FRENCH REVOLUTIONThe French Revolution was a social and political movement that ended in the abolition of absolute monarchy and the formation of the Republic, in opposition against feudalism and aristocratic authority.
It was the beginning of the Contemporary Age, a new age.
STEAMBOATOn the Seine, Robert Fulton launched a boat with a paddle wheel propeller powered by a steam engine.
This did not go down well in France, so Fulton continued his experiments in America. On the Hudson River, he launched his riverboat in 1807. The first regular steamboat service would be established by this same boat.
TREATY OF FONTAINEBLEAUThe Treaty of Fontainebleau was a treaty made between Napoleonic France and Spain during the Napoleonic Wars. The objective was to allow French troops to cross through Spanish territory on their way to assault Portugal.
Despite the obvious contrasts between the two countries, they shared a common enemy in the English.
FIRST CONSTITUTIONIn turn, it's recognized as La Pepa.
It was a direct consequence of the Spanish General Courts that wanted to resist the invasion of Spain by the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte, who imposed Joseph on the Spanish throne.
Popular sovereignty, separation of powers and federalism were the three principles that were raised.
RAILROADThe Stockton-Darlington (FS&D) railway in Great Britain was the world's first railroad to circulate. On our lines, these were the first steam locomotives to run.
The invention encouraged trade and favored lower production costs, accelerating global economic growth.
TELEPHONEIt was invented by the Italian Antonio Meucci, who named it telettrofono.
By using electrical signals, the device could send acoustic signals over a long distance. Meucci's idea was not recognized until years later, as he hadn't the money to patent it.
FIRST SPANISH REPUBLICFollowing Amadeo I of Savoy's abdication, the proclamation of the First Spanish Republic was agreed upon in a joint assembly of the Congress of Deputies and the Senate, constitued as a National Assembly.This lasted till the end of the year 1874.
THE BEGINNINGS OF CINEMAThe Lumière brothers devised the cinematograph, which was the first public projection of moving images "without voice cords," as sound was not introduced until 1927.
They began by offering 50-second pictures in exchange for one franc.
DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICAIt was also known as the "race for Africa" because of the constant battle for control of Africa between the different European major powers, which led to the search for a peaceful division of the continent's possessions.
This took place at the Berlin Conference, where European powers established Africa's division.
As a result, the economy of the time was altered, and the world was exposed to a new market that was considerably larger than the others.
TREATY OF VERSAILLESThe Treaty of Versailles, which brought the First World War to an end, was signed by the victorious countries.
With the intention to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security.
It was presented to Germany's representatives, who were under pressure to accept it or risk the war restarting.
Hitler, on the other hand, declared that the Treaty of Versailles would not be followed, initiating World War II.
AVANT-GARDE MOVEMENTThese are a group of creative and literary movements that emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century, marked by a rupture with Western artistic tradition and a desire for novelty.
It is defined by freedom of expression, which is exhibited through modifying the structure of works, confronting forbidden topics, and disorganizing creative parameters, and is often a provocation against existing societal standards.
PENICILLIN DISCOVERYIt was discovered by accident by Alexander Fleming. When he returned from vacation, he saw mold growing in a petri dish and realized that the mold seemed to inhibit the surrounding bacteria from developing by creating a self-defense chemical that may kill the bacteria.
This finding paved the way for the development of antibiotics, which drastically reduced the number of infections-related deaths.
GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION(The Great Crash) was a long-lasting financial disaster in the United States that lasted over a decade.
It all started with the "Black Tuesday" crash of the New York Stock Exchange or Wall Street.
It was a sequence of thousands of bank failures that immobilized millions of businesses which froze sales and production. This resulted in unemployment, poverty, bank and industry failures, and huge social discontent.
ADOLF HITLER COMES TO POWERAfter a series of political successes for the Nazi Party, Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany by that year.
To gain the powers he desired, Hitler required the votes of the Center Party and the conservatives in the Reichstag. As a result, he pressed Reichstag members to vote in favor of the law granting Hitler "temporary" total power. With the death of the president, he went from chancellor to leader.
He governed with unlimited power until his suicide in 1945.
FRANCO'S DICTATORSHIPFrancisco Franco led the Franco dictatorship, which was a totalitarian political system. It began its ascension to power in 1936 with a military insurrection to 1939 with a civil war victory.
Francoism was a military dictatorship in which Franco held absolute power over the state. This included censorship and persecution of any kind of opposition to the regime.
With the purpose of gaining social and ideological control over the citizens.
CREATION OF UNITED NATIONSThe United Nations Charter was drafted in order to make it possible, with the goal of creating a text that would serve as a legal foundation for the new age in international relations that was just beginning.
Representatives from 50 countries met in June 1945 in San Francisco for the United Nations Conference.
This served as the focal point for discussion and collaboration in the search for common ground.
COLD WARIt was a political, ideological, economic, and cultural conflict between the United States (US) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (USSR).
The battle was centered on the confrontation between the two superpowers' post-World War II political, social, and economic organizing patterns.
DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTSIt's a document that serves as a global roadmap for liberty and equality. It is the most widely translated document in the world, outlining 30 universal rights and freedoms.
It was the first time that countries agreed on the freedoms and rights that should be guaranteed to all people.
Work on it began in 1946 with a drafting committee made up of representatives from a wide range of countries, but it wasn't until 1948 that it was discussed and adopted by the entire UN Commission.
HUMAN LANDING ON THE MOONThe Apollo 11 spacecraft landed, taking astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins on a journey to the moon and back.
It took three days for Apollo 11 to arrive, and astronauts Neil and Buzz Aldrin spent more than 21 hours on the lunar surface, making them the first humans to walk on the surface.
After being humiliated repeatedly in the early years of the space race, the United States beat the Soviet Union to the moon.
OIL CRISISThe OPEC oil embargo began when several Persian Gulf countries decided not to export oil to Western countries.
This punitive move resulted in an increase in oil costs and, as a result, a significant increase in inflation.
Western countries have been thrown into a deep economic crisis as a result of their excessive dependence on Middle Eastern oil. Therefore, several countries have chosen to vary their energy sources in order to minimize their dependence on oil.
FALL OF THE BERLIN WALLThe Berlin Wall came to symbolize the Cold War's ideological differences by surrounding West Berlin and isolating it from East German territory.
Its demise was caused by the opening of borders between Austria and Hungary, as an increasing number of Germans came to Hungary to seek asylum in the Federal Republic of Germany's embassies.
This was the first step toward German reunification, accelerating the Soviet Union's dissolution, which has become a symbol of the end of the Cold War.
DISSOLUTION OF THE USSRMikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet leader, announced his resignation as president in Moscow later that year. The fall of the Soviet Union began with a failed coup attempt against him.
Parts of the West interpreted the fall of the world's largest socialist state as a victory for the liberal model and proof that the communist ideal was unrealistic. For their part, the left initiated a vehement self-critique of the causes of the USSR's demise.
CREATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNIONThe Treaty on European Union is signed in Maastricht.
It outlines specific principles for the future common currency, foreign and security policy, and justice and home affairs cooperation, after removing trade restrictions among its members.
It began after World War II with the purpose of increasing economic cooperation between countries in the idea that as economic interdependence between countries increased, the risk of conflict would decrease.
DOLLY SHEEP CLONINGThe first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell was Dolly the sheep. It was established as part of research at the Roslin Institute but it creation was not the purpose.
The method used has facilitated developments in biology by allowing the precise alteration of the DNA of animals, plants, and microorganisms, which has aided the discovery of novel medicines, the possibility of healing genetic disorders in the future, and will aid in crop improvement.
09/11Al Qaeda, an Islamist extremist organisation, was responsible for four coordinated terrorist operations.
They took over four commercial flights, three of which completed their mission. Two of them collided with the Twin Towers in New York, completely destroying the two structures, and a third collided with the Pentagon in Virginia.
The passengers revolted against the hijackers on the fourth flight, and the plane crashed in Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
EURO REPLACED PESETAThe peseta was phased out of circulation in that year, making the euro the only legal tender in our country.
Spain has been one of the European Union countries that has reaped the most benefits from the euro.
Following a summit of EU members, it was decided that the community currency's name would be "euro" (€), as this is the currency that represents an Economic and Monetary Union.