Evolution of Special Education- Autumn Roberts SPED 6707

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    Evolution of Special Education

  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    The Supreme Court unanimously declared that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" and violates the 14th Admendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. Separate is not equal. Students with disabilities have the right to go to school just like any other child. This had an impact on special education because it made minorities start to question their rights and how they were being treated unfair.
  • "The mentally ill and the mentally retarded need no longer be alien to our affections or beyond the help of our communities."

    "The mentally ill and the mentally retarded need no longer be alien to our affections or beyond the help of our communities."
    Mental Retardation- JFK President Kennedy signed the Maternal and Child Health and Mental Retardation Planning Amendment to the Social Security Act. Seven days later, the sister legislation was passed that provided funding to people who were mentally retarded. This legislation gave money to "train teachers of mentally retarded and other handicapped children."
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    This act made all major forms of discrimination against the law. This was focused mainly towards racial segregation and women but protects the rights of all minority groups.
  • Debut Special Olympics Games

    Debut Special Olympics Games
    “You are the stars and the world is watching you. By your presence, you send a message to every village, every city, every nation. A message of hope. A message of victory.” - Eunice Kennedy Shriver Eunice started a day camp for children with disabilities named Camp Shriver in 1962. She was concerned that disabled children did not have a place to play. The Special Olympics has had a cultural impact on special education by supporting physical education & competition.
  • Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    Students in Pennsylvania argued that those who are mentally retarded where not getting public education when they were capable of learning. It was ruled that in the state of PA, those with mental retardation between the ages of 6-21 must be provided free and public education similar to that of the other students who do not have disabilities.
  • Mills vs. Board of Education

    Mills vs. Board of Education
    This case was concerning seven students in the District of Columbia with varying disabilities who had been expelled or denied enrollment to school based off their disability without due process. The ruling of the case was that all children with disabilities in DC would be provided a public education. This case is also responsible for gaining due process rights for the students.
  • Economic Opportunity Act Amendment (Head Start)

    Economic Opportunity Act Amendment (Head Start)
    In 1972, it was required that Head Start programs contain 10% of students with disabilities. This has also culturally influenced our society by trying to give all students the best opportunity to succeed and get a "head start."
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
    "No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States, shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance or under any program or activity conducted by any Executive agency or by the United States Postal Service."
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)
    This law ensured that all students who needed special education were received fair and appropiate services. It also provided states federal money to educated those in special education.
  • Roncker vs. Walter

    Roncker vs. Walter
    This case involved parents' that requested for their son who has a disability be placed in the neighborhood school instead of the segregated county school.
  • Daniel R.R. vs. State Board of Education

    Daniel R.R. vs. State Board of Education
    In this case, the court found that regular education placement is okay for a child with a disability if the child can receive adequate education even if it is not the best setting academically. The Daniel's Two-Part Test was invented by the court to see if the district is in compliance with IDEA.
    1st- Can education in the regular classroom, with supplementary aids & services be satisfactorily achieved? 2nd- If it cannot, and the student is removed, is he/she mainstreamed to the maximum extent?
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

     Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    The EHA was reauthorized. Among that change, there were new categories for autistic and those who have suffered traumatic brain injuries. This Act also changed the term "handicap" to "disability." Although it is legislation, I believe that IDEA has really had an impact on the culture of special education. In recent years, there has been a lot more civil suites filed for not abiding to IDEA.
  • Greer vs. Rome

    Greer vs. Rome
    The district argued that the costs of providing services for the disabled child would cost too much. The court said the school did not modify the curriculum to accommodate the child's needs. The court said that the school cannot refuse to serve a child because of increased costs.
  • Oberti v. Board of Education of the Borough of Clementon School District

    Oberti v. Board of Education of the Borough of Clementon School District
    "Inclusion is a right, not a special privilege for a select few." This case determined that families do not have to prove that their child with disabilities can function in a general regular education classroom. The school has to show why a student with disabilities can not be taught in a general regular
    education class with appropriate training for educators and aids.
  • School to Work Opportunity Act

    School to Work Opportunity Act
    This Act has had a cultural impact on special education by providing an opportunity to gain skills in high school to become successful in the work place and prepare them for careers that may not seem traditional.
  • Ramirez v District. of Columbia

    Ramirez v District. of Columbia
    In this case, a 9 year old child with cerebal palsy had to crawl on the bathroom floor or be carried into the restroom because the door way not wide enough for the child's wheelchair to pass. The District of Columbia school district violated Section 504 and ADA. The court ruled that the child did not have proper access to bathroom facilities and were required to meet those standards.
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    NCLB requires that all schools monitor progress of students. Using researched and inquiry based lessons, low performing schools must show improvements. This act signed by George W. Bush is highly debated about. I also believe that this act has had a huge impact on culture thus far. Many students are being assessed on how well they take a test and not understanding of the material. All students are expected to meet these standards.
  • Movie: Radio

    Movie: Radio
    Radio is one of my all time favorite movies. It was based off a true story about a disabled man nicknamed Radio. This movie has influenced me and changed my perceptions on how I view individuals.
  • Individual's with Disabilities Education Act 2004

    Individual's with Disabilities Education Act 2004
    Every student that is eligible must have an IEP before special education services are given by the school. The IEP must be reviewed annually to monitor progress and changes should be made as needed.
  • Jarron Draper vs. Atlanta Independent School System

    Jarron Draper vs. Atlanta Independent School System
    In this case, Atlanta Public Schools failed to provide Jarron an appropriate education despite his learning disability. This is a violation of Section 504. The court decided that Atlanta Public School is to pay for Jarron's tutition at a private school since they did not provide him an adequate free public education experience.
  • Compton Unified School District v. Starvenia Addison

    Compton Unified School District v. Starvenia Addison
    Starvenia Addison had failed all courses taken her ninth grade year and fell below the one percentile on standardized tests given that year. A third party mental health counselor assessed Addison and suggested that Compton Unified School District assess her as well. The school district failed to do so. Addison's mother even requested the testing, and they did not adhere to her requests either. This went against IDEA under "child-find." The court sided with Addison and was compensated.