THOMAS HOBBES (Moral Positivism)Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher, scientist, and historian best known for his political philosophy, especially as articulated in his masterpiece Leviathan (1651). Hobbes believes that the morals derived from natural law, however, do not permit individuals to challenge the laws of the sovereign; law of the commonwealth supersedes natural law, and obeying the laws of nature does not make you exempt from disobeying those of the government.
SOCRATESSocrates, Greek philosopher whose way of life, character, and thought exerted a profound influence on ancient and modern philosophy. He believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. He attempted to establish an ethical system based on human reason rather than theological doctrine. Socrates pointed out that human choice was motivated by the desire for happiness.
PLATOPlato was a Greek philosopher known and recognized for having allowed such a considerable philosophical work. He maintains a virtue-based eudemonistic conception of ethics. That is to say, happiness or well-being is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct, and the virtues are the requisite skills and dispositions needed to attain it.
In ethics and moral psychology he developed the view that the good life requires not just a certain kind of knowledge (as Socrates had suggested).
ARISTOTLEAristotle was one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived and the first genuine scientist in history. Aristotle's approach to ethics is teleological. If life is to be worth living, he argues, it must surely be for the sake of something that is an end in itself—i.e., desirable for its own sake.
JEREMY BENTHAM AND JOHN STUART MILLUtilitarianism is a tradition of ethical philosophy that is associated with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, British philosophers, economists, and political thinkers. Utilitarianism is a theory of morality, which advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and opposes actions that cause unhappiness or harm. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole.