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Civil Rights

  • First African Slaves Sold

    First African Slaves Sold
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    Known as the “20 and odd,” the first African slaves were brought to America and sold in Jamestown, Virginia. Thus beginning slavery in America.
  • 3/5 Compromise

    3/5 Compromise
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    This compromise was used to determine how slaves would be counted in the population. After a very serious debate at the Constitutional Convention, it was determined that slaves would be counted as ⅗ of a person.
  • Nat Turner Slave Revolt

    Nat Turner Slave Revolt
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    Nat Turner saw “signs,” such as the sun’s color being off, that he needed to do something about slavery. He lead more than 40 men in a revolt to murder the white people who owned slaves. They ended up killing about 55 slave owners before Turner was captured and killed.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
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    Following the Indian Removal Act, America forced the Native Americans to relocate to an area west of the Mississippi that they had designated as Indian territory. The people that were forced to relocate suffered starvation and disease, and many of them died before even reaching their designated area.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
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    The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women’s rights convention. At this convention, women and a few men discussed the social and moral rights of women. At the end of the event the Declaration of Sentiments was signed.
  • Dred Scott

    Dred Scott
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    Dred Scott was an enslaved African American who tried to sue for his freedom because he had lived in Illinois, where slavery was illegal. In a majority vote the Supreme Court decided that he along with all other African Americans could not have citizenship (or citizenship rights) in America.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
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    The Emancipation Proclamation was an order set in place by Abraham Lincoln that “freed” slaves. If a slave were to escape the confederate south, then they were to be legally free.
  • Ku Klux Klan

    Ku Klux Klan
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    The Ku Klux Klan was a group of mostly white men who opposed African Americans. They would attack and kill the people they opposed in an effort to stop them from gaining equality or anything they were working for.
  • Thirteenth Amendment

    Thirteenth Amendment
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    The 13th Amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except for punishments of crime.
  • Fourteenth Amendment

    Fourteenth Amendment
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    The 14th Amendment addresses citizenship rights and protection of the laws. This Amendment was made after civil rights movement such as Roe vs. Wade, Bush vs. Gore, etc.
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
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    Jim Crow laws were laws that “enforced” segregation. In the southern United States, other races were said to be “equal but segregated.” This meant they had equal rights but had to go to schools and restaurants that were specifically for their race.
  • Fifteenth Amendment

    Fifteenth Amendment
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    The 15th Amendment gave the right to vote to any race or color (not only just white men). This was also the last of the Reconstruction Amendments.
  • Mutualists

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    Mutualistas was a society created by Mexican immigrants that provided connections to their home country to help them through their struggle of being segregated in America.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
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    This act said that African Americans couldn’t be excluded from being on the jury, and were to be treated equally in public. Kind of the opposite of Jim Crow laws.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
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    A law signed by President Arthur that said that Chinese laborers were not allowed to migrate to America.
  • Scott Act

    Scott Act
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    Along with the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Scott Act (signed by President Cleveland) prohibited Chinese laborers from returning to their home county.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
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    The 7th Cavalry forced a group of Lakota men to Wounded Knee Creek where they were to set up camp and give up their weapons. One Lakota man refused to do so, and a shot went off causing a battle where many people were killed.
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson

    Plessy vs. Ferguson
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    This case upheld the “separate but equal” doctrine which says that African Americans and other races were to be equal, but had to go to schools and public places that were made specifically for their race.

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    This was a group of African American people founded by Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington, and W.E.B. Du Bois whose goal was to ensure the rights of the colored people and to end racial discrimination
  • Jeanette Rankin

    Jeanette Rankin
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    Jeanette Rankin becomes the first women ever to be elected into congress.
  • Jones Act

    Jones Act
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    Puerto Ricans are granted citizenship, and they are able to travel to the United States.
  • Nineteenth Amendment

    Nineteenth Amendment
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    The 19th amendment is passed which gave women the right to vote.
  • Ozawa vs. United States

    Ozawa vs. United States
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    In the case of Ozawa vs. United States, Japanese residents are not able to become citizens through naturalization, and women who marries ineligible people will lose citizenship.
  • Immigration Act

    Immigration Act
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    All those who are considered “ineligible aliens” of citizenship are denied from entering the United States.
  • Indian Citizenship Act

    Indian Citizenship Act
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    All native Americans are granted full citizenship. Some natives declined this to keep sanctity, and even some were denied voting rights.
  • League of United Latin Americans

    League of United Latin Americans
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    The League of United Latin American Citizens is founded to oppose discrimination, segregation, and racial harassment.
  • Japanese American Citizenship League

    Japanese American Citizenship League
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    Continued discrimination of the Japanese, including the denial of citizenship, lead to the creation of the Japanese American Citizenship League.
  • Presdient Roosevelt's Executive Order

    Presdient Roosevelt's Executive Order
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    President Roosevelt called for an order forbidding discrimination of minorities in defense contracts.
  • Relocation Camps

    Relocation Camps
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    President Roosevelt issued the Executive Order 9066, calling for the mass evacuation of about 110,000 Japanese citizens from the west coast. This was due to Japanese paranoia after Pearl Harbor. They were forced into concentration-like camps, and soldiers were told to shoot all those who attempt escape.
  • Bracero Program

     Bracero Program
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    A collaboration between the United States and Mexico created a program for Mexican nationals to travel and work in agricultural areas in the United States, but at a lower wage than workers who are domestic.
  • Repealment of Asian Exclusion Acts

    Repealment of Asian Exclusion Acts
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    Congress repeals all previous Asian Exclusion Acts. This finally allows the Chinese and Japanese to enter the United States. The Chinese, being the first to be excluded, are also the first of the Asians to be allowed to enter.
  • Shelley vs. Kraemer

    Shelley vs. Kraemer
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    Kraemer, a while property owner, wanted to prevent the Shelley family, an African American family, from owning property. The court ruled out the prevention of property owning and occupation because of race.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
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    In the case of Brown vs. Board of Education, the supreme court ruled that the segregation of colored people and white is unconstitutional. This court case also overruled Plessy vs. Ferguson.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
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    A chain of events of bus seat refusal from African Americans starts to end segregation on busses. Finally, the supreme court order the integration of busses in Montgomery.
  • Central High School

    Central High School
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    The event known as the Little Rock Nine, 9 African American School children attempt to attend Central High School. They are prevented from attending from the state, so the federal government intervened and sent military men to protect them. Even after being able to attend, they were still abused.
  • Hiram Fong and Daniel Inouye

    Hiram Fong and Daniel Inouye
    Second Image LinkImage Link Both Alaska and Hawaii are annexed into the United States; they are the last two states. Hawaii elects Hiram Fong and Daniel Inouye to represent them in congress. Hiram Fong is the first Chinese representative in congress, and Daniel Inouye is the first Japanese representative.
  • Congress of Racial Equality Created Freedom Rides

    Congress of Racial Equality Created Freedom Rides
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    The Congress of Racial Equality convenes Freedom Rides in the south to test the new Interstate Commerce Commission and the new court issue of integration on transportation.
  • James Meredith

    James Meredith
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    James Meredith is the first African American person to be accepted into the University of Mississippi.
  • Birmingham Church Bombing

    Birmingham Church Bombing
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    A bombing at the Birmingham church kills four African American schoolgirls attending Sunday school.
  • Malcom X

    Malcom X
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    Malcom X, a major Civil Rights leader, was assassinated.
  • National Organization for Women

    National Organization for Women
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    The National Organization for Women is created for equality among both genders.
  • Age Discrimination Act

    Age Discrimination Act
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    It is an act that prevents the discrimination of older women. It promoted the employment of older women based on the ability of that women instead of the age of that women.
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
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    He was the first African American supreme court justice.
  • Green vs. County School Board of New Kent County

    Green vs. County School Board of New Kent County
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    Calvin Green filed a lawsuit against the freedom of choice plan in which students chose the school they want to attend. The supreme court ruled that the plan was unacceptable because there were quicker methods to end segregation.
  • Stonewall Inn

    Stonewall Inn
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    The Stonewall Inn is a bar in Greenwich Village that caters to homosexuals. A police raid on the Inn resulted in a rioting. The riot led to the gay rights movement.
  • Swann vs. Charlotte Mecklenberg Board of Education

    Swann vs. Charlotte Mecklenberg Board of Education
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    A case dealing with the busing of students to encourage integration in schools. The supreme court supported busing programs that tried to speed up desegregation.
  • Vocation Rehabilitation Act

    Vocation Rehabilitation Act
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    This act was created to stop discrimination against people with disabilities especially in programs run by federal agencies and programs that receive federal assistance.
  • Roe vs. Wade

    Roe vs. Wade
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    The case had to do with the issue of an abortion. The supreme court ruled that women have the right to an abortion as long as the women’s health and the human’s life is protected.
  • Keyes vs. School District no. 1 Denver Colorado

    Keyes vs. School District no. 1 Denver Colorado
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    In this case, black and hispanic parents filed against the school district. They claimed that segregation had affected the school system. The supreme court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional which is why the school system was unlawful and needed to be changed.
  • Lau vs. Nichols

    Lau vs. Nichols
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    It was a civil rights case that was brought to court by chinese american students who were not fluent in English. The supreme court ruled that public schools had to teach English to foreign students.
  • AMA Repels Barring Homosexual Acts

    AMA Repels Barring Homosexual Acts
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    The American Medical Association calls for the annulment of all state laws that prohibit homosexual acts between two adults.
  • Plyer vs. Doe

    Plyer vs. Doe
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    A case concerning illegal immigrants. The supreme court ruled that the children of illegal immigrants have a right to a free public school education.
  • States cannot Outlaw Homosexual Acts

    States cannot Outlaw Homosexual Acts
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    In Obergefell v. Hodges, the supreme court ruled that states do not have the right to outlaw same sex marriage due to the due process and equal protection clause in the fourteenth amendment.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
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    An act that does not allow discrimination against people with disabilities in any area such as employment and transportation.
  • St. Marys Honor Center vs. Hicks

    St. Marys Honor Center vs. Hicks
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    The case was about people discriminating against races. The supreme court ruled that the employee that was discriminated must give direct proof of the employer's discrimination to determine the solutions.
  • Shaw vs. Reno

    Shaw vs. Reno
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    The case had to do with redistricting and racial gerrymandering. The supreme court ruled that redistricting to create black representation is a violation of the equal protection clause.
  • Adarand

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    The case was about the double standards of racial classification. The supreme court ruled that any federal laws creating racial classification must be tested by one standard when challenged.
  • Proposition 209

    Proposition 209
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    The proposition was created to prohibit governmental institutions from discriminating against people in the areas of public employment, contracting and education.
  • Bragdon vs. Abbott

    Bragdon vs. Abbott
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    It is an American Disabilities Act (ADA) case in which the supreme court ruled that HIV positive individuals are protected under the ADA. The court also ruled on other matters relating to ADA.
  • Sutton vs. United Airlines

    Sutton vs. United Airlines
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    Twin sisters had applied to be airline pilots but were turned down because their vision was worse than the 20/100 vision required for the job. The supreme court ruled that employers must consider any methods taken to control the effects of the person’s disability to determine if the disability falls under ADA protections.
  • Albertsons vs. Kirkinburg

    Albertsons vs. Kirkinburg
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    The case was about if people that have vision problems are “disabled” under the American Disabilities Act. The supreme court ruled that not all people that suffer from a physical disability are “disabled” under the ADA. That is why people have to prove that they suffer from a disability.
  • Religious Land Use & Institutionalized Persons Act

    Religious Land Use & Institutionalized Persons Act
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    The act deals with the religious freedom of people. It protects their religious rights and focuses on the land use for different religious groups and government run institutions.