Creation/Dissolution of Political Parties and Sources of Support

  • Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

    Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
    Even before the Constitution was ratified, people were divided over the issue of the amount of power the federal government should be allowed to have, setting the foundatons for conflicting political parties. The Anti-Federalists did not want to ratify the Constitution, arguing that it gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the state governments, there was no bill of rights,and objected to the national government being able to maintain an army in peacetime.
  • Federalist Party Formed

    Federalist Party Formed
    Federalists favored a strong central government, loose interpretation of the Consitution, ecouragement of manufacturing and commerce. They were the strongest in the Northeast, favored close ties with Britain, and emphasized order and stability. The Federalists controlled the federal government until 1801. They dissolved completely around the Era of Good Feelings in 1816-1824. Noted Federalists include Adams, Hamilton, and Marshall.
  • The Republican Party is Formed

    The Republican Party is Formed
    The Republican Party, lead by Jefferson and Madison, was formed in opposition to the Federalist Party. They accused the Federalists of benefiting the rich at the expense of the poor. Republicans believed in a small government, stronger state rights, suffrage for all white landowning people, and idealized the agrarian farmer. Mostly supported by the poor, the Republicans favored the French people during the French Revolution and Britain-France conflict.
  • "Revolution" of 1800

    "Revolution" of 1800
    Represented the first non-violent transfer of power from one political party (Federalists) to the another (Democratic Republicans). This election ushered in Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic Republican Rule. The election also exposed one of the flaws in the original Constitution. Members of the Electoral College could only vote for president; each elector could vote for two candidates, and the person who received the second largest number of votes during the balloting became vice-president.
  • The Hartford Convention Kills the Federalist Party

    The Hartford Convention Kills the Federalist Party
    The War of 1812 was loathed by Federalists because the embargoes and blockades ruined New England commerce. The convention passed a series of resolutions summarizing New England grievances. They wanted to abolish the 3/5ths Clause and limit an embargo to 60 days, among other provisions. Unfortunately this happened just as the Treaty of Ghent and the victory at New Orleans occured, which discredited the Federalists as "traitors" and led to their decline as well as the Era of Good Feelings.
  • National Republican Party

    National Republican Party
    When Andrew Jackson was elected President of the United States in 1828, this group went into opposition. They were the predecessors of the Whigs, and were led by Henry Clay. Its platform was Clay's American System of nationally financed internal improvements and a protective tariff, which would promote faster economic development.
  • Anti-Masonic Party

    Anti-Masonic Party
    The Anti-Masonic Party was the first "third party" in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry and was founded as a single-issue party aspiring to become a major party.They feared that the Freemasons were a powerful secret society that was trying to rule the country in defiance of republican principles.
  • Democratic vs. National Republicans

    Democratic vs. National Republicans
    The Era of Good Feelings ended with Jackson's presidency. The Republicans had split into two factions: those who supported the "common man" (Democratic) versus those who wanted a more nationalized government like the one under Adams (National). Democratic Republicans supported Jackson, while National Republicans supported more educated men like Adams.
  • Whig Party formed from National Republicans

    Whig Party formed from National Republicans
    The National Republican party expanded to become the Whig Party. The Whigs stressed modernization, looking toward the future and spoke to the hopes of Americans. They wanted to use federal government to promote economic growth, transportation and banks, and also advocated reforms. They favored industry, urban growth and free labor. They also supported territorial expansion, opposed the Mexican war. The party was ultimately destroyed by the debate over expanding slavery.
  • The Liberty Party

    The Liberty Party
    The Liberty Party helped clinch Democrat Polk's victory in the election of 1844. It was dedicated to the abolition of slavery by political action and was headed by James Birney. Many influential northern antislavery Whigs defected to the Liberty Party over Clay's ambiguous stance on western annexation, providing Polk with the necessary majority.
  • "Conscience Whigs" and the Free-Soil Party

    "Conscience Whigs" and the Free-Soil Party
    The Free-Soil Party opposed the extension of slavery on the grounds that it would hinder the economic opportunities of white frontiersmen. It was made up of a faction of Democrats who favored the Wilmot Proviso, former Liberty Party abolitionists, and antislavery "Conscience Whigs" They nominated Martin Van Buren. The Free-Soil Party didn't win any states, but its popularity in the North showed how the abolition movement was becoming unavoidable.
  • Know-Nothing Party

    Know-Nothing Party
    Also called the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, the Know-Nothing party strongly opposed Catholic immigration. It represent the nativist sentiment among "older" Americans after the mass wave of Irish immigrants during the 1840s. Many Protestants distrusted the Catholic Church or believed the Catholics were stealing jobs from true Americans. There was a lot of discrimination/harassment of immigrants in large cities, especially the Irish. These immigrants in turn supported the Democratic Party.
  • The Whigs Disintegrate

    The Whigs Disintegrate
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act shattered the Whig Party. "Conscience Whigs" deplored the act, while moderate Northern Whigs like Fillmore thought they needed to preserve the Union above all else. Free-soil Democrats also opposed the K-N Act, alienating themselves from southern Whigs who supported Douglas. After the fallout, many antislavery Whigs began looking for alternative parties, eventually leading to the Know-Nothing and Republican parties.
  • The New Republican Party is Born

    The Republicans were created in the aftermath of the K-N Act. Members ranged from conservatives who wanted to restore the Missouri Compromise, to free-soilers, to abolitionists. They struggled to usurp the Know-Nothing party, and finally gained prominence over the issue of "Bleeding Kansas" and the Sumner-Brooks beating. The Republican Party would be a huge political force behind the Civil War and beyond.
  • Rise and Fall of the Know-Nothing Party

    Rise and Fall of the Know-Nothing Party
    The Know-Nothing Party was spectacularly successful in 1853 and 1855 as nativists became disenchanted with the traditional Whig Party's coutrship of Democratic Catholics. They were very strong in the East and West. But they too split over the slave issue. The proslavery Southern faction supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act, driving away the abolitionist Northern members, who also weren't very anti-Catholic.
  • The Election of 1860

    The Election of 1860
    4 parties ran in the 1860 presidential election: the Rrepublicans (Lincoln), the Northern Democrats (Douglas), the Southern Democrats (Breckenridge), and the Constitutional Union (Bell). Lincoln didn't want to abolish slavery but wanted to stop it from spreading. Breckinridge supported slavery in the territories. Douglas advocated popular sovereignty for the issue. Bell and wanted to preserve the Union. Lincoln won, but 1860 broke the Democratic party and signaled the impending civil war.
  • Radical Republicans

    Radical Republicans
    The Radical Republicans were a small but vocal faction that wanted complete emancipation. Supporters included Thaddeus Stevens and Frederick Douglass. It gained popularity as Northern military setbacks mounted. Eventually, the political power of the Radical Republicans helped push Lincoln to take a definite stance on slavery and turn the Civil War into a moral crusade. During Reconstruction, they would demand a harsher process of integration for the South and try to impeach Andrew Johnson.
  • "War" vs. "Peace" Democrats

    "War" vs. "Peace" Democrats
    During the Civil War, Democrats were a minority in Congress. "War" Democrats conceded that war was needed to preserve the Union, but "Peace" Democrats (Copperheads) wanted peace negotiations. They were strongest in the border states, Midwest, and eastern cities, which resulted in antidraft riots in 1863.
  • The Ku Klux Klan is Born

    The Ku Klux Klan is Born
    The KKK formed in the wake of the Civil War. It consisted of former Confederates and used violence/intimidation to undermine blacks' Reconstruction gains, such as suffrage. The Klan sought to reestablish white supermacy in Southern politics and society, and attacked pro-black institution like schools and the Freedman's Bureau. Though eventually suppressed by the federal government, the KKK showed virulent vigilante justice and America's enduring racism even after the Civil War.
  • The New Republican Base

    The New Republican Base
    During Reconstruction, the southern electorate was drastically changed. It now had a Republican base: northern "carpetbaggers" (supposedly profiteering), southern "scalawags" (whites who supported Republicans for economic reasons), and the now=enfranchised freedmen. The new Republican party consisted of many diverse factions, which hindered Reconstruction's ultimate sucess. However, groups like free blacks would support the Republicans for decades to come.
  • AWSA and NWSA

    AWSA and NWSA
    AWSA and NWSA were two rival women's suffrage groups formed in the wake of the Civil War. AWSA retained an alliance with male abolitionists and campaigned for woman suffrage in the states. The more "radical" NWSA, led by Anthony and Stanton, condemned its former male allies and promoted a federal woman suffrage amendment.
  • Liberal Republicans and the end of Reconstruction

    Liberal Republicans and the end of Reconstruction
    Grant's presidency was fraught with scandals and disappointed many Republicans. Former Radicals and others formed the Liberal Republican Party. They wanted civil-service reform, free trade, and an end to military rule in the South. They nominated Greeley but lost in the 1872 election. But ultimately the party undermined Republican southern policy and eroded any remaining radicalism in Reconstruction. With the Republicans split and tired over slavery, Reconstruction effectively ended.
  • The Greenback Labor Party Forms

    The Greenback Labor Party Forms
    The Greenback Labor Party opposed America's money and banking system in the 1870s. It condemned the Resumption Act of 1875, which returned the nation back to the gold standard. The Greenback Party's main supporters were farmers and urban laborers hurt by the Panic of 1873, and who wanted more flexible paper currency. It nomined James Weaver and lost in the election of 1880. Afterwards, the Greenback Party had lost much of its worker-based support and its influence sharply declined.
  • Mugwumps

    James G. Blaine was nominated as the Republican Presidential candidate on June 6, 1884. This caused a faction of the Republican party to defect and support Democratic nominee Grover Cleveland. These people were called Mugwumps, and detested the financial corruption associated with Blaine. The Mugwumps supposedly "gave" Cleveland the election by swinging NY to the Democrats.
  • Stalwart vs. Half-Breeds

    Stalwart vs. Half-Breeds
    The Republican party split over the issue of patronage. Stalwarts were "traditional" republicans who opposed civil service reform and favored traditional machine politics. On the opposing side, the Half-Breeds Republicans worked to create civil service reform and eventually created the Pendleton Act.
  • Farmers and Laborers Union of America

    The Farmers' and Laborers' Union of America was a merging of two groups: the National Agricultural Wheel and the Southern Farmers Alliance. In general, it was opposed to the gold standard and sought to reform the national government in a way that would benefit the working class and farmers more. In 1891, the FLUA morphed into the Populist Party.
  • Political Machines and Bosses

    Political Machines and Bosses
    While never recognized as a national political party, politics throughout the Gilded Age were often dominated by "Political Machines". These disciplined political organizations were small political groups with a leader "Boss", who essentially dominated the votes in certain areas through patronage. The most famous example was Tamanany Hall in NYC, with "Boss" Tweed.
  • People's Party (Populists)

    People's Party (Populists)
    The People's Party, or "Populists" was a short-lived political movement established in 1891.The Populist platform was an agrarian one, and advocated free silver, nationalized railroads, direct election of senators, and low tarriffs. They first nominated James Weaver in 1892 and later joined forces with Democrats to nominate William Jennings Bryan for in 1896. The party was crippled after Bryan's defeat, and proved unable to withstand America's shift from a producer to consumer economy.
  • Gold Democrats ("Goldbugs")

    Another short-lived Party, these Democrats opposed the nomination of William Jennings Bryan and were mostly Cleveland supporters. They strongly supported the gold standard and considered Bryan a dangerous man whose "free silver" proposals would devastate the economy. Most Gold Democrats ended up voting for McKinley.
  • Election of 1896, Dissolves Populist Party

    Election of 1896, Dissolves Populist Party
    The loss of William Jennings Bryan (Democrat/Populist) to William McKinley (Republican) in the Election of 1896 proved devastating to the Populist party. Bryan had failed to secure support from the middle class and working poor, and it cost him the election. This election marked the dissolution of the Populist Party.
  • Socialist Party of America Founded

    Socialist Party of America Founded
    Socialism is an economic system characterized by government ownership of production and the cooperative management of the economy. From 1901 to WWI, the it drew support from trade unionists, progressive social reformers, populist farmers, and immigrants. Its early political perspectives ranged from radical socialism to social democracy. Wealthy/conservative Americans generally opposed it. From 1900-1912 Eugene Debs ran as the Socialist Presidential candidate, being most successful in 1912.
  • Insurgents

    The Insurgents were a small group of pro-reform, Progressive Republicans in Congress that challenged the party's conservative base during the Progressive Era. Members included La Follette and Norris. In 1909, the Insurgents turned against President Taft over the Payne-Aldrich Tariff and Speaker Cannon, contributing to Wilson's election in 1912. Supporters included Progressives like TR. They later became part of the Progressive party's base.
  • Formation of Progressive (Bull Moose) Party

    Formation of Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
    This party was formed after a Republican split between progressives and conservatives. The Bull Moose platform argued for woman's suffrage, anti-trust legislation, welfare for women and children, workers compensation, elastic currency, new inheritance taxes, and income taxes. It beat the conservative Republican party in 1912, but the split ultimately allowed Wilson to win.Supporters included muckrakers, workers, women's suffragists, some well-off Progressives, and most social reformers.
  • Woman's Peace Party

    Woman's Peace Party
    The Woman's Peace Party was founded in part by Jane Addams. It was an organization of women who opposed US involvement in WW1, either for moral or political reasons. It used tactics such as direct public demonstrations. The WPP later merged into the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1915.
  • National Woman's Party

    National Woman's Party
    The National Woman's Party, founded by "radical" feminist Alice Paul, pushed for an equal-rights amendment to the Constitution. However, others feared it would jeopardize gender-based laws that protected women workers. The NWP was often criticized by younger women for being "unfeminine" and causing a ruckus about nothing. This exemplifies the materialistic 1920s culture and especially the effect of advertising on Americans.
  • 19th Amendment Passed

    19th Amendment Passed
    Women were granted the right to vote in the 19th amendment. This meant that there were now millions of new voters who could sway future elections. Many expected the involvement of women in upcoming election of 1920 to be a political "revolution", but this was not the case...women voted much the same as men.
  • League of Women Voters

    The League of Women Voters drew mainly on middle-class and professional women, abandoning activism for non-partisan studies of civic issues. In general, the league reflected conservative views of women in the 1920s and the overall fading of civil-rights activism during that time period.
  • Conference for Progressive Political Action

    The CPPA was founded in 1922 by labor and farm groups and defeated some Republicans during the midterm elections that year. In 1924, the CPPA revived the Progressive Party and nomined Robert La Follette for presiden, contributing to Calvin Coolidge's sweeping victory over him and Davis (D).
  • KKK

    During the 1920s, the KKK grew in power and scope, persecuting not only blacks but also Catholics, Jews, and aliens, as well as their sympathizers. It was popular in the South, Midwest, and among the working class in Protestant-dominated cities. It promised to restore the nation's racial, ethnic, religious, and moral purity. The KKK managed to invade many state governments until March 1925, until a sexual scandal involving Grand Dragon Stephenson destroyed its reputation.
  • "Wets" vs. "Dries"

    "Wets" vs. "Dries"
    Wets were those who wanted to abolish prohibition; dries wanted to keep the amendment that established it. The issue of drinking created decisive lines in American politics, even contributing to Democratic "wet" Al Smith in the Election of 1928. Wets were often liberals, artists, etc. Dries tended to be rural, conservative Portestants. Their conflict reflected deeper social differences that caused conflict during the seemingly prosperous 1920s.
  • Change in the Democratic Party

    Change in the Democratic Party
    The democrats decided to abandon laissez-faire capitalism strategies, and embrace new hands on, government regulated business strategies. The began to insure against unemployment and other things, and tried their best to do as much as they could to shorten the great depression. They began to become more like the democrats of today, and the word liberal began to take on its present meaning.
  • Change in the Republican Party

    In response to the democratic push for liberal beliefs, the republican party began to grow slowly more conservative. This change is not quite as significant a change as the democrats experienced.
  • Election of 1932- African Americans Vote Democratic

    Election of 1932- African Americans Vote Democratic
    Herbert Hoover was replaced in 1932 by Franklin Delano Roosevelt.Before this election, most African Americans voted Republican, and were even restricted from voting Democratic until 1924. FDR received about 70% of the African American vote, signifying a change in support from this minority. FDR also recieved a new support from women, farmers and union workers.
  • The American Liberty League

    The American Liberty League
    During the Great Depression in the 1930's, FDR created many agencies and acts to improve the economy, decrease unemployment, and help the Americans get through these hard times. However, some people, mostly those who were wealthy, thought these agencies promoted Socialism, so the American Liberty League was formed. Containing both conservative Democrats and wealthy Republicans, this league fought against the Socialist ideals of FDR's New Deal.
  • Huey Long and "Share Our Wealth"

    Huey Long was one of FDR's most potent rivals. Elected governor of Louisiana in 1928, Long gained popularity for his proposed "Share Our Wealth" program: a 100% tax on all income over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. Long claimed that with his policies, every American could live a comfortable middle-class life. Though killed by an assassin, Long represents the more radical opponents of the New Deal who wanted a larger "welfare state".
  • The new Democratic Voter Base

    In the election of 1936, the Democratic voter base changed dramatically. In addition to the traditional white Southerners, parts of the West, and white big-city immigrants/urban machines, FDR gained the support of farmers, women, and even blacks. These new groups liked New Deal policies such as the AAA, or public-work projects. Their support for FDR in 1936 would help the Democrats for many years, and showed how popular the New Deal was.
  • Union Party

    The Union Party was a mix of Coughlinites, Townsendites, and Huey Long supporters. Coughlinites followed Father Charles Coughlin, a radical New Deal critic who wanted the economy to be nationalized. Townsendites giving $200 per month to the elderly to stimulate spending. Huey Long supporters were behind the "Share Our Wealth" Program. The Union Party did very badly, showing how most people liked FDR's New Deal for improving the economy while keeping capitalism/democracy.
  • FDR Breaks Two-Term Tradition

    FDR Breaks Two-Term Tradition
    In the 1940 election, Wendell L. Willkie was running against FDR, who was challenging the two-term tradition. The Democrats believed that FDR was the best choice for candidate due to the current situation since he was leaning towards war. While FDR and Willkie had similar foreign policies, FDR won and broke the two-term tradtion because voters believed that FDR was the best man to lead America should war come.
  • The America First Committee

    The America First Committee
    The America First Committe was the strongest US political party for isolationism during WWII. IT was very conservative and members ranged from pacifists to progressives to anti-Semites. Though FDR and the Democrats still dominated politics, the AFC showed how America wasn't completely united during WWII and how there were many concerns about getting involved in such a huge conflict.
  • Congress of Racial Equality and the Double V Movement

    Congress of Racial Equality and the Double V Movement
    CORE was a nonviolent group for racial equality based off of Gandhi's tactics. It sought to desegregate public facilities in the North, and was part of the "Double V" Campaign: blacks wanted WWII to overcome both fascism and racial discrimination. The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters also supported nonviolent protests for racial equality and helped push for the Fair Employment Practices Commission.
  • The New Progressive Party

    Left-wing Democrats joined with communists to form a new Progressive party, which nominated Henry Wallace for president and wanted friendly relations with the USSR. This party hurt Truman in some northern states that liked the more liberal Wallace. Their bid for the presidency failed because of their radicalism, but show deep political divides in America's political structure even during the conformist 1950s.
  • States' Rights Democratic Party/ "Dixiecrats"

    States' Rights Democratic Party/ "Dixiecrats"
    Southern segregationists were unhappy about Truman's pro-civil rights stance. Many left the main Democratic Party to form the segregationist "Dixiecrats". They nominated Strom Thurmond for president and hoped to draw enough votes away from Truman for him to lose.Though unsuccessful, the Dixiecrats show how strong racism was in the 1950s and the prevailing conservatism and conformity.
  • The Election of 1948 and Truman's Surprise Victory

    The Election of 1948 and Truman's Surprise Victory
    Sensing the divided Democratic party, the Republicans nominated moderate, safe Thomas Dewey. But Truman's polarizing, passionate campaign against the GOP's "eliteness" won him the presidency against the Dixiecrats and the new Progressive Party as well. Truman's victory showed the new strength of the New Deal coalition: workers, famers, and ethnic minorities who supported his liberal ideals.
  • McCarthyism

    Leading the Red Scare was Senator Joseph McCarthy. He used false evidence and insinuations to taint the reputations of political opponents/dissidents. McCarthy's supporters included Republicans eager to regain power in Congress, laborers, and Catholics. His claim that Reds had infiltrated the government offered an easy explanation for Cold War hysteria, but it demoralized politics and made America superpatriotic and less tolerant of "nonconformists" like homosexuals and immigrants.
  • 1952 - Republicans finally get the Presidency

    1952 - Republicans finally get the Presidency
    After more than a decade, the Republicans won the presidency with war hero Eisenhower and his VP Nixon. With Truman unpopular for being "soft on Communism", the Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson, who could not overcome Truman's (and thus the Democrats') unpopularity. Eisenhower and Nixon radiated reassurance and overcame scandal with the "Checkers Speech" to win in 1952. This election helped the Republicans win control of Congress as well.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    The SCLC was extremely influential in the Civil Rights Movement through the 1950s and 60s. Headed by Dr. King, the SCLC emphasized nonviolent protest as a means of desegregation and was involved in many demonstrations/boycotts such as the Birmingham, Alabama campaign. The SCLC emphasized the role of religion in the civil rights movement. Because it was largely peaceful, the SCLC got considerable support from whites as well as blacks but was criticized by more militant groups like SNCC.
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commission

    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commission
    SNCC was a prominent civil-rights group in the '60s. Members were black college students who participated in freedom rides, sit-ins, and other nonviolent civil disobedience strategies. They urged grass-roots activism and initially garnered widespread public support. However, SNCC was radicalized by Stokely Carmichael in the latter half of the 60s and became a symbol of black militancy which isolated many supporters.
  • Young Americans for Freedom

    Young Americans for Freedom
    YAF was a youth organization that idolized Barry Goldwater and strongly supported the conservative Right. They supported the Vietnam War as part of a crusade against Communism. They epitomized one group of student activists that strongly influenced the tone of politics in the 1960s.
  • The New Left

    The New Left
    The New Left was made of liberal student activists who took a more miliant approach to protesting government policy in the 60s. Prominent groups included Students for a Democratic Society (wanted a nonvioent youth movement and "participatory democracy" - the Port Huron Statement) and the Berkeley Free Speech Movement. They led rallies to protest the Vietnam War and segregation. Though gaining the Democrats a dangerous radical label, the New Left led to a more civically involved student body.
  • "New Conservatism"

    "New Conservatism"
    Barry Goldwater ran as the Republican presidential nominee in 1964. He strongly opposed Johnson's Great Society and liberalism. Goldwater championed segregation, cuts in government welfare/aid, and a tougher stance against Communism using nuclear weapons. Though his radicalness lost him the election, Goldwater's candidacy forshadowed the Republicans' "Southern strategy": building a voter base of conservaive, small-government, often segregationist southerners and westerners.
  • Freedom Summer and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

    Freedom Summer and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    The MFDP enrolled sixty thousand Southern blacks in the wake of Freedom Summer, when students went down south to try and register blacks for voting. It demanded to replace the Mississippi Democratic Party at the national Democratic convention because the MFDP was the only "freely elected" party in the state. Johnson made a compromise that angered both segregationists and militant civil rights leaders. This led to widespread disillusionment in Johnson's radical liberalism and the Democratic Party
  • Doves vs. Hawks

    Doves vs. Hawks
    From the start, the Vietnam War polarized America into doves (anti-war) and hawks (pro-war). Doves were liberal college students, clergy members, civil rights activists. Hawks were conservative, Republican, etc. By the end of the war, doves wanted negotiation while hawks demanded total victory. Doves and Hawks polarized American politics, leading to the downfall of Johnson's liberalism and Nixon's resurgent conservatism.
  • The Black Panther Party

    The Black Panther Party
    The Black Panther Party was an extreme militant black civil rights group founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. It epitomized "Black Power" that took hold after 1950, urging blacks to become socially and economically independence and deriding integration. It was part of a larger movement led by militant blacks like Malcolm X to empower black pride and more aggressively seek equal opportunities with whites, including with violence.
  • National Organization for Women

    National Organization for Women
    NOW was formed in response to the EEOC's reluctance to ban gender discrimination in employment. It was led by Betty Friedan and other feminists. It fought for women's civil rights: equal opportunity, an end to gender discrimination, etc. NOW symbolized the women's rights movement in the 1960s: females tired of their social, economic, political, and sexual restrictions. The activists were inspired by the black civil rights movement, Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, and the Pill.
  • El Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan

    El Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan
    MEChA was a Hispanic-American activist group of young Chicano students that rejected assimilation. They led class boycotts and other demonstrations to demand more bilingual classes, Chicano Studies programs, and Hispanic-only groups. MEChA is the main example of how Hispanics asserted their heritage and rights more firmly in the 60s, and was part of the larger civil rights movement for "oppressed groups" like blacks, women, etc.
  • American Indian Movement

    American Indian Movement
    The AIM was founded by Plains Indians groups and sought to protect traditional Indian ways, prevent prolice harassment in "red ghettos", and establish schools that tought Indian history and values. It was rather militant in protesting government exploitation of their land. AIM inspired Native Americans to be proud of their heritage, and was part of a general civil rights movement that emphasized taking pride in one's native culture and identity in the 1960s.
  • The Election of 1968

    The Election of 1968 marked the end of the New Deal coaltion forged by FDR. Nixon (R) and Wallace (a segregationist) won a majority of the vote over Humphrey (D). Nixon claimed to represent the Silent Majority of Americans who were conservative, average citizens. The new conservative Republican base expanded to include the suburbs, the West, and the South, and would dominate US politics for the rest of the century. The Democrats, in contrast, would fracture into various contending groups.
  • Nixon's Southern Strategy

    Nixon's Southern Strategy
    Former southern Democrats began to vote Republican in increasing numbers. Republicans exploited anti-African American racism, and appealed to fears of growing federal power in social and economic matters. This was the beginning of the Republican domination of the south American seen today in national politics.
  • The American Independent Party

    The American Independent Party ran George Wallace as its presidential candidate in 1968. It basically supported segregation and "law and order", playing on public discontent over black riots and student protesters. Though Wallace did not win, he captured much of the Democrats' "Solid South" and showed a backlash against liberalism as well as a change in the Democrats' voter base.
  • The Gay Liberation Front

    The Gay Liberation Front
    The Gay Liberation Front fought for equal rights for homosexuals, removing the stigma of being homosexual, and civil rights protection/public acceptance. It gained much support in the wake of events like the Stonewall Inn raid and showed how the public was becoming more liberal.
  • The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force

    During the 1970s and 80s a "Gay Pride" movement took place, with organizations like the NGLT and ACT-UP urging for the repeal of anti-gay laws and the passage of civil rights legislation for homosexuals. Though often at odds with the conservative movement, gays experienced increased social acceptance during this time period.
  • Ford gets the Presidency

    Ford gets the Presidency
    When Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, Ford assumed the presidency, making him the only person to assume the presidency without having been previously voted into either the presidential or vice presidential office.
  • Feminism Gains and Uncertainties

    NOW grew in popularity during the 1970s, with many middle-class women agitating for equal rights. The National Women's Political Caucus (1971) also promoted a feminist agenda. Many states liberalized abortion and gender discrimination laws. However, conflicts arose between female independence and protection of the traditional "home". The feminist movement divided between "female autonomists/careerists" and advocates of the family, like Betty Friedan. The Equal Rights Amendment was never passed.
  • Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority

    Jerry Falwall's Moral Majority was a conservative religious group that practiced political activism. They organized evangelical Christians to support conservative candidates and pursue social reform, such as restricting abortion and gay rights. They were also very anti-communist. The Moral Majority represents the conservative movement of the time and how religion began playing a large role in politics.
  • Religious Conservatism

    Religious Conservatism
    Organizations of the Christian right opposed federal interference in local affairs; denounced abortion, divorce, feminism, and homosexuality; defended unrestricted free enterprise, and supported a strong American posture in the world. Represented the movement of Christian
    evangelism onto the political scene.
  • Period: to

    The New Right

    The New Right began with Reagan's election as president. The opposite of the New Deal, the New Right, mostly religious evangelicals, deplored the social unrest and sexual revolution of the 60s. It symbolized many Americans' desire for traditional values, manifested by organizations such as the Moral Majority and Christian Coalition. Regan typified the New Right, and his ideology would influence politics and culture for years after.
  • Regan and the "New Right"

    Regan and the "New Right"
    Conservative Christians, Southern whites, wealthy suburbanites and young conservatives formed a "New Right" which supported Ronald Regan's "law and order" platform. Regan advocated for stricter laws against crime and drugs, opposed abortion, increased defense spending and cutting taxes. Although Regan limited the ongoing expansion of the federal government, he did not reduce any of it's pre-existing powers.
  • The Christian Coalition

    Falwall's Moral Majority ended in 1984, and Pat Robertson's Christian Coalition took its place. It mobilized conservative Christians to elect favored candidates in order to increase conservative influence. Robertson also controlled the Christian Broadcasting Network. Both organizations helped to make evangelical Christianity a potent political force during the 80s.
  • Democratic Leadership Council

    The Democratic Leadership council was founded by Bill Clinton, Al Gore, Joe Liberman, and John Breaux. They were moderate Democrats who wanted to reverse their party's image of "big government" and "tax-and-spenders". The DLC would help Clinton get elected in 1992, and showed how the old New Deal coaltion had fractured, making way for a more moderate Democratic party.
  • Ross Perot and the Independents

    Ross Perot and the Independents
    During the Election of 1992, Perot ran as an independent and recieved 18.9% of the popular vote, making him the most popular 3rd party canidate since Theodore Roosevelt. His proposed policies emphasized balancing the federal budget. His election symbolized how many Americans were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the conduct of both Democrats and Republicans.
  • The Election of 1992

    Reversing a decade-long trend, Democrat Bill Clinton won the presidential election of 1992. He promised to end the stagnant economy, work on national healthcare, and reform welfare. The election showed how voters were forcused on domestic issues now that the Cold War had ended. In 1992, Independent Ross Perot also amassed the largest following since TR's Bull Moose Party.
  • Conservative Backlash

    In response to some of Clinton's liberal policies, the GOP won control of both houses of Congress in the midterm elections. Most of the voters were evangelical Christians and urged a smaller government and state activism. Newt Gingrinch, Speaker of the House, advocated the "Contract with America", which included many conservative provisions such as stricter abortion laws. The 1994 conservative backlash made the rest of Clinton's presidency more moderate.
  • Contract With America

    Contract With America
    In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limitsfor members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut. Proponents say the Contract was revolutionary in its commitment to offering specific legislation for a vote and describing in detail the precise plan of the Congressional Representatives,
  • Election of 2000: Bush vs. Gore

    Election of 2000: Bush vs. Gore
    One of the closest elections in history, 2000 was noteworthy for a controversy over the awarding of Florida's 25 electoral votes, the subsequent recount process in that state, and the unusual event of the winning candidate having received fewer popular votes than the runner-up. The Supreme court eventually resolved to end the recount, thus ruling in favor of Bush.