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FORGING AN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY

  • Pike’s Peak gold rush

    Pike’s Peak gold rush
    At Pike's Peak Colorado, gold was discovered in 1858 and "fifty-niners" flooded to the hills to dig. Most prospectors didn't find much or any gold, but many stayed to mine silver or farm.
  • Charles Darwin publishes On theOrigin of Species

    Charles Darwin publishes On theOrigin of Species
    His theory of evolution argued that higher forms of life had evolved from lower forms of life via random mutation and survival-of-the-fittest. At first, scientists rejected Darwin's views. Many people followed Frenchmen Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's version of evolution saying things that happened during an organism's life could be the surviving factor (not necessarily genetic mutation). By the 1920's, Darwin's view was largely accepted by scientists.
  • Nevada Comstock Lode discovered

    Nevada Comstock Lode discovered
    The Comstock Lode of silver was discovered in Nevada shortly after Pike's Peak. The lode was extremely productive: $340 million dollars worth was unearthed. In 1864, Nevada became a state almost overnight.
  • Period: to

    America rises to number one

    1.Between 1860 and 1984 the U.S. rose from the 4th largest manufacturing nation to the 1st. reasons:Liquid capital (money or a millionaire class) emerged to build new businessesNatural resources had always been a great asset in America. Those resources were now being put to full use.4.Immigration on a huge scale kept labor cheap.
    5.New technological advances were developed… 1.Eli Whitney started mass production and interchangeable parts
  • Morrill Act provides public land for higher education

    Morrill Act provides public land for higher education
    The Morrill Act was one of the laws that helped the growth of colleges. It provided money to states for "land grant colleges." A focus was on agricultural research at the universities.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    The Homestead Act (1862) offered 160 acres of free land. Settlers only had to pay a small fee and improve the land, meaning build a small cabin on it. Alternately, the land could be purchased flat-out for $1.25 per acre. Either way, the Homestead Act was a great deal. Some 500,000 settlers took up the offer and headed west. Settlers often had a rude awakening—due to its sparse nature, 160 acres of western land seemed much less than 160 acres back east.
  • Sand Creek massacre

    Sand Creek massacre
    Col. J.M. Chivington's troops circled then killed 400 Indians who thought they'd been given immunity. This was the infamous Sand Creek Massacre (1864).
  • Start of Segregation in the south

    Start of Segregation in the south
    Most blacks had no option but to become sharecroppers. They farmed land they didn't own, then paid hefty fees to the landlord come harvest time. this made it where they could never get out of debt. Segregation (the separation of the races) also became institutionalized.First, the states enacted codes called Jim Crow laws that legalized the segregation.
  • National Labor Union Organized

    National Labor Union Organized
    The National Labor Union lasted for 6 years and had 600,000 members. members were skilled and unskilled farmers. Blacks and women were only sought after and Chinese immigrants were excluded. Their goals were arbitration(settlement by a mediator) of worker complaints and an 8 hour workday(which was granted to government workers). The 1873 depression ruined the National Labor Union.
  • Bell invents the Telephone

    Bell invents the Telephone
    Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone as a part-time hobby while teaching the deaf to speak.
  • National Grange organized

    National Grange organized
    In 1869, the Grange (officially the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry) was started by Oliver H. Kelley. The Grange was a national farmers' organization aimed at advancing farmers' agenda. The initial goal was social in nature—to have "get-togethers" for isolated farmers. By 1875 it had 800,000 members. The Grange then added helping the farmers' lot in life to their goals. Especially, the Grange wanted to get the trusts off of farmers' backs.
  • The Election of 1868

    The Election of 1868
    The republicans nominated Ulysses S. Grant. Grant had no political experience; however, the idea was that his war-hero status would carry him to victory. The disorganized democratic party nominated Horatio Seymour. Grant won narrowly. The term "wave the bloody shirt" was coined to discribe his compaign as a reminder of the fact he led to north to victory. This close election gave hint to the future. (a) tightly run and hard-fighting political parties and (b) narrow election margins of victory.
  • First Transcontinental Railroad

    First Transcontinental Railroad
    The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869 near Ogden, Utah. As a symbolic measure, a golden spike was driven into the track. The nation was connected by two ribbons of steel from coast to coast.
  • Knights of Labor

    Knights of Labor
    The Knights of Labor began in secrecy and then came out in 1881. It welcomed skilled and unskilled women and blacks. The only people banned were "non-producers": liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers. The Knights sought workers' cooperatives(to pool their money and resources), better working conditions, and the 8 hpur workday. They were active in a series of May Day strikes. The strikes hurt the Knights public image.
  • Wyoming grants women the right to vote

    Wyoming grants women the right to vote
    Women began to make the argument that women deserve the right to vote in order to carry out their traditional roles as homemakers and mothers. Western states were much more accepting of this. Wyoming was the first to allow women to vote.
  • the Gilded Age

    the Gilded Age
    On the surface, it was a period of prosperity and wealth. In reality, this time period was full of poverty, corrpution, scandals, racism, and segregation. The Republicans of the day hinted back to Puritan ancestry and were supported in the NorthandWest.TheG.A.R.,wasamilitaryveterangroupthatsupportedRepublicans.Democrats got most of their support from the South. They were supported by Lutherans and Catholics.A split developed in the 1870's and 80's. stalwarts
  • Standard Oil Company Organized

    Standard Oil Company Organized
    The Standard Oil Company was created by John D. Rockefeller. The company used horizontal integration to take over the industry. In vertical integration, Standard would either force a competitor out of business or buy them out to grow even larger.
  • Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly published

    Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly published
    Two sisters, Victoria Woodhull and Tennessee Claflin published a periodical that shocked proper, Elizabethan society. Woodhull announced her belief in free love, they both pushed for women's propaganda, and charged that respectable Henry Ward Beecher had been having a long affair.
  • The Election of 1872

    The Election of 1872
    The Liberal Republicans nominated Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, as their candidate. Grant won the election handily, 286 to 66. The Liberal Republicans did spook the Republican Congress into passing some reforms. (1) An amnesty act was passed which removed restrictions that'd been placed on many Southerners. Also, (2) there was effort to reduce the tariff rates and (3) to clean up/out the Grant administration.
  • The Panic of 1873

    The Panic of 1873
    It was started by over-spending with borrowed money. Causes: (1) over-speculation (or over-spending) and (2) too-easy credit given by the banks.btors wanted paper money ("greenbacks") printed to create inflation and thus make it easier to pay off debts. Called soft money or cheap money policies. Grant vetoed a bill to print more money.he Resumption Act was passed to actually start to (1) lower the number of greenbacks (2)to redeem paper money at face value starting in 1879
  • Comstock Law passed

    Comstock Law passed
    Anthony Comstock made it his mission to stop all moral threat. Armed with the "Comstock Law," he collected dirty pictures and pills/powders he said abortionists used.
  • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union(WCTU) organized

    Woman’s Christian Temperance Union(WCTU) organized
    The argument of alcohol was growing. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (1874) was one of the aggressive groups. It was led by Francis E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation whose trademark was to literally walk into a bar and chop it up with a hatchet.
  • Chautauqua education movement launched

    Chautauqua education movement launched
    Education began to expand. Adults were left out of this system. But, many adults participated in the Chataqua movement. It was a series of lectures, a descendant of the earlier "lyceum" circuit. Many well-known speakers, like Mark Twain, spoke.
  • The Hayes-Tilden Standoff

    The Hayes-Tilden Standoff
    The Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes. He was neutral in the Conkling and Blained wars within the Republican party. And, his greatest attribute, he came from Ohio, an important state in winning the race. The Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden. Tilden got 184 electoral votes; he needed 185 to win. both parties claimed to have the states of LA, SC, FL, and OR. the election came to a stalemate. the compromise of 1877 resulted from this.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    Led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, some Sioux stubbornly refused to go to the reservation. Custer led about 400 cavalry against Crazy Horse who was labeled as a "hostile" Indian. Custer faced some 10,000 Indians, about 2,500 warriors. All 200+ or so of Custer's detachment were killed, including Custer himself, "Chief Yellow Hair." The Little Bighorn battle brought the U.S. military out for revenge and sealed the Indian-white relationship as little better than warfare.
  • The Compromise of 1877/ End of Reconstruction

    The Compromise of 1877/ End of Reconstruction
    congress set up the a commission with the Electoral Count Act to resolve the Hayes-Tilden standoff. republicans had upperhand and democrats were angry. so compromise of 1877 was passed. The North got Rutherford B. Hayes elected as a Republican president. The south Got a pledge that Hayes would removal of military occupation in the South.This did happen, thus ending Reconstruction. The bad news for the freedmen was that Southern blacks were now effectively left alone to fend for themselves
  • Class conflicts

    Class conflicts
    The 4 largest railroads got together and decided to cut employee wages by 10%. The workers fought back by going on strike.This railroad shut-down crippled the nation and President Hayes called in federal troops to stop the unrest amongst the striking workers.The trouble went on several weeks but eventually ended with the workers losing on the losing side. This failed strike showed the weaknesses of the labor movement at the time.
  • Ethnic clashes

    Ethnic clashes
    Started when chinese and irish started competeing for low paying jobs. Most Chinese were young, poor men who'd emigrated to California. They frequently got jobs building the railroadsrishman Denis Kearney fired up the Irish against the Chinese in San Francisco. The argument was that the "rice eater" (Chinese) could afford to work for a cheaper wage than the "beef eater" (Irish). the solution was for irish gangs to deal with the chinease. congress passed the Chinese eclusiton act in 1822.
  • Nez Percé Indian War

    Nez Percé Indian War
    The Nez Perce tribe, led by Chief Joseph, revolted when the government tried to force them onto a reservation. They bugged out over some 1,700 miles, across the Rocky Mountains, and fled for Canada. They were caught and defeated at the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain only 40 miles from the Canada border. Chief Joseph "buried his hatchet" and gave his famous speech saying, “From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.” The Nez Perce were sent to a Kansas reservation where 40% died.
  • Greenback Labor Party

    Greenback Labor Party
    the Greenback Labor Party was started in 1878 with the main mission of bringing cheap money policies to life.
  • Thomas Edison invents light bulb

    Thomas Edison invents light bulb
    Thomas Edison, the "Wizard of Menlo Park," came up with the light bulb along with many, many other inventions
  • Dumbbell tenement introduced

    Dumbbell tenement introduced
    Slums popped up as well. They were far too over-populated and far to unsanitary. Those two conditions simply added to one another literally making the slums death-traps. An early godsend was the "dumbbell" apartment. Getting clean air into the tenement apartments was a problem. The dumbbell apartment had an air shaft vertically down the through the building to let in air. It wasn't perfect, but was much healthier than a cubicle box shaped apartment with no air shaft.
  • Mary Baker Eddy establishes Christian Science

    Mary Baker Eddy establishes Christian Science
    A new religion emerged: Mary Baker Eddy started the Church of Christ, Scientist (AKA "Christian Science"). The main belief of Christian Science was healing through prayer, not through medical treatment.
  • Henry George publishes Progress and Poverty

    Henry George publishes Progress and Poverty
    Henry George wrote Progess and Poverty which examined the relationship between those two concepts. His theory was that "progress" pushed land values up and thus increased poverty amongst many. His solution to the distribution of wealth was to propose a 100% tax on profits—a very controversial proposal.
  • Carlisle Indian School

    Carlisle Indian School
    The Carlisle Indian School which opened in 1879 exemplifies the ambitions of the Dawes Act. Carlisle's goal was was train Indian children in whites' ways. The children were completely immersed in white culture and grew up that way. Carlisle's results were successful in their goal by following "kill the Indian, save the child" policies. A notable graduate of the Carlisle School was Jim Thorpe, likely one of the best all-around athletes in American history.
  • The election of 1880

    The election of 1880
    republicans nominated James A. Garfield and, as his running mate, Stalwart Chester Arthur.The Democrats nominated Gen. Winfield Scott, the Civil War hero. Garfield won. Garfield was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau in September of 1881.VP Arthur becomes pres.
  • Arthur Becomes President

    Arthur Becomes President
    He passed the Pendleton Act whcih required merit to get jobs, not simply knowing someone in a high position. Civil Service Commission awarded jobs based on performance rather than on how much "pull" a person had. The Pendleton Act first affected only 10% of federal jobs, but it (a) stopped the worst offenses of giving jobs to buddies and (b) it set the tone for civil service reform in the future
  • Republicans Back in Office(Thomas "Czar" Reed)

    Republicans Back in Office(Thomas "Czar" Reed)
    he Republicans found their leader in Speaker of the House Thomas "Czar" Reed. Ran the House like a dictator. he first "Billion Dollar Congress" where the U.S. government doled out that much money for the first time.Pensions were liberally given to veterans.More silver was purchased.The McKinley Tariff (1890) hiked rates to roughly 48%, the highest peacetime rate ever.The tariff was a double-edged sword: business folks loved the protection it gave, but farmers disliked the fact goods more money
  • American Red Cross Founded

    American Red Cross Founded
    The American Red Cross was created by Clara Barton, a Civil War nurse. It was for protecting the war-injured.
  • Booker T. Washington becomes head of Tuskegee Institute

    Booker T. Washington becomes head of Tuskegee Institute
    In the post-war South, many still struggled, especially blacks. They were largely poor and poorly educated.
    Booker T. Washington developed a plan for bettering the lots of blacks. He developed the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. It was a normal school for black teachers and taught hands-on industrial trades.
  • The Greatest Show on Earth

    The Greatest Show on Earth
    Phineas T. "P.T." Barnum (who quipped, “There’s a sucker born every minute,” and “the public likes to be humbugged.”) and James A. Bailey started the circus and adopted the slogan, "The Greatest Show on Earth".
  • Helen Hunt Jackson publishes A Century of Dishonor

    Helen Hunt Jackson publishes A Century of Dishonor
    By the 1880's, the people were beginning to recognize the plight of the American Indian. Helen Hunt Jackson's book A Century of Dishonor helped outline the injustice done to Indians by the U.S. government. Her novel Ramona had the same effect in fiction form. Native Americans faced a stark decision: to join modern times, stick with traditional ways, or somehow try to mix both. Many whites wanted to try to help the Indians "walk the white man's road."
  • Congress passes the Chinese exclusion act

    Congress passes the Chinese exclusion act
    It forbade the immigration of Chinese to America.This was the first immigration restriction America passed; until this point in history, immigrants simply came to America without hindrance
  • First immigration-restriction laws passed

    First immigration-restriction laws passed
    The first law restricting immigration to America was passed in 1882. It banned paupers (a very poor person), criminals, and convicts. Another law in 1885 forbade importing workers under contract at substandard wages. Other laws banned more "undesirables" and literacy tests kept many immigrants out until 1917. A red-letter law was passed in 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act. It banned the immigration of Chinese. This was the first immigration law to specifically target and ban a specific
  • Brooklyn Bridge completed

    Brooklyn Bridge completed
    New York's Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883. The suspension bridge came to symbolize American ingenuity, technology, commerce, and can-do attitude.
  • The Election of 1884

    The Election of 1884
    The Republicans nominated James G. Blaine. The Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland. Cleveland won.
  • "Old Clevland"

    "Old Clevland"
    First Democratin a while. e helped bridge the North-South gap by naming two former Confederates to his cabinetHe tried to follow the merit system (jobs went to the qualified), but was largely unsuccessful with this approach.When pressure mounted, Cleveland fired about 80,000 of 120,000 federal employees. 40,000 were Republicans dismissed to open up jobs for Democrats.The G.A.R. had considerable political clout and was mostly Republican. They pushed several bills through congress
  • Federal government outlaws Indian Sun Dance

    Federal government outlaws Indian Sun Dance
    Missionaries were eager for Indians to convert to the Christian religion. They helped convince the government to outlaw the "Sun Dance."
  • Louis Sullivan builds the first skyscraper in Chicago

    Louis Sullivan builds the first skyscraper in Chicago
    Cities grew upward thanks to skyscrapers. Working in Chicago in the 1880's, architect Louis Sullivan was the father of the skyscraper. He used steel, concrete, newly invented elevators, and the motto "form follows function." A bit ahead of his time, his techniques would later influence Frank Lloyd Wright and become accepted.
  • Linotype invented

    Linotype invented
    Newspapers were on the rise with the invention of the Linotype. A Linotype is a line-casting machine used in printing.
  • Period: to

    Local chapters of Farmers’ Alliance formed

    In the 1870's an organization very similar to the Grangers emerged—the Farmers' Alliance. Their goals were the same also: to socialize and to push the farmers' agenda. The Alliance swelled to over 1,000,000 by 1890, but could've been even bigger. It excluded tenant farmers, share-croppers, farm workers, and blacks.
  • Haymarket Square bombing

    Haymarket Square bombing
    The "Haymarket Square Incident" occurred in Chicago in 1886. There strikers were intermingled with a handful of anarchistscalling for overthrow of the government. A bombing took lace and a handful of bystanders, including police, were killed or injured. The anarchists were the likely culprit, but the public blamed the Knights and union. The end result of the Haymarket Square incident was a distrust in unions and a declines in their membership.
  • American Federation of Labor ("AF of L")

    American Federation of Labor ("AF of L")
    started by Samuel Gompers. made up of small, independent unions. He sought what unions always seek: better wages, shorter hours, better working conditions.Gompers wanted "trade agreements" to allow the "closed shop".His main weapons were the boycott and the strike. The AF of L was made up of skilled craftsmen. Unskilled workers were not included. led to better views of labor unions. The most symbolic achievement for workers was the passage of Labor Day (1894)
  • Wabash case

    Wabash case
    the supreme court said that states cannot regulate interstate trade 9only congress can0. This meant that if any regulation were to be done, it would have to be by the U.S. Congress, not the local states. led to Interstate Commerce Act \
  • Statue of Liberty erected in New York harbor

    Statue of Liberty erected in New York harbor
    Many Americans were not growing to like all these new immigrants. Ironically, the Statue of Liberty was given to the U.S. by France during the days of such anti-foreigner feelings.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Interstate Commerce Act
    Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act (1887) that outlawed rebates and pools. It also required rates to be openly published and banned charging low rates for the long haul (to big businesses that shipped large quantities) and higher rates for the short haul (to small farmers who shipped small quantities).
  • American Protective Association (APA) formed

    American Protective Association (APA) formed
    Nativist organizations emerged (reminiscent of the old Know Nothing Party of the 1840's and 50's). The American Protective Association (APA) gained millions of members and urged voting against Catholics.
  • Hatch Act supplements Morrill Act

    Hatch Act supplements Morrill Act
    The Hatch Act also promoted the growth of college like the Morrill Act. Its focus was agricultural research at the universities.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    In 1887 the Dawes Severalty Act was passed. Its overall goal was to erase tribes and set the Indians on the road to "becoming white." It was a very insulting law…The law said that Indians could become citizens after 25 years if they behaved like a citizen.
  • Cleveland's Tariff

    Cleveland's Tariff
    There was a surplus of money in government. Cleveland battled for a low tariff becomes the government did not need to money. two ways: (1) increase the spending by inventing things to spend it on, or (2) taking in less by cutting taxes. Cleveland chose the second option. this led to conflict with cleveland and congress. he was for and congress was against.
  • The Election of 1888

    The Election of 1888
    Cleveland was up for re-election by the Democrats, Benjamin Harrison was up as the Republican.Harrison won in a very close race in 1888. Cleveland became the first president voted out of office since Martin Van Buren
  • American all-star baseball team tours the world

    American all-star baseball team tours the world
    Baseball became very popular. Baseball was emerging as the clear "American pastime." A professional league began in the 1870s.
  • Jane Addams founds Hull House in Chicago

    Jane Addams founds Hull House in Chicago
    Most notable of social reformers of the late 1800's was Jane Addams. Addams founded Hull House in Chicago (1889). It was a "settlement house"—immigrants came there for counseling, literacy training, child care, cultural activities, and the like.
  • Moody Bible Institute established in Chicago

    Moody Bible Institute established in Chicago
    Dwight Lyman Moody started the Moody Bible Institute and pushed for Christian charity and kindness. His goal and achievement was connect biblical teachings and Christianity to modern city life.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act

    Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    was enacted in attempt to outlaw trusts or monopoliesThe law forbade "combinations" such as "pools" or cartels, interlocking directorates, holding companies. 3.The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was not effective because (a) proving combinations exist, especially with pools, can be difficult, and (b) it lacked real teeth in enforcement.
  • The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America

    The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America
    Industrial Revolution caused standard of living for Americans to improve.The old Jefferson vs. Hamilton dispute had also been solved: Jefferson's ideals of small-town agriculture was being trumped by Hamilton's big-city business. The "can see, 'til can't see" farmer became a factory worker that labored from whistle to whistle. Women gained increasing roles in business as well as secretaries and in clerical jobs. led to american imperialism.
  • National American Woman SuffrageAssociation formed

    National American Woman SuffrageAssociation formed
    Ladies still pushed for female suffage. The push for the right to vote had taken a time-out to push for blacks' rights; now the push was on again. The National American Suffrage Association was started in 1890 with Elizabeth Cady Stanton (from the old Seneca Falls Convention of 1848) and Susan B. Anthony.
  • Census Bureau declares frontier line ended

    Census Bureau declares frontier line ended
    The census bureau announced in 1890 there was no longer a discernible frontier in America. The loss of frontier and land made people worry that it'd be gobbled up for good.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
    Later, the "Ghost Dance" fad swept through the Sioux nation and prompted the Battle of Wounded Knee (1890). Wounded Knee was not a battle but a massacre. 200+ Indians were killed, essentially killed for dancing. This battle marked the end of the Indian Wars. By this time, all Indians were either on reservations or dead.
  • Emergence of People’s party (Populists)

    Emergence of People’s party (Populists)
    Out of the Farmers' Alliance a new party was spawned—the People's Party, also known as the Populist Party. They agreed on the following: To fight the "money trust" on Wall Street. To nationalize railroads, telephone, and the telegraph. To start a graduated income tax (graduated meaning steps or levels, where the tax rate is higher the more a person earns). To start a "sub-treasury" to provide loans to farmers. To call for the unlimited coinage of silver.
  • Basketball invented

    Basketball invented
    Basketball was invented by William Naismith in 1891.
  • Populist Party

    Populist Party
    AKA the People's Party. Made up of umhappy farmers from Farmer's Alliance. populists demanded inflation through "cheap money" policies of printing paper money and coining silver. graduated income tax, government regulation of railroads, the telegraph, and telephone; direct elections of U.S. senators by the people; initiative and referendum. the populists reached out to southern blacks for votes. after election the south passed literacy test, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses to prevent AFvote
  • "Old Cleveland" is back

    "Old Cleveland" is back
    The Depression of 1893 soon began. Nearly 8,000 U.S. businesses went out of business in 6 months.Cleveland now had a budget deficit, whereas he'd enjoyed a surplus before.The nation's gold supply was getting dangerously low. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) had created a cycle: the government had to buy silver and print paper money to pay for it, the people could then turn in the paper money for gold, which they did.
  • Populist party candidate James B. Weaver polls more than 1 million votes in presidential election

    Populist party candidate James B. Weaver polls more than 1 million votes in presidential election
    In 1892, the Populists won several seats in Congress. Their candidate, again James B. Weaver, earned over 1,000,000 votes. They were hindered by racial tensions in the South. Their challenge was to join the North and join up with city workers to make a political party with a rural/urban one-two punch
  • Wilson-Gorman Tariff

    Wilson-Gorman Tariff
    Cleveland was embarrassed again by the Wilson-Gorman Tariff.Democrats had promised lower tariffs. The Wilson-Gorman barely changed the McKinley Tariff at all. Worse, the Wilson-Gorman law allowed for a 2% income tax on income over $4,000. The Supreme Court struck this down, but it looked like Cleveland and the government was giving in to the rich "fat-cats."
    The Republicans began to benefit from Cleveland's recent actions.
  • Anti-Saloon League formed

    Anti-Saloon League formed
    The Anti-Saloon League increased the oush against alcohol by singing anti-liquor songs.
  • Columbian Exposition held in Chicago

    Columbian Exposition held in Chicago
    The Columbian Exposition (1893 in Chicago) revived classical architectural forms and setback realism or Louis Sullivan's new "form follows function" style.
  • Lillian Wald opens Henry Street Settlement in New York

    Lillian Wald opens Henry Street Settlement in New York
    A well-known spin-off of Hull House was the Henry Street Settlement in New York run by Lillian Wald. Settlement houses became hot-beds for activism.
  • Frederick Jackson Turner publishes “TheSignificance of the Frontier in AmericanHistory”

    Frederick Jackson Turner publishes “TheSignificance of the Frontier in AmericanHistory”
    Frederick Jackson Turner wrote of the "Turner Thesis" saying that the frontier had played an important role in American history and in people's psychology. Turner wrote, "American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West."
  • “Coxey’s Army” marches on Washington Pullman strike

    “Coxey’s Army” marches on Washington Pullman strike
    “Coxey’s Army” (AKA the "Commonweal Army") marched on Washington with scores of followers and many newspaper reporters. They called for: Relieving unemployment by a government public works program. An issuance of $500 million in paper money. Both of these would create inflation and therefore make debts easier to pay off. The march fizzled out when they were arrested for walking on the grass.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    The U.S. Supreme court in this case stated that "separate but equal" facilities for the races were legal. n reality, however, the races were indeed separate, but the facilities were hardly equal.Segregation was carried out in nearly all public facilities such as schools, theaters, transportation, and restrooms.Violation of these codes could have legal penalties. Or, worse, lynchings of blacks reached a record level as whites "enforced" the codes themselves.
  • The Election of 1896

    The Election of 1896
    The presidential election of 1896 was an important one. It essentially asked, then answered, the question, "Will the U.S. base its money on gold, silver, or both?" It also saw disgruntled and restless workers going up against the conservative and worried business class. The Republicans nominated McKinley. Democrats nominated Bryan. Mckinley won easily.
  • Library of Congress opens

    Library of Congress opens
    Books had always been popular, but by 1900 people were starving to read. Libraries and newspapers satisfied that urge. The Library of Congress opened in 1897 and Andrew Carnegie had given $60 million to build local libraries across the U.S.
  • Dingley Tariff Act

    Dingley Tariff Act
    It was decided that the Wilson-Gorman Tariff wasn't bringing in enough money.So, Congress worked through the Dingley Tariff Bill. It eventually raised tariff rates to 46.5%, higher, but not as high as some had wanted.
  • Charlotte Perkins Gilman publishes Women and Economics

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman publishes Women and Economics
    Feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman published Women and Economics, a classic of feminism. She (1) shunned traditional femininity, (2) said there were no real differences between men and women, and (3) called for group nurseries and kitchens to free up women.
  • Kate Chopin publishes The Awakening

    Kate Chopin publishes The Awakening
    One literary landmark was written by Kate Chopin. She wrote openly about adultery, suicide, and the ambitions of women in "The Awakening."
  • Theodore Dreiser publishes Sister Carrie

    Theodore Dreiser publishes Sister Carrie
    Theodore Dreiser was the champion of realism with his novel "Sister Carrie" (1900). Carrie moved in with one man then eloped with another (who was already married), then left them both for a career on stage. It morality of the novel was shocking to proper society.
  • Gold Standard Act

    Gold Standard Act
    Congress passed the Gold Standard Act (1900) saying people could trade in paper money for gold. Just knowing and trusting that meant there was no need to do that. This brought economic calm and stability. Also, there was a gold rush in Alaska, the "Klondike gold rush." Lots of new gold, also from worldwide sources, brought the inflation that the silverites had long wanted.
  • United States Steel Corporation

    United States Steel Corporation
    The United States Steel Corporation was created by Andrew Carnegie.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded
    Washington's largest critic was W.E.B. DuBois. DuBois was a Harvard intellectual. He criticism was that Washington's method put blacks in a little box of manual labor only. DuBois help start the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and called for the "talented tenth" of the black community to be given full access and equality.