucky & Virignia Resolutions

    Kentucky & Virignia Resolutions
    Passed by the legislatures in these two states, these resolutions maintained that the Alien and Sedition acts passed by Congress and John Adams went beyond the powers that the Constitution stated belonged to the federal government.They predated that later Southern argument that individual states could 'nullify' federal laws deemed unconstitutional by the states.
  • Judiciary Act

    Judiciary Act
    This bill was passed by the Federalist Congress before the inauguration of President Jefferson. Federalists in this bill attempted to maintain control of the judiciary by reducing the number of Supreme Court judges and by increasing the number of federal judges. So, in a series of "midnight appointments," Adams appointed Federalists to office just before he left. It was repealed by Congress a year later.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana territory, which ranged from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, from Napoleon for $15 million. This purchase made eventual westward movement possible for numbers of Americans. Many federalists opposed the purchase because they feared it would decrease their economic and political power. Even though the Constitution didn't mention that the federal government had the right to acquire new territory, Jefferson felt it was essential to US growth.
  • Embargo of 1807

    Embargo of 1807
    This was passed by President Jefferson, and it banned all American trade with Europe. American ships could not enter the seas until England and France stopped their harassment of American shipping. As a result of the war between England and France, America's sea rights as a neutral power were threatened, so Jefferson hoped the embargo would force both European countries to respect American neutrality. The act had a disastrous effect on the economy and was unpopular with merchants and society.
  • Non-Intercourse Act

    Non-Intercourse Act
    James Madison saw that America had fallen into economic depression after the Embargo of 1807, so he passed this act to open trade with all countries except England and France. Trade witht those countries would open up again as soon as they respected America's neutrality. However, the British and French ignored this act.
  • Hartford Convention

    Hartford Convention
    This was a meeting of New England Federalists a week before the Treaty of Ghent was signed, where they threatened that New England would secede from the US unless trade restrictions imposed by President Madison were lifted. American victory in the war made their protests seem pointless. Federalist influence in politics began to deteriorate.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    This was a treaty between the US and Britain which ended the War of 1812. It restored diplomatic relations between the two countries but did nothing to address the issues that had initially caused the war.
  • American System

    American System
    This economic plan was supported by Henry Clay and James Madison in the years after the War of 1812. It was finally implemented under James Monroe. It promoted vigorous growth of the American economy and the use of protective tariffs to encourage Americans to buy more domestic goods rather than European goods.
  • Tariff of 1816

    Tariff of 1816
    This raised tariff rates to nearly 22%, providing more than adequate protection for American business interests and revenues for improvements in the internal transportation system of the US.
  • Second National Bank

    Second National Bank
    This bank was established under President Madison as a way to spur national economic growth after the War of 1812 by making credit readily available. After an economic downturn in 1818, the bank shrank the amount of currency available for loans, an act that helped to create the economic collapse of 1819.
  • American Colonization Society

    American Colonization Society
    This group opposed slavery on the grounds that it encouraged contact between blacks and whites. This stated that the best way to end the slavery problem in the US was for blacks to emigrate to Africa. By 1822, a few American blacks emigrated to Liberia.The organization's views were later rejected by most abolitionists.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    This political solution was devised by Henry Clay to keep the number of slave states and free states equal. Missouri entered the Union as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state. Any states north of the 36'30 parallel would enter as free states. Many people believed the compromise would only be temporary.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    This proclamation stated that countries in the Western Hemisphere were off-limits to European control. These states were henceforth not to be considered for subjects of future colonization by any European powers.
  • Spoils System

    Spoils System
    This was a system used heavily during the presidency of Andrew Jackson wherby political supporters of the winning candidate are given jobs in the government as a way of appreciating their loyalty.
  • Removal Act of 1830

    Removal Act of 1830
    This Congressional act authorized the removal of all Native American tribes east of the Mississippi to the west. The Trail of Tears and other forced migrations caused the deaths of thousands of natives. Many Native Americans were never able to adjust to the alien environment found west of the Mississippi and died of disease of exhaustion.
  • Force Act

    Force Act
    This act gave President jackson the power to invade any state if that action was necessary to enforce federal law. Therefore, jackson sent troops and federal marshals to South Carolina to collect tariff payments there. The bill was passed in response to nullification of federal tariff regulation by the South Carolina legislature. This caused John Calhoun to resign as vice president.
  • Bank War

    Bank War
    Political battles surrounded the attempt by President Jackson to greatly reduce the power of the second National Bank. Jackson claimed the bank was designed to serve special interests in America and not the common people.So, he ordered that the money in the bank be removed and placed in state banks. Nicholas Biddle tried to keep the National Bank going by increasing interest rates and calling in loans that had been made to state banks. The result of this war was the Panic of 1837.
  • Oregon Treaty

    Oregon Treaty
    This treaty gave most of Oregon to the Americans, since some of it was controlled by the British. "5440 or fight" became the rallying cry for expansionists who wanted all of Oregon to be under American control.
  • Wilmost Proviso

    Wilmost Proviso
    David Wilmost proposed that slavery should be prohibited in all territories gained in the treaty ending the Mexican-American war. It was passed by the House four times and rejected by the Senate each time. Each debate concerning the bill stirred up intense sectional differences concerning slavery in the territories. John Calhoun argued that the federal government had no right to outlaw something in an American territory that was legal in a number of American states.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty officially ended the Mexican-American war. For $15 million the US acquired the TX territory north of the Rio Grande River, New Mexico, and California. The American government also assumed all claims of Americans against the Mexican government. Many who had favored the war considered the treaty too generous to the defeated Mexicans.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    This was part of the Compromise of 1850, and it set up special commissions in Northern states to determine if an accused runaway slave really was one.According to regulations, after the verdict, commissioners were given more money if the accused was found to be a runaway than if he or she was found not to be one. Some Northern legislatures passed laws attempting to circumvent the Fugitive Slave Act.
  • Gadsden Purchase

    Gadsden Purchase
    President Pierce authorized the purchase from Mexico of a strip of territory running through Arizona and New Mexico. He wanted to secure that the southern route of the transcontinental railroad would be in American territory. It also gave America an additional southern route for trade.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    This act was crafted by Stephen Douglas and allowed the settlers in the Kansas and Nebraska territories to decide if those territories would be slave or free. It caused controvery and bloodshed throughout the territories, and large numbers of settlers moved in before the vote in Kansas. After the vote, violence between the two sides intensified.
  • Freeport Doctrine

    Freeport Doctrine
    Introduced by Stephen Douglas in the Lincoln-Douglas debates, the idea that despite the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision, a territory could still prevent slavery by electing officials who were opposed to it and by creating laws and regulations that would make slavery impossible to enforce. Douglas proposed this after Lincoln had asked him how the residents of a territory could exclude slavery in light of the Dred Scott decision.
  • Crittenden Plan/Compromise

    Crittenden Plan/Compromise
    This proposed that the federal government guaranteed the existence of slavery in any state where it existed, and that the line of the Missouri Compromise be extended all the way to the Pacific, with territories to the north of the line being free from slavery and those south having slavery. Republicans in Congress rejected this plan, since it went away from the concept of "free soil" that Lincoln had just been elected on.
  • Anaconda Plan

    Anaconda Plan
    This plan was proposed by Winfield Scott, and was reviewed more carefully by Lincoln. It was a critical component of intial Union plans to win the Civil war, as it called for the capture of critical southern ports and eventual control of the Mississippi River, which would create major economic and strategic difficulties for the Confederacy. Industrial goods that the South had imported from the North earlier could not be obtained from Europe either.
  • The Homestead Act

    The Homestead Act
    The federal government wanted to prevent slavery from expanding to the west so they created this law. It gave 160 acres to farmers who wished to build homes and improve the land for crops. This was seen as a major give away program.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    This was an edict by Lincoln that abolished slavery in the Confederate states. Freed slaves in Southern territories were controlled by the Union army. It did not affect the four slave states that were still part of the Union, so as not to alienate them. The proclamation gave the Northeners a moral justification to continue fighting just as they had been weakening. Northern blacks supported this, while Southerners condemned it. Some Northern whites feared that ex-slaves would take their jobs.
  • Martial Law

    Martial Law
    During a state of emergency, when rule of law may be suspended and government is controlled by military or police authorities. During the Civil war, Kentucky was placed under martial law by President Lincoln. This showed how the power of the executive expanded during the war.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    This speech was made by Lincoln at a dedication ceremony for a cemetery for Union soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. Lincoln stated that freedom should exist in the US for all men, and that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
  • Ten Percent Plan

    Ten Percent Plan
    This was Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction, and to get former Confederates to rejoin the Union. It offered full pardons to persons living in Confederate states who would take an oath of allegiance to the US. Once 10% of the citizens of a state had taken such an oath, the state could take steps to rejoin the Union. Radical Republicans in the US Senate felt that this plan was much too lenient to the South.
  • Wade-Davis Act

    Wade-Davis Act
    Congress passed this bill in response to the 10% Plan. It set out much more difficult conditions than had been proposed by Lincoln for Southern states to reenter the Union. All former officers of the Confederacy would be denied citizenship under this. To vote, a person would have to take an oath that he had never helped the Confederacy in any way, and half of all white males in a state would have to swear loyalty to the Union before statehood was considered. Lincoln pocket vetoed it.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    Abolished slavery in the US and all of its territories, and other forms of involuntary servitude. Final approval of this amendment depended on ratification by newly constructed legislatures in eight states that were former members of the Confederacy. This was a big step during Reconstruction and of American history.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    This granted freedmen all the benefits of federal citizenship and promised that federal courts would uphold these rights. It struck down Black Codes and defined the rights of all citizens. In cases where rights were violated, federal troops would be used for enforcement.This act also helped to enforce the 13th Amendment. It was passed by Congress over President Andrew Johnson's veto.
  • Reconstruction Act

    Reconstruction Act
    This placed the Southern states under military rule, with the South being divided into five regions and a military general in control of each region. Former Confederate states were ordered to hold new constitutional conventions to form state constitutions that allowed qualified blacks to vote and provided them with equal rights. It barred former Confederate supporters from voting and required that the 14th Amendment be passed in all former Confederate states.
  • Tenure of Office Act

    Tenure of Office Act
    This act was designed to limit the influence of President Johnson. It took away his role as commander in chief of American military forces and stated that Congress/Senate had to approve the removal of government officials made by the president. In 1868, Johnson attempted to fire Secretary of War Stanton without Congress's approval, thus helping set the stage for his impeachment hearings soon after.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    Anti-black riots in New Orleans in early 1866 caused Radical Republicans to push for the passage of this amendment. It stated that "all persons born or naturalized in the US" were citizens. In addition, all former Confederate supporters were prohibited from holding public office. States that did not give freedmen the vote would thus reduce their representation in Congress. President Johnson opposed the ratification of the 14th Amendment, but it still passed.
  • Farmer's Alliance

    Farmer's Alliance
    The Alliance was formed because of the farmers' discontent with corporations' trusts and monopolies controlling them. They seeked government support, but didnt gain it like they hoped for.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    This final act of Reconstruction stated that a person could not be denied the right to vote because of the color of their skin or condition of servitude. This extended the rights of blacks to vote to vote in the North as well. The elections in the South in 1870 allowed thousands of Southern blacks to vote for the first time, thus causing whites to view the entire process with disgust. In addition, 630 blacks were elected as representatives in Southern state legislatures and 16 to Congress.
  • Reconstruction

    Reconstruction
    Capitalism restricted the government from interfering a lot, which allowed larger corporations to control the economy. This laissez-faire policy gave power to the wealthy class but didn't benifit the working class at all.
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    This political event officially ended Reconstruction. Representatives of Southern states agreed not to oppose the official election of Republican Rutherford B Hayes as president despite massive election irregularities. In return, the Union army stopped enforcing Reconstruction legislation in the South and the federal troops were removed. As a result, blacks in the South were reduced to second-class citizens, and Southern hatred of Republican policies would make the South more Democratic.
  • The "Ghost Dance"

    The "Ghost Dance"
    The federal government outlawed this native cultural dance in an effort to force Indians to give up a part of their religion. The dance was seen by the government as a plan to revolt against them, and resisting assimilation to the American culture. When the cult spread to other tribes, federal troops were sent in, which lead to the Battle of Wounded Knee.
  • The Dawes Act

    The Dawes Act
    In retalliation to the growing Indian problem, the Federal Government created this law with efforts to assimilate the Indians into the American culture. It gave 160 acres of private land to Native Americans which dissolved tribal ownership of land. If they behaved well then they were granted full title to their holdings as well as U.S. citizenship.
  • Conservation Reform

    Conservation Reform
    Desert Land Act (1887): The federal government agreed to sell arid land cheaply, only if the purchaser confirmed to irrigate it within 3 years.
    Forest Reserve Act (1891): This authorized the president to set aside public forests as national parks or reserves. Because of this act, thousands of trees were saved from being cut down for lumber.
  • Oklahoma Territory

    Oklahoma Territory
    The federal government opens up the unsettled Oklahoma territory to the public. Eager "sooners" illegally cross the borders before it was officially opened. Federal troops were immediately sent in to evict the trespassers. On the date of legal opening, "boomers" waited on the boundary line to eventually stampede into the land of their new homes. This represents the federal government's involvement in land affairs, because they wanted to expand and settle the west.
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act

    Sherman Silver Purchase Act
    This law allowed the coinage of silver to be put into circulation along with gold, and was much more than what the Bland-Allison Law permitted. Under this act the United States was loosing massive amounts of gold, and the value of the dollor significantly decreased. This caused President Cleveland to repeal the act, causing the Panic of 1893, greatly hurting the economy.
  • McKinley Tariff

    McKinley Tariff
    This raised barriers against Hawaiin sugar products. Americans wanted to annex Hawaii so that they could overcome the tariff, but Queen Liliuokalani refused. This caused a revolt of Americans in Honolulu, supported by troops. The tariff raised support for Hawaiin annexation.
  • Phillippines Purchase

    Phillippines Purchase
    American pays Spain $20 million for the Filipino Islands, one of Spain's greatest bargains. However, with this new territory, America has more of a burden on its hands.
  • Homestead Strike

    Homestead Strike
    The strike at the Carnegie steel plant in Pittsburgh, caused by workers angry about pay cuts, was suppressed when the government sent in Pinkerton detectives. The strikers fought back, killing some of the detectives, and forcing others to surrender. Federal troops were then called in to break up the strike and the union too. This could be seen as another event in which the government made an alliance with a large manufacturing business.
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    The federal government became involved by sending in troops to supress the strikers at Pullman Palace. The workers saw this as a biased action against them because they felt that the government was making alliances with the big corporations.
  • Conservation Reform continued

    Conservation Reform continued
    Carey Act (1894): Federal land was distributed to the states under this law, only on the condition that it be irrigated and settled. This led to the cultivation of vast, barren lands that were on the verge of becoming deserts.
    Newlands Act (1902): This act authorized the government to collect money from the sale of western public lands, and use the profits for irrigation projects. All the money was then put into a fund to finance such projects like the Roosevelt Dam.
  • Teller Amendment

    Teller Amendment
    This proviso stated that when the US overthrows Spanish rule, Cubans would be free. The amendment caused Europeans to think of imperialistic gains. However, when Spain was defeated by America in the war, Cuba didn't recieve its freedom immediately like promised.
  • Annexation of Hawaii

    Annexation of Hawaii
    Hawaiin residents were granted US citizenship and recieved full territorial status in 1900 with the annexation. This was seen as a way of "Americanizing" the citizens.
  • Spanish/American conference

    Spanish/American conference
    Spanish and American negotiators met in Paris to agree on resolutions. Cuba was set free from Spain's rule, while America acquired Guam, Puerto Rico, and later the Philippines.
  • Open Door Note

    Open Door Note
    Created by John Hay, this policy stated that all great powers (especially European) in their spheres of influence, were to respect Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition.
  • Foraker Act

    Foraker Act
    With the growing population of Puerto Rico, Congress allows it a limited degree of popular government.
  • Platt Amendment

    Platt Amendment
    Cuban was forced to write their own constitution, which allowed US troops to intervene only to restore order and provide a mutual protection. Cubans promised to sell/lease naval stations (specifically Guantanamo) to America.
  • Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy

    Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy
    President Teddy Roosevelt used his "big stick" to make aggressive diplomatic choices. He believed the president should lead above the government. He used his big stick in taking over managament of tariff collections in the Dominican Republic, who wasn't very happy about it.
  • Hay- Pauncefote Treaty/Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

    Hay- Pauncefote Treaty/Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
    In the first treaty, England agreed to let the US build the canal but conceded the right to fortify it. However, there was much debate over whether it should be built in Nicaragua or Panama. The final location was confirmed to be in Colombia; the country's government granted the US a 6 mile wide zone in return for $10 million. When the pact was reviewed by the Bogota Senate, they outright rejected it. Leader of the Panama Canal Company Bunau-Varilla, after his country's revolution, finally signe
  • Elkins Act

    Elkins Act
    This law imposed heavy fines on railroads that gave special rebates, as well as the shippers that accepted them.
  • Hepburn Act

    Hepburn Act
    More effective than the Elkins, this law restricted free passes. It expanded the ICC, to include express companies, sleeping car companies, and pipelines.
  • Meat Inspection Act/Pure Drug & Food Act

    Meat Inspection Act/Pure Drug & Food Act
    Congress stated that meat to be shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection.
  • Gentlemen's Agreement

    Gentlemen's Agreement
    Japan agreed to stop the flow of their laborers into California by withholding passports. TR was worried that this law would cause Japan to think that America feared the Japanese immigrants.
  • Aldrich-Vreeland Act

    Aldrich-Vreeland Act
    Due to a currency shortage in the economy, this law was created so that national banks could issue emergency currency backed by collateral. This paves the way for the Federal Reserve Act.
  • Payne-Aldrich Bill

    Payne-Aldrich Bill
    This tariff was originally supposed to be moderately reducted, but Senator Nelson Aldrich added numerous revisions to it. President Taft signed it, which angered the Republican progressives who wanted to lower the barriers.
  • Panama Canal Tolls Act

    Panama Canal Tolls Act
    American coastwise shipping was exempted from tolls, which provoked Britain, who would suffer from that. Wilson persuaded Congress to repeal the act in 1914.
  • 17th Amendment

    17th Amendment
    Direct election of senators.
  • Underwood Tariff

    Underwood Tariff
    One of Wilson's primary goals during his presidency was to reduced tariff rates and import fees substantially, which was accomplished through this tariff. When Wilson proposed the bill, he appeared before Congress and presented it, instead of sending it over to the Capitol.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    This act created the Federal Reserve Board, which oversaw a nationwide system of 12 regional reserve districts, each with its own central bank. The banks gave the public more control even though they were owned by institutions. The board could also issue paper money, Federal Reserve Notes, which increased the amount of money in circulation. In 1914, Congress passed the Federal Trade Commission Act, allowing the commission to overwatch industries engaged in interstate commerce.
  • Clayton Anti-Trust Act

    Clayton Anti-Trust Act
    This law lengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act's business practices, and conferred benefits on labor. It also sought to exempt labor /agricultural organizations from antitrust prosecution, and legal strikes and peaceful picketing.
  • Wilsonian Progressivism Measures

    Wilsonian Progressivism Measures
    Federal Farm Loan Act (1916): Credit was made available for farmers at low interest rates.
    Warehouse Act (1916): This authorized loans on the security of staple crops .
    La Follette Seamen's Act (1915): Sailors were given relief through this law, which required decent treatment and a living wage on American merchant ships. However, this crippled America's marine since freight rates increased dramatically because of the crew's wages.
  • Wilsonian Progressivism Measures cont.

    Wilsonian Progressivism Measures cont.
    Workingmen's Compensation Act (1916): This granted assistance to employees during periods of disability/sickness by paying for medical bills.
    Adamson Act (1916): An 8 hour workday was finally established for all employees on interstate commerce trains, paying extra for overtime.
  • Jones Act

    Jones Act
    This granted the Philippines territorial status and promised their independence as soon as a stable government was established.
  • Declaration of War

    Declaration of War
    After many unlawful attacks by German submarines, Wilson finally decides to declare war on them. By doing so, he went against his neutrality belief, but believed it was necessary to protect the rights of the citizens. His declaration bore the trademark "Made in Germany."
  • Cuban Revolt

    Cuban Revolt
    Congress passes a resolution ordering Clevaland to recognize the belligerency of the revolted Cubans. President Cleveland refuses, claiming that the Cuban government consisted of fugitive leaders, and said that the commander in chief would not mobilize his army.
  • American troops to Cuba

    American troops to Cuba
    When Spanish forces entered Cuba, the American east grew worried. America responded by sending troops to Santiago to encounter the Spanish under General Cervera.
  • Espionage/Sedition Acts

    Espionage/Sedition Acts
    Espionage Act (1917): Prohibited anti-war activities; anyone that tried to help the enemy or spoke against the war could be charged and sent to jail.
    Sedition Act (1918): This law was against disloyal speech concerning the government, flag, or military draft...it was aimed towards verbal expression/opinion.
    Both of these acts were targeted towards socialists, peace leaders, IWW, and any group that wanted to express their opinion on war.
  • Selective Service Act

    Selective Service Act
    Conscription was the only way that America could mobilize an army quickly in order to send troops to help the Allies. There was much debate on the draft, and even though Wilson disliked it, he had to accept for the good of the country. The act required all males between 21-30 to enlist in the army, but on registration day many "draft dodgers" and conscientious objectors escaped the war, since no exemptions were allowed. However, American forces quickly replaced the worn-out troops in France.
  • 14 Points/League Of Nations

    14 Points/League Of Nations
    Wilson's 14 Points were aimed at inspiring the Allies to make mightier efforts in the war and to demoralize enemy governments. The important points were:
    -abolish secret treaties
    -freedom of the seas
    -removal of economic barriers
    -reduction of armaments
    -adjustment of colonial claims
    Wilson's most important point was the League of Nations, a world wide assembly to provide security on certain affairs. He strived that it would protect the independence and territorial status of all countries.
  • WWI Armistice

    WWI Armistice
    Germany laid down its arms on this day at 11 am, as America rejoiced because they had won the war. The US contributed lots to the war effort, but there most significant was that they supplied fresh troops for the Allies, who were becoming exhausted from the endless fighting. Germany's reparations were to be made out later.
  • Paris Peace Conference/Treaty of Versailles

    Paris Peace Conference/Treaty of Versailles
    The Big Four (Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Orlando, Wilson) met in Paris to discuss terms of peace after the war. While Britain and France mainly wanted Germany to pay its reparations, Wilson's goal was to create the League of Nations. The other representatives weren't supportive of it, and that came into conflict when they attempted to make the Treaty of Versailles. There was much opposition to the League by Senators back in America, but eventually the Treaty excluded it in the end.
  • Volstead Act

    Volstead Act
    This act clarified the 18th Amendment, and defined what alcohol was, and made it illegal for scientific and religious services.
  • 18th Amendment

    18th Amendment
    The prohibition of alcohol was finally achieved, restricting the many saloons in the nation. This amendment was aided by the Food & Fuel Administration efforts previously.
  • Esch Cummins Transportation Act

    Esch Cummins Transportation Act
    This act encouraged the private consolidation of railroads, and pledged the ICC to guarantee their profitability.
  • Merchant Marine Act

    Merchant Marine Act
    This act authorized the shipping board to dispose of hastily-built vessels at bargain prices.
  • Hetch Hetchy Valley

    Hetch Hetchy Valley
    The federal government allowed San Francisco to build a dam for its water supply in the Hetch Hetchy Valley, in Yosemite National Park. This caused a controversy among many conservationists who were shocked by the government's actions. There was a battle against greedy commercial interests who abused nature, and the romantic preservationists who spared every tree possible.
  • Emergency Quota Act

    Emergency Quota Act
    Restricted immigration by setting a definite quota at 3% of the 1910 population to come to the US.
  • Veterans' Bureau

    Veterans' Bureau
    This group was created to operate hospitals and provide vocational rehabilitation for the disabled.
  • Teapot Dome Scandal

    Teapot Dome Scandal
    Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall induced the Secretary of the Navy to give the its oil reserves to the Interior. Harding signed this indiscreetly, and Fall leased the land to oil tycoons Sinclair and Doheny for a bribe of $100,000. People lost faith in the courts because of this, and Harding was scorned for his decision.
  • Capper-Volstead Act

    Capper-Volstead Act
    This law exempted farmers' marketing co-operations from anti-trust prosecution.
  • Fordney McCumber Tariff Law

    Fordney McCumber Tariff Law
    This raised American tariffs to 38.5% in order to protect factories and farms. Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to Europe, which in turn bought more American goods.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    Quota was changed to 2% of the 1890 population in order to sustain the Northern European composition of America. It was strictly against the Japanese, but exempted Canada & Latin America.
  • McNary-Haugen Bill

    McNary-Haugen Bill
    This bill kept agricultural prices high by authorizing the government to buy up surpluses and sell them abroad. The government's losses were made up by taxing the farmers. This bill, however, never became a law. The government felt that the policy would benefit the farmers, whose crops were being produced in surpluses, and if they were bought and sold abroad, the farmers would receive some sort of compensation.
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    This plan was an attempt to collect war reparations from Germany after WWI. It rescheduled their reparations and opened the way for US loans to Germany. It followed the financial cycle of US loaning to Germany, who would then pay back the other Allies, who would then pay it back to the US.
  • Adjusted Compensation Act

    Adjusted Compensation Act
    This gave veterans a paid-up insurance policy due in 20 years. Many of the war veterans were hit hard, and sought their money back for fighting their part in the war.
  • Butler Act

    Butler Act
    Evolution began to be taught in schools, and the state of Tennessee was very unhappy about this. This act prohibited the teaching of any evolution ideas, and there was a fine if it was violated. It was proposed on the basis that evolution and christianity can't be believed in at the same time. The Butler Act thus went against the beliefs in the bible.
  • Kellogg Briand Pact

    Kellogg Briand Pact
    This pact permitted defensive wars, causing it to lack power and prove useless to the world. It reflected the American mind in the 1920s because we were lulled into a false sense of security after WWI.
  • Agricultural Marketing Act

    Agricultural Marketing Act
    This law helped farmers through producers' cooperatives. It set up a federal farm board, lent money to farm organizations, and bolstered prices by buying up surpluses .
  • Hawley Smoot Tariff

    Hawley Smoot Tariff
    This was the highest protective tariff in history at 60%. It angered foreigners who were seeking trade, and caused economic isolation.
  • Employment Agencies during the New Deal

    Employment Agencies during the New Deal
    WPA: gave employment on useful projects, launched under Harry Hopkins, by giving part-time jobs to high school and college students.
    NRA: this administration combined immediate relief with long term reform by assisting in industry and labor. Industries had codes of "fair competition" in which hours and wages were set. Workers were able to organize and bargain collectively. "Yellow dog" contracts were forbidden. The NRA didn't work out because there was too much self-sacrifice expected of labor.
  • New Deal agencies continued

    New Deal agencies continued
    PWA: this agency aimed at industrial recovery and unemployment relief. Headed by Harold Ickes, it worked on public projects such as the Grand Coulee Dam.
    AAA: established parity prices for basic commodities, and eliminated surpluses by pawing growers to reduce their crop acreage. The AAA was cancelled by court in 1936.
    2nd AAA (1938): if growers observed acreage restrictions on certain commodities, they would be eligible for parity payments. This gave farmers a share of national income.
  • New Deal agencies cont.

    New Deal agencies cont.
    SEC: this was a watchdog administrative agency stating that stock markets were to operate more as trading marts, not as casinos, to prevent the number of people bargaining on stocks to win money.
    Truth in Securities Act: required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn info regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds.
    Public Utility Holding Company Act: this was a "death sentence" to supercorporation growth, except where economically needful.
  • New Deal agencies (construction)

    New Deal agencies (construction)
    TVA: created by George Norris, this administration discovered how much the production/distribution of electricity would cost, so that they could test the fairness of private company rates. It also brought full employment, cheap power, low-cost housing, flood control, etc in the TN valley.
    FHA: the building industry was stimulated by small loans to householders
    USHA: lent money to states or communities for lowcost construction
  • New Deal agencies cont.

    New Deal agencies cont.
    CCC: gave young men employment opportunities to prevent them from uprising or causing other problems in society.
    CWA (winter 1933): gave people jobs in the winter only, because the Depression had hit everyone hard.
  • Muscle Shoals Bill

    Muscle Shoals Bill
    This bill was designed to dam the TN river by embracing the Tennesse valley Authority, but Hoover vetoed it for being too socialistic.
  • Lindbergh law

    Lindbergh law
    This law made interstate abduction of a child a death-penalty offense. It was needed to stem crime because gangsterism and alcohol were popular at the time, and were often associated with crime.
  • Norris- La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act

    Norris- La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
    This act outlawed "yellow dog" contracts and forbade federal courts to issue injunctions to strikes.
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation

    Reconstruction Finance Corporation
    This was created by the Hoover administration to loan money to banks and companies. It played a major role in solving problems of the Great Depression and helped to set up many of the relief programs during the New Deal.
  • 20th Amendment

    20th Amendment
    This amendment shortened the post-election "lame duck" session by six weeks. It was mainly created because the government wanted to put FDR into office as soon as possible.
  • Glass Steagall Banking Reform Act

    Glass Steagall Banking Reform Act
    This act created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation which insured individual deposits of up to $5000. It also prohibited bank holding companies from owning certain securities.
  • Home Owners' Loan Corporation

    Home Owners' Loan Corporation
    This New Deal agency was designed to refinance mortgages on nonfarm homes to prevent foreclosure. It assisted badly-pinched households, and bailed out mortgage-holding banks.
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act

    Emergency Banking Relief Act
    This act gave power to the President to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange, and to reopen solvent banks. It was needed to close down the banks that were close to failing, and only reopened ones that would be able to survive, which would thus help the economy in the Depression.
  • Gold Reserve Act

    Gold Reserve Act
    Under this act, all gold was to go to the National Treasury, and the country was taken off the gold standard. This allowed inflation in the US, causing the currency to become more flexible, and there was more printed to be available to people.
  • Tydings-McDuffie Act

    Tydings-McDuffie Act
    This gave independence to the Philippines after a 12 year period (until 1946) of economic/political guardianship by the US. The US agreed to remove army bases, but not their naval bases.
  • Reciprocal trade Agreements Act

    Reciprocal trade Agreements Act
    This aimed to lift American export trade from the depression by activating low tariffs. It amended the Hawley-Smoot by 50%, and became effective without formal approval of the Senate. It paved the way for America to lead a free-trade international system after WWII.
  • Johnson Debt Default Act

    Johnson Debt Default Act
    This act prevented debt-dodging nations from borrowing money from the US, which established the "have" and "have-not" powers of the world.
  • Indian Reorganization Act

    Indian Reorganization Act
    The government allowed tribes to create self-governments by reversing the Dawes' Act provisions. It restored to Natives the management of their assets and created a good economic foundation for tribes.
  • Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act

    Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act
    This restricted the ability of banks to repossess farms by suspending mortgage foreclosures for 3 years.
  • Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act)

    Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act)
    This created the National Labor Relations Board, reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and bargain collectively through its own representatives. It also allowed unskilled laborers to form unions, such as John Lewis and the United Mine Workers did. It also allowed the closing of shops and outlawed blacklisting.
  • Neutrality Acts 1935, 1936,1937

    Neutrality Acts 1935, 1936,1937
    These acts proclaimed that when the President declared war with other nations, certain restrictions would go into effect immediately. No American could legally sail, sell, loan, or transport to a belligerent ship.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    Drafted during the New Deal, Roosevelt intended to give federal assistance to the elderly after they retired, and also gave benefits to the unemployed. This act is still in effect as of today, and has proven to be a very successful implement to America's policies.
  • Fair Labor Standards Act

    Fair Labor Standards Act
    Industries in the ICC were to set up minimum wage and maximum hours under this law. Labor for children under sixteen was forbidden. It applied to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of commercial goods.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    The Western European countries consented at this conference to give away the Sudetenland to Germany since Hitler claimed it was his last acquisition in Europe. They thought that appeasement to Hitler would be the solution, but the fascist dictator broke his promise 6 months later by conquering Czechoslovakia.
  • Hatch Act

    Hatch Act
    This barred federal administrative officials from active political campaigning or soliciting. The act precluded federal employees from membership in "any political organization which advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government."
  • Cash & Carry (Neutrality Act)

    Cash & Carry (Neutrality Act)
    European democracies could buy US war materials on a "cash and carry" basis; foreign nations must transport the materials in their own ships, and pay for them in cash. This way, the US could avoid loans, war debts, and submarine warfare with other nations. This act improved the US economic and moral positions.
  • Havana Conference

    Havana Conference
    The US and 20 New world countries agreed to uphold the Monroe Doctrine at his conference. Many colonies in the New World were unhappy that Germany was overruling them, so this conference was held to protect the Western hemisphere against Hitler's agression. The Doctrine was no longer to be used for economic dominance/imperialism, but to keep Germany from becoming a world power.
  • Destroyers for Bases

    Destroyers for Bases
    FDR gave Britain 50 old-model funnel destroyers from WWI, in reiturn for 8 defensive bases. This agreement violated America's neutrality, as America became determined to aid Britain "short of war."
  • Smith Act

    Smith Act
    This made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the government by forece or to belong to an organization advocating such a position. It was used by the Truman administration to jail leaders of the American Communist Party. Congress felt this was necessary at a time where the nation's security was in jeopardy, and didnt want communists in the government.
  • Lend Lease

    Lend Lease
    This sent a limitless supply of arms to victims, only if they kept war on the other side of the Atlantic. The weapons borrowed were to be returned after the war. This was an economic declaration of war, which spurred the submarine warfare in May 1941.
  • Atlantic Charter

    Atlantic Charter
    This charter was accepted by the US & Britain. It opposed imperialism and promised no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of its inhabitants. It gave people the right to choose their own government and regain the governments abolished by dictators. A new League was created to secure peace through disarmament . Isolationists were still upset that the US had violated its neutral policies.
  • Casablanca Conference

    Casablanca Conference
    FDR and Churchill met to plan the Allied strategy in Europe. They decided to step up the war in the Pacific, invade Sicily, increase pressure on Italy, and insist upon unconditional surrender of the enemy. The Allies eventually throw out Mussolini and install a new Roman government, but Hitler resists and fights back. Rome is finally taken on June 9, 1944.
  • Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act

    Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
    This act authorized the federal government to seize and operate tied up industries (coal miners, railroads), and stated that strikes against government-operated industries was a criminal offense.
  • GI Bill

    GI Bill
    There was a shortage of available housing immediately following the war, so the housing industry began to construct more houses and apartments, and the demand was insatiable. So, this bill authorized low-interest mortgage loans for ex-servicemen.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    This was a conference in Berlin where Stalin, Churchill, Attlee, and Truman met. They decided to give Japan an ultimatum; surrender or be destroyed. The Japanese didn't respond immediately, causing tensions and suspicions among the Allies. The US also revealed its atomic bomb idea to Stalin. The USSR agreed to enter the war with Japan 3 months after Germany's surrender (Aug 8).
  • Fair Deal

    Fair Deal
    Truman tried to expand principles of the New Deal. It included plans for national health care and civil rights legislation. He wanted to repeal the Taft-Hartley Act and increase government spending for public housing and education. However, Truman's popularity remained low in early 1948.
  • Employment Act

    Employment Act
    This established a three member Council of Economic Advisors to evaluate the economy, advide the president, and set up a Congressional Joint Committee on the Economic Report. It declared that the government was committed to maintaining maximum employment. This was important because it was one of Truman's proposals during his campaign, and he aimed to decrease unemployment in any way.
  • Atomic Energy Commission

    Atomic Energy Commission
    Congress created this commission to establish civilian control over nuclear development and giving the president sole authority over the use of atomic weapons in warfare. This might have caused increased tensions with the Soviet Union.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    This policy stated the the US would support any democratic nation that resisted communism. Truman passed this after Britain said they wouldn't be able to support Turkey and Greece anymore. So, the US stepped in and Congress authorized $400 million in aid for Greece and Turkey. This was a famous containment policy of the Cold War.
  • Rio Pact

    Rio Pact
    As Americans became concerned with the spread of communism in Latin America, they formed this alliance with the Western Hemisphere. America felt this pact was necessary because they had several economic holdings in the country and didnt want communism to affect them.
  • Taft-Hartley Act

    Taft-Hartley Act
    This was passed by Congress over Truman's veto. It stated that if any strike affected the health and safety of the country, the president could call for an 80 day cooling off period. During this period, negotiations would take place and workers could go back to work. Also, union leaders had to officially declare they were not communists. Unions became furious at this and other restrictions the bill imposed on them.
  • National Security Act

    National Security Act
    Congress passed this to create a National Military Establishment, National Security Council, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and CIA. These organizations were intended to coordinate the armed forces and intelligence services. This act showed how the US became concerned with their relation with the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. They sought to keep security tight in America to prevent their country from falling.
  • Loyalty Review Board

    Loyalty Review Board
    In response to criticism from HUAC, Truman established this board after hearing his administration was soft on communism, in order to review government employees.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Under this plan, the US provided $12 billion in economic aid to help the reconstruction of Europe. It was strictly nonmilitary aid and it was designed to prevent Western Europe's economy from falling. Seventeen Western European nations received aid from it, but the Soviet Union refused it. This was another type of containment policy that stemmed communist growth.
  • Containment Policy

    Containment Policy
    Policy devised by George Kennan stating that the US needed to implement long term military, economic, and diplomatic strategies in order to contain the spread of communism. This became a major facet of the Cold War, because the US used it to stay at the top of the world scene and not let other countries fall to communism.
  • NATO

    NATO
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was a military alliance between the US and Western European countries. It stated that an attack on one of the nations included in the treaty would be considered an attack on all of them. The treaty placed America in the middle of European affairs, and the Soviet Union responded with the Warsaw Pact in 1955.
  • McCarran Internal Security Act

    McCarran Internal Security Act
    Under this bill sponsored by Senator McCarran, all communist or communist-front organizations had to register with the government, and members of these organizations could not work in any job related to the national defense. Vetoed by Truman, but Congress still passed it.
  • McCarran-Walter Act

    McCarran-Walter Act
    This act greatly limited immigration from Asia and Eastern Europe and also aimed to limit the influx of communism into the US. Vetoed by Truman, but Congress still passed it.
  • Geneva Accords

    Geneva Accords
    A conference took place in Geneva and the Accords established a North Vietnam under the control of Ho Chi Minh and a South Vietnam under the control of Bao Dai. A national election was scheduled for 1956 on the potential unification of the entire country. However, a coup in South Vietnam overthrew the emperor and sabotaged the election plans. The US continued to support South Vietnam.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    This was a military pact formed between the Soviet Union and its satellite countries in Eastern Europe as a counterract to the formation of NATO.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine

    Eisenhower Doctrine
    This stated that American arms would be used to prevent communist aggression in the Middle East. It was enacted after the Suez Canal crisis and the fear that the Soviet Union would join the Egyptian side of the crisis against America, Britain, and France. Under this, the US marines entered Lebanon to promote political stability during a change of governments.
  • New Frontier

    New Frontier
    John F Kennedy's group of domestic policies during his administration. It included his plans to stimulate the economy and to attack poverty in the US. He also supported Medicare and federal aid to education and urban development. However, very little of these programs were adopted by Congress, and were later enacted under Johnson's era. The space program was very successful, and Kennedy sent America's first man to space and to orbit the earth.
  • Housing Act

    Housing Act
    This provided nearly $5 billion over four years for the preservation of open urban spaces, development of mass transit, and the construction of middle-class housing.
  • Alliance For Progress

    Alliance For Progress
    Kennedy proposed this to provide $20 million in aid to Latin America in order to ensure economic cooperation with the country.
  • Warren Commission

    Warren Commission
    This was formed to investigate the assassination of JFK. The report of this committee supported those who said that Oswald acted alone. There still remains a conspiracy surrounding who was responsible for Kennedy's death.
  • Nuclear Test Ban

    Nuclear Test Ban
    This was a treaty that banned the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, and it was signed by all major world powers except France and China. Congress passed this in an attempt to prevent the Soviet Union from testing their nuclear weapons and creating more tensions between them. It was also in response to the Soviet's testing in September 1961.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    Domestic policies of Lyndon Johnson, it was his plan to assist the poor people in American society. It included the creation of the Department of Housing and Urban Affairs, and the Head Start/Medicare programs. Some of the Great Society's programs were later reduced during the Vietnam War because the US was spending so much for the military. These programs positively impacted American lives, but it was still frustrating that there were still a large number of Americans living in poverty.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    This was a major act of the civil rights movement, and it outlawed racial discrimination in public facilities, in employment, and in voter registration. It created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as well.
  • VISTA/ Head Start/ Medicare

    VISTA/ Head Start/ Medicare
    VISTA: organized volunteers who worked in the poorest communities of the US.
    Head Start: program to help disadvantaged preschool students.
    Medicare: provided hospital insurance and medical coverage for America's senior citizens.
    Medicaid: assisted Americans of any age who could not afford health insurance (mainly the poor.)
    Immigration act 1965: discontinued the national origin system, basing immigration instead on skills and the need for political asylum.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    Truman claimed that North Vietnamese gunboats had fired on American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin, which is in international waters. Soon after, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin, giving the president power to prevent futher aggression in Vietnam, allowing him to control the war without consulting Congress beforehand. However, it was controversial on whether or not the North Vietnamese actually attacked, and the Pentagon Papers that this event was one of the lies the government had said.
  • Voting rights Act

    Voting rights Act
    This authorized the attorney general to appoint officials to register voters. It was in response to the march from Selma to Montgomery.
  • Kerner Commission

    Kerner Commission
    The commission was authorized to investigate the cause of the black riots in LA, Chicago, Newark, and Detroit. It stated that black poverty and the lack of hope in the black urban communities were the major causes of these disturbances. It also reported that two societies existed in America; one white and rich, the other poor and black.
  • Southern Strategy

    Southern Strategy
    This political strategy was implemented by Nixon to win over Southern whites to the Republican party, and it succeeded through administration policies such as delaying school desegregation plans and attempting to block an extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • The Plumbers

    After the Pentagon Papers were released, this unit was created by the White House to plug leaks in future media crises. It included former members of the CIA and the FBI. This group is significant because it shows how the government feared the capabilities of the press to release information about how the government can lie to the public.
  • SALT I

    The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks was an agreement between the Soviet Union and the US, in which both countries agreed to not produce any more ballistic missiles and to reduce their arsenals of antiballistic missiles to 200 per side. This was one of Nixon's actions under the policy of "detente" with the Soviets.
  • Watergate Affair

    This was a series of events during Truman's administration that led to his resignation. It started with a break-in at the Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate complex in DC. Members of CREEP were looking through files and installing eavesdropping devices in electronics. Nixon announced to the public that he was not involved in it. Nixon was later accused of using public funds for his own life and was found guilty. Nixon refused to reveal his tapes and resigned before he was impeached.
  • Camp David Accords

    This was a peace agreement between Israel and Egypt that was mediated by President Carter. Israel promised to return occupied land to Egypt in return for official recognition of Israel's right to exist by Egypt. This was one of the highlights of Carter's presidency.