Civil Rights Timeline

  • Only 1 out of 3 women had worked for wages

  • Eisenhower administration enacted a termination policy designed to relocate Native Americans from reservations to mainstream urban American life-it failed

  • Plessey v. Ferguson

  • Brown v. Board of Education

  • Martin Luther King Jr.

  • Period: to

    Montgomery Bus Boycott

  • Little Rock 9

  • After Fidel Castro overthrows Cuba's dictator, hundreds of thousands of Cubans fled to the U.S.

  • S.C.L.C.

  • Period: to

    Latino Population in U.S. grew from 3 to 9 million

  • More than 40% of women had jobs outside the home, women made up 1/3 of workforce

  • Period: to

    Feminism-belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality

  • Period: to

    De jure segregation

  • Period: to

    De facto segregation

  • Period: to

    Freedom Riders

  • Henry Gonzalez was the 1st Mexican American to serve in congress (Texas)

  • Representatives from 67 Native American groups met and drafted the Declaration of Indian Purpose, this would allow them to "choose our own way of life"

  • President Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women reported that women were paid far less than men, even when doing the same jobs

  • Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta found the National Farm Workers Association

  • Mexican American Political Association (MAPA) helped Edward Roybal get elected to House of Representatives in Los Angeles making him 2nd Mexican American in Congress

  • National Organization for Women formed

  • Federal Alliance of Land Grants formed to help reclaim U.S. land taken from Mexican American land holders in the 19th century

  • Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, it captured the discontent that women were feeling

  • Freedom Summer

  • Cesar Chavez went on a 3-week fast and lost 35 pounds to get supermarkets and shoppers to not buy California grapes

  • President Johnson includes Native Americans in his Great Society program and established the National Council on Indean Opportunity to "ensure that programs reflect the needs and desires of the Indian people"

  • Malcolm X

  • Selma March

  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

  • National Farm Workers Association merges with Filipino agricultural Union to form United Farm Workers Organizing Committee

  • Stokely Carmichael

  • Black Panthers

  • Period: to

    Women across the country were coming together to work for change

  • The Brown Berets organize walk outs, 15,000 Mexican American high school students in East L.A. boycott classes

  • Congress enacted the Bilingual Education act, which provided funds for schools to develop bilingual and cultural heritage programs for non-English speaking children

  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

  • Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination

  • Native American activists found the American Indian Movement

  • The American Indian Movement begins (AIM), it began as a self defense group against police brutality

  • Kerner Commission

  • Women held only 3.5% of elected state offices

  • Militants calling themselves Indians of all Tribes seized Alcatraz Island-the federal prison island

  • Political Party La Raza Unida is formed (the United People Party)

  • Grape boycott after grape companies refused to recognize the union-peaceful boycott - they believed in MLK Jr.'s approach

  • The Taos of New Mexico regained possession of Blue Lake

  • Congress passes Equal Rights Amendment

  • 32 million women work in the workforce

  • Women were earning the wage of $2,237 while men were earning $6,670

  • Period: to

    By this time women were preparing themselves for "lifetime careers"

  • The Aleut and Inuit tribes of Alaska pass the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, it gave 40 million acres and paid out over $962 million to native peoples

  • Gloria Steinem helped found the National Women's Political Caucus, a moderate group that encouraged women to seek political office

  • AIM leader Russel Means organized a march known as Trail of Broken Treaties in Washington D.C. to protest how the government has treated Native Americans throughout history

  • Congress passes the Education Assistance Act

  • Congress passed a ban on gender discrimination in "any education program of activities receiving federal financial assistance"

  • Congress passes the Equal Rights Amendment

  • Phyllis Schlafly founded and became national chairman of the Stop-ERA campaign

  • Roe v. Wade passes, allows women the right to choose an abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy

  • Native Americans stage protest at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, congress passes Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act

  • Congress passes the Indian Education Act and Self Determination Act

  • Period: to

    The number of women in congress also has increased from 19 in 1975 to 60 in 1997