Creation/ Dissolution of Political Parties and Sources of Support (inc. Major Elections)

  • Election of 1788-1789 (First Election)

    Election of 1788-1789 (First Election)
    George Washington was unanimously elected for two terms before stepping down. John Addams was his VP due to receiving the second most amount of votes.
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    The First Party System

    Federalist Party (Alexander Hamilton, national bank, and respect British stability) v Democratic-Republican Party (Jefferson and Madison, limited reading of Constitution, support French Revolution)- both founded around 1792.
  • Election of 1796: John Adams (Fed) V. Thomas Jefferson (D-R)

    Election of 1796: John Adams (Fed) V. Thomas Jefferson (D-R)
    It was the firstand only presidential election in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing tickets.The ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution made this unlikely in the future. The Democratic-Republicans claimed that the Feds were too friendly with Britain, and the Feds claim the Dem-Reps were connected with the French Revolution.
  • Election of 1800: Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) V John Adams (Fed)

    Election of 1800: Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) V John Adams (Fed)
    In what is sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800," Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. While the Democratic-Republicans were well organized at the state and local levels, the Federalists were disorganized, and suffered a bitter split between their two major leaders, President Adams and Alexander Hamilton. The result of this election was affected by the three-fifths clause (if slaves did not count, Adams would have won). First completely peaaceful presdential election.
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    Era of Good Feelings

    End of Federalist Party - synonymous with Munroe's Presidency. Democratic-Republicans are dominant party in US politics.
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    The Second Party System

    Higher voter interest; Democratic Party (1832- now, Andrew Jackson) v Whig Party (1830s-1860s, Henry Clay, Congress over the President, modernization and economic protection).
  • Election of 1824: John Q Adams V. Andrew Jackson V. William Crawford V. Henry Clay

    Election of 1824: John Q Adams V. Andrew Jackson V. William Crawford V. Henry Clay
    With the dissolution of the federal party te election was split into four nominee all from the Democratic-Republican Party. Because nobody had received a majority of votes in the electoral college either, the House of Representatives had to choose between the top two candidates.Clay, the speaker of the hosue of reps, chose Adams in return for a position as Secretary of State. This was known as the "corrupt bargain" and did neither of them good.
  • Tammany Hall Gains Influence

    Although founded in the 1780's, this Democratic political machine reached peak domance from 1830s to 1930s. Lead by William "Magear" Tweed, or Boss Tweed, the Tammany Hall machine controled New York politics. Other machines existed in cities such as Baltimore, Philadelphia and Sand Francisco.
  • Election of 1840: William Henry Harrison (Whig) V. Martin Van Buren (D)

    Election of 1840: William Henry Harrison (Whig) V. Martin Van Buren (D)
    William Henry Harrison used his "log cabin campaign" as well as his running slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too!" highlighting him as a war hero. Most Presidential candidates felt it was undignified to campaign, so this was the first time we saw what it is like today.
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    Political Machines

    The political machines were organizations which capitalized on local and immigrant interests to mobilize voters and influence politics. Famous: Tammany Hall, NYC. (Time span is approximate.)
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    The Third Party System

    Republican Party (GOP, 1854, former Whigs, biggest success: Lincoln) v Democratic Party.
  • "Know Nothing" Party

    "Know Nothing" Party
    Nominated Millard Filmore as candidate for election of 1856, the "Know Nothing" Party (or the American Party) was anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant descended from the Native American Party.
  • Election of 1860: Lincoln (R) V. John C. Breckinridge (Southern D) V. John Bell (Constiutional Union) V. Stephen A Douglas (D)

     Election of 1860: Lincoln (R) V. John C. Breckinridge (Southern D) V. John Bell (Constiutional Union) V. Stephen A Douglas (D)
    Election of Abraham Lincoln, who set out to preserve the Union at all costs. The United States had been divided during the 1850s on questions surrounding the expansion of slavery and the rights of slave owners. In 1860, these issues broke the Democratic Party into Northern and Southern factions, and a new Constitutional Union Party appeared. Due to this divide, the Republican Party won.
  • Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) Founded

    The GAR was a major Republican support group, comprised of white, Northern, Civil War veterans. Their support was based on residual loyalty after the Civil War - after all, the GOP was the party of Lincoln.
  • The Grange founded

    The Grange founded
    Farmers in the Midwest were struggling with insect plagues, low crop prices and large loans. The Grange, also known as the "Patrons of Husbandry", was dedicated to providing information, social opportunities, and support. The Grange had some successes against high railroad fees in State legislature.
  • Greenback Party Founded

    The Greenback Party was in favor of an expanded money supply, or the government issuing paper money not backed by silver or gold. After the Panic of 1873, the party gained popularity among workers and farmers, who would benefit from inflation.
  • The Farmers' Alliance founded

    At first a collection of regional Alliances, the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union was a political group formed out of the Grange and leading towards the Populist Party.
  • Mugwumps support Cleveland

    Republican reformers, such as Carl Schurz and E. L. Godkin, supported Cleveland, a Democrat, because of his reputation as against political corruption and in favor of civil reform. These added supporters allowed Cleveland to carry New York in the 1884 election, which gave him the presidency.
  • Election: Grover Cleveland (Dem) wins

    Grover Cleveland won both the popular and electoral vote in 1884 - the first time a Democrat had become President of the United States since 1856, before the Civil War.
  • National Colored Farmers' Alliance Formed

    Because the National Farmers' Alliance endorsed the "separate but equal" idea of racial segregation, the National Colored Farmers' Alliance was founded. By 1890, the organization boasted 1.2 million members.
  • Election: Harrison v Cleveland

    Harrison (a Republican) was elected into office after Grover Cleveland, the former Democratic president. Harrison joined the long line of Republican presdents surrounding Cleveland. During his time in office he passes the very high McKinley Tariff.
  • National Women's Alliance Formed

    Women, also excluded from the National Farmer's Alliance, created the NWA to aid the farmers' cause. Lead by Mary E. Lease, a lawyer and farmers wife, the NWA mobilized females to lecture and spread awareness.
  • Populist Party Founded

    The People's Party of the United States, otherwise known as the Populist Party, was formed to unite regional Farmers' Alliances and function as a viable third party alternative. Their platform included electoral reform, a subtreasury plan and the silver standard, for which they became most popular.
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    Progressive Era

    Support for industrialization and business, de-corruption of government, prohibition and many small reform movements.
  • Election: McKinley v Bryan

    William Jennings Bryan, running on the Democratic ticket and with Populist support, was the first serious contender farmers' had for the White House. However, McKinley, with his urban industrial supporters and Mark Hanna as a financial backer, was able to defeat Bryan, whose support was limited and rural. Thus the Populist Party's best hopes were foiled.
  • Creation of the National Child Labor Committee (NCLP)

    The National Child Labor Committe was formed at a conference in New York where the New York committee and the Alabama committee joined together to create one group. The group fought for the rights of children in relation to work. The group was influential in the passing of the Keating-Owen Act which rohibited the transportation in interstate commerce of goods produced at factories that violated certain restrictions on child labor.
  • Election of 1908

    Election of 1908
    After promising not to run for a third term, TR pursuaded the Republican Party to nominate Taft, a close friend. Taft was against William Jennings Bryan, but won by a confortable margin.
  • Election of 1912

    Election of 1912
    This was a four-way election with:
    William Taft (R)
    Woodrow Willson (D)
    TR (Bull Moose Party)
    Eugene Debs (Socialist) The creation of the Bull Moose Party was significant here as it created a divide in the Republican party which lead to the sweeping victory for Wilson.
  • Creation of the National Womens Party (NWP)

    Creation of the National Womens Party (NWP)
    Founded by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, the NWP was created in defiance to NAAWSA. It fought for women's irghts, in particular the right to vote, and used techiniques such as protesting in front of the White House to send their message.
  • Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Founded

    Marcus Garvey, a young, Northern, urban black man, founded UNIA to promote black self-sufficiency and separation from American society. He believed in a great future if African Americans moved back to Africa.
  • Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Revived

    Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Revived
    The KKK was revived as an "American" response to blacks, Jews, foreigners, Cathoic. It had a complex social and economic structure based on profiting a few men. The Klan gained political power in states like Oregon and Oklahoma. It threatened, lynched and beat people deemed "impure".
  • Election: Wilson (Dem) v Hughes (GOP)

    Election: Wilson (Dem) v Hughes (GOP)
    President Wilson ran for re-election by "keeping us out of war", while Charles Evans Hughes criticized his lack of action and his war-mongering policies. Wilson won by a big margin.
  • Women's Joint Congressional Committee (WJCC) Founded

    A coalition of various groups, the WJCC aimed to stop child labor, protect women workers, lobby for maternal health care and support education. The WJCC was instrumental in passing the Sheppard-Towner Act (which funded materntiy and child care) and in getting Congress to ban child labor in 1924.
  • Election: Cox (Dem) v Harding (GOP)

    Election: Cox (Dem) v Harding (GOP)
    After the League of Nations' failure and his stroke, Wilson did not run again for the Presidency. The GOP nominee, James M. Cox, was fairly unremarkable. Warren G. Harding, of the Democratic Party, ran on the promise of a "return to normalcy". After Wilson's fervor and idealism, the American public supported such a return. Harding won by more than 25%.
  • Izaak Walton League Founded

    Izaak Walton League Founded
    The Izaak Walton League was an environmental lobbying group particular to fishers which helped save the Mississippi wetlands from development.
  • Election: Coolidge (GOP) v Alfred Smith (Dem)

    Election: Coolidge (GOP)  v Alfred Smith (Dem)
    Coolidge's re-election was made easier by divisions in the Democratic party between urban and rural supporters as well as a split in the Democratic vote with a challenge from Robert La Follette, who was endorsed by the Progressive Party, the Socialist Party and the American Federation of Labor.
  • Election: Hoover v Smith

    Election: Hoover v Smith
    This election exposed the contrasts of American society. Hoover was a "dry", Protestant politician who represented prosperity. Al Smith was a "wet", Catholic politician who supported social-welfare schemes.
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    New Deal Coalition

    Formed after the Great Depression, the New Deal Coalition was mainly Democratic, including labor unions, liberals, religious, ethnic and racial minorities.
  • Election of 1932: Hoover v FDR

    Election of 1932: Hoover v FDR
    The blame for the Great Depression had been placed on Hoover who, although didn't do a lot, made it worse by implementing a high tariff. FDR had no specific plan but said he would "try something new" which was found to be incredibly popular as FDR won by a landslide.
  • Election of 1936: FDR v. Alfred M. Landon v. William Lemke

    Election of 1936: FDR v. Alfred M. Landon v. William Lemke
    FDR won by the greatest landslide since 1820, carrying every state apart from Maine and Vermont. FDR expanded the Democratic base: the white south, parts of the West, urban white ethnic voters, farmers, and union members, and African Americans. FDR's New Deal appealed to the majority of America so guarrunteed him a second term.
  • Creation of the Union Party

    Creation of the Union Party
    This was a short-lived party that was formed in 1936 by a coalition of Father Charles Coughlin, Francis Townsend, and Gerald L. K. Smith, all who had taken control of Huey Long's Share Our Wealth movement after Long's assassination in 1935. They all greatly opposed the New Deal reforms of FDR proposed a populist alternative.
  • Creation of "America First Committee"

    Creation of "America First Committee"
    Headed by men like Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh, the AFC supported strict isolationism. It was one of the largest anti-war (WWII) campagins in American history. The organization was dissolved after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Election of 1940: FDR v. Wendell Willkie

    Election of 1940: FDR v. Wendell Willkie
    FDR won by a considerable amount, but the real significance of this election was the breaking of the traditional two terms. This was FDR's unconventional third term which became an issue later.
  • Creation of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

    Creation of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
    Spurred by the hypocrisy of fighting for liberty abroad without domestic equality, the CORE was a civil-rights organization that used nonviolent action to desegregate Northern cities and raise awareness of African-American issues.
  • Creation of National Congress of American Indians

    Creation of National Congress of American Indians
    This organization represents Native American interests and was founded to combat movements towards redistributing reservation and trust lands, which contradicted Native American sovereignty and rights.
  • Formation of State's Rights Party (Dixiecrats)

    Formation of State's Rights Party (Dixiecrats)
    While carrying only four Southern states in the election of 1948, the Dixiecrats have lasting importance as indicating the breakup of the Democratic support base of Northern liberals and Southern whites. Segregationist Democrats started the party as Truman moved further towards pro-civil rights policy.
  • Creation of the American GI Forum

    Creation of the American GI Forum
    Antidiscrimination groups like American GI Forum and the League of United Latin American Citizens worked alongside returning Mexican-American military to press for equal rights.
  • Formation of Progressive Party

    Formation of Progressive Party
    Many liberal Democrats joined communists to launch the new Progressive Party (not to be confused with FDR's Progressive Party), lead by Henry Wallace. This further divided Democratic vote in the election of 1948.
  • Election: Truman (D) v Dewey (R)

    Election: Truman (D) v Dewey (R)
    The source of the infamous newspaper blunder, this election was a great upset in Truman's favor. Southern segregationists supported the States' Rights group, while more liberal Democrats supported a new Progressive Party. Dewey expected to win, but Truman campaigned energetically, and it payed off, giving him the opportunity to implement his Fair Deal in the years to come.
  • Election: Eisenhower (R) v Adlai Stevenson (D)

    Election: Eisenhower (R) v Adlai Stevenson (D)
    After McCarthyism and Korea, trust in the Democrats was very low, especially after choosing a lackluster nominee. Republicans supported war hero Dwight Eisenhower in the polls and the anti-communist Richard Nixon as VP.
  • Creation of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and SNCC

    Creation of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and SNCC
    The party was organized by black and white Mississippians to challenge the legitimacy of the white-only US Democratic Party The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) played an active role in its creation as well as other civil rights groups. SNCC was created in 1960 also, to fight against discrimination. The group played an active role in the 'freedom rides', 'sit-ins', march on Washington, and 'Freedom Summer'.
  • Election of 1960: Kennedy (D) V. Nixon (R)

    Election of 1960: Kennedy (D) V. Nixon (R)
    For the election, the first televised debates were held. Kennedy accepted the use of make-up and he also was better prepared than Nixon as he spent hours prepping many answers. Although both candidates were extremely similar in popularity, Nixon had the small economic recession as well as the U2 incident during his time as vice president on his shoulders. Also, JFK was slighty more interested in social welfare programs thus making him a little more popluar.
  • Formation of Students for a Democratic Society

    Formation of Students for a Democratic Society
    The SDS was a student gorup that started in colleges. It wanted a world with more power for the individual, so that the "system" would no longer oppress society. The group was a major part of the anti-war movement and lead demonstrations nation-wide.
  • Election of 1964: LBJ (D) V. Barry Goldwater (R)

    Election of 1964: LBJ (D) V. Barry Goldwater (R)
    LBJ easily won this election with his platform of the "Great Society" whilst making Barry Goldwater appear to be a dangerous extremist. LBJ was also the incumbant president following the assasination of JFK in 1963.
  • Formation of NOW

    Formation of NOW
    The National Organization of Women is a feminist organization founded by women including Betty Friedan (author of the Feminine Mystique). It supported reproductive rights, equality, and economic justice for women.
  • Creation of the Black Panther Party

    Creation of the Black Panther Party
    Founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, who created the Ten Point Plan which outlined the goals of the party as well as axpressed the economic and political grievences of blacks. It was a large player in the 'Black Power' movement. The Party's objectives and philosophy expanded and evolved rapidly during the party's existence.
  • Formation of MeChA

    Formation of MeChA
    MeChA, the Chican@ Student Movement of Altzan, sought to create a sense of Chicano pride and empower young Hispanic people through politcal action. It was founded and lead by students.
  • Creation of the American Independence Party

    Creation of the American Independence Party
    Right-wing political Party that nominated George Wallace, govenor of Alabama. The party's platform was anti-civil rights and segregationist. The Party carried five states in the 1869 election.
  • Formation of American Indian Movement

    Formation of American Indian Movement
    The American Indian Movement (AIM) was a Native American activist group focused on empowerment and sovereignty, protesting especially against the government's mixed and uncohesive dealings with the Native American population. The organization was famous for occupying Wounded Knee in 1973.
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    Southern Strategy

    The Southern Strategy, aggressively pursued by Nixon in his reelection campaign in 1968, planned to fold middle-class and Southern whites into the Republican voting bloc.
  • Electon of 1968: Hubert Humphrey (D) v. Richard Nixon (R)

    Electon of 1968: Hubert Humphrey (D) v. Richard Nixon (R)
    LBJ does not even run for president due to his incredible unpopularity with the American public after the Tet Offensive and My Lai. Eugene McCarthy, Herbert Humphrey, and RFK all fought for the Democratic nomination. RFK was assasinated, thus Humphrey was nominated. Humphrey's policies were very much like LBJ's which upset anti-war protestors (riots outside Democratic Convention). Nixon won by the vote of the "silent majority". George Wallace of the American Independence party also ran.
  • Formation of Greenpeace

    Formation of Greenpeace
    Environmental acvtivism and protection is Greenpeace's focus. In its early years, Greenpeace sought to prevent nuclear testing, save the oceans and protect the forests. It was part of a growing sense of environmental awareness, alongside government measures like Nixon's Environmental Protection Agency, the Clearn Air Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act.
  • Formation of Democratic-Republican Party

    Formation of Democratic-Republican Party
    Founded by Jefferson and Madison (left) to counter the growing Federalists, the Dem-Rep Party favored states rights, republicanism and isolationism. It generally dominated the First Party System.
  • Election of 1972: Nixon (R) V George McGovern (D)

    Election of 1972: Nixon (R) V George McGovern (D)
    This was the biggest electoral win in the history of America as McGovern only won MA and DC. However, as Nixon was a paranoid man he created CREEP which was ordered to find ways to get Nixon re-relected. Due to an illegal break in of the Democratic headquarters followed by a very illegal cover-up Nixon was involved in the Watergate Sandal and was forced to resign.
  • Moral Majority/ Christian Coalition

    Moral Majority/ Christian Coalition
    Based on Protestant values and conversative politics, these movement emphasised America's "Christian roots" through the work of people like Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson.
  • Election of 1980: Carter (D) V. Reagan (R)

    Election of 1980: Carter (D) V. Reagan (R)
    Carter had the Iran Hostage Crisis over his head so was highly disliked therefore Reagan was elected.
  • Election of 1992: Bill Clinton (D) V. George Bush (R) V. Ross Perot

    Election of 1992: Bill Clinton (D) V. George Bush (R) V. Ross Perot
    Bill Clinton was a moderate Democrat who believed in pro-choice, healthcare, fixing the economy, and welfare reform. George Bush wanted abortion restrictions and tax breaks (which was ironic because he had raised the taxes). Neither platform included anything about foreign policy due to the end of the Cold War. Ross Perot received 19% of the votes, said to have taken these votes away from Bush which lead to Clinton's victory.