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Culture and Currents

  • 1500

    Spirituality of the Natives

    Spirituality of the Natives
    Shamans were very important in the spiritual aspect. Shamans were also doctors and priest. Shamans were the ones responsible for interpreting dreams and then they would tell the native the meaning of the dream. Shamans also had good knowledge of plants so they would help heal the sick. Dreamcatchers were also important as the believed it would absorb their bad dreams. Dreams were considered as a dead ancestor sending a message from the spirit world, since natives believed in life after death.
  • 1500


    The natives believed in animism. Animism meant they believed everything, living or non-living, had a spirit and was equal. The natives only took what they needed because they respected everything nature offered them. For example, after killing an animal, they would pray for the animal.
  • 1500

    Communication of Natives

    Communication of Natives
    Natives didn't have an official language so they often passed down legends and myths, by oral tradition. The would use songs or dances since it was easy to remember. Often, native villages would exchange items as a peace offering.
  • Period: 1500 to

    Culture and Currents

  • Divine Right of Kings

    Divine Right of Kings
    The Divine Right of Kings was to eliminate mercantilism. King Louis the 14th gave himself absolute power, which means he was higher than God. King Louis was helping Europe develop however New France was struggling with its development, it was also being constantly attacked by the Iroquois.To help New France, he sent over 1200 soldiers and he got rid off all the companies who controlled the monopoly. He replaced the monopoly with a Minister of Marine. In 1663 the established the royal government.
  • Catholicism

    The Church played a big role since it had an effect on politics and it basically controlled what people did on a daily basis. The Church took care of the education and hospitals. The Church wanted everyone to be Catholic so they often had missionaries convert people into Catholics. The Church controlled everything at the time and was very powerful.
  • Canadian culture

    Canadian culture
    In New France, a new culture that was specific to the people there began to develop. It was a Canadian culture. It was specific to them meaning it was adapted to their needs and natural environment. It was influenced by the Amerindians.The Canadians developed the same transportation methods and started growing vegetables like squash, corn and beans.Even the education was affected by the Amerindian lifestyle. The governors and intendants in New France also adapted to the new culture of Canadians.
  • Liberalism

    Liberalism is the freedom of an individual. It means that you could do whatever you want within the laws. It basically gave people more freedom and this way the Church and government wouldn't completely control your life. Two types of liberalism:
    -French Canadian (la petite bourgeoisie) which contained lawyers, notaries and doctors were more towards the political parties like Parti Patriote and Parti Rouge
    -English-Canadien (la bourgeoisie d'affaires) who were more towards the capitalist system.
  • Ultramontanism

    Ultramontanism is the opposite of anticlericalism. It meant that people wanted the Church and State to work and be close together, but it also wanted the Church to be a bit more powerful than the State. The Church rejected any ideas or thoughts that were related to liberalism and socialism. The Church forced people to do as they asked, the Church had complete control of peoples lives. The Catholic Church did everything in it's power to fight the Anticlerical Movement.
  • Anticlerical Movement

    Anticlerical Movement
    The anticlerical movement is simply how people wanted the Church and State to be separated. It was supported by liberals who were part of the Parti Rouge. The Parti Rouge and the Church became enemies between 1850 and 1860. The party believed the Church kept people in a state of ignorance. The newspaper played a role in this conflict since the liberals used the newspaper to express their ideas.
  • Imperialism

    It's policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies. Imperialism had an influence on new types of architecture and it had a parliamentary political organisation.
  • First Newspapers

    First Newspapers
    Ideas were expressed through the newspaper. The first newspaper was presented in French and English. It was called "The Quebec Gazette". In 1775, Fleury Mesplet, Montreal's first printer, decided to start publishing his own newspaper, called "The Montreal Gazette" This newspaper discussed the liberal ideas and talked about bishops and the Catholic clergy. This newspaper became the way for Canadians who supported liberalism to express themselves. Newspaper started to grow during the 19th century.
  • Education

    During the British regime, the education wasn't very strong. Only 5000 of the 111000 kids went to school (age 5-14). The education system was very disorganized and there were simply not enough schools to support all the children. They decided to create school boards which would be responsible and finance the schools. There were two types of schools at the time, there was the Catholic schools and the Protestants schools. The attendance of kids in schools increased between the years 1842 and 1866.
  • Agriculturism

    This current of thought was to support people to farm
    It helped create community groups like "Le Cercle des Fermières"
  • French-Canadian Nationalism

    French-Canadian Nationalism
    -Did not support Britain
    -Protect the French interests (language, education, rights)
    -Newspaper (Le Devoir, Henri Bourassa)
  • English-Canadian Nationalism

    English-Canadian Nationalism
    -Liked the English (Britain) way (language, politics)
    -Supported Britain but wanted to be independent
  • Capitalism

    Capitalism is an economic system where the exchange of wealth is made and maintained by private individuals or corporations. Capitalists are constructing buildings because of architectural heritage. Diffusion of capitalist ideas. Appearance of literary works that depict economic disparities.
  • Socialism

    A system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital and land. Socialism questions the spread of capitalism through labour and student movement and independent magazines.
  • Feminism

    Before WW1
    -Women had a hard life
    -Married at a young age and usually had 10 children
    -Women had no rights and were forced to do what their husbands asked of them
    -Worked both at home and some in factories
    -Women had the worst jobs
    -They had very few rights (no vote) and very little education
    After WW1
    -During WW1 women took the place of men
    -The women worked in factories and served as nurses
    -Because of there excellent work they received the right to voe in Federal elections
  • Americanism

    Americanism is the when the American trends started to influence the world including Canada. The Americans influenced us with their dance (Charleston), their music (Jazz) and through films, radio and television. The Church disapproved and to counter the American influences they decided to spread ideas of traditional Catholic culture through music, media and education.
  • Fascism

    Fascism is the political idea that there's a dictator (one person) who controls the whole country. They rule the country through propaganda/force. Spain and Italy adopted fascism, however, Germany took it too far when Nazi's leader Adolf Hitler came. In today's world, North Korea is an example of fascism.
  • Cooperatism

    It's the birth of different groups who favored equality and collaboration. Everyone would be equal. Everyone was guaranteed protection and profit. Mainly for agriculture.
  • Laicism

    -Nonclerical control of political and social institutions
    -After 1837 the bishops became more and more powerful
    -Controlled education
    -Church attendance was high
    -Development of a new style of artistic creation that closely represented real life and distanced itself from a more traditional style imposed by the Church
  • Neo-nationalism

    -New type of liberalism
    -Spread by artists like Félix Leclerc and Gilles Vigneault
    -Did not want the government to control them
  • Neoliberalism

    -New type of liberalism
    -Hands off government
    -Advocate the removal of the state
    -The opposite of what socialist groups wanted
  • Aborogianilism

    Claims for ancestral rights and recognition of aboriginal identity through tradition culture (writings, language, music, éducation, etc). The natives also tend to have issues with their territory. For example in the summer of 1990, Mohawk warriors created roadblocks on the border to their reserves in Oka. They created the blockage because a golf course wanted to expand its 9 holes on native land. The native military organized themselves and the Canadian Forces were called. It lasted 78 days.