Biotechnology Timeline

  • Robert Hooke coined the term "cells" and Anton Van Leeuwenhoek observed the first microorganisms due to the invention of the microscope.

    Robert Hooke coined the term "cells" and Anton Van Leeuwenhoek observed the first microorganisms due to the invention of the microscope.
  • Gregor Mendel discovered the simple laws id inheritance of traits that allowed one to pick the outcome of crosses with certain traits.

    Gregor Mendel discovered the simple laws id inheritance of traits that allowed one to pick the outcome of crosses with certain traits.
  • Louis Pasteur described scientific basis for fermentation, wine making,and beer brewery,established science of microbiology,andproposed germ theory claiming that microorganisms were responsible for infectous diseases.

    Louis Pasteur described scientific basis for fermentation, wine making,and beer brewery,established science of microbiology,andproposed germ theory claiming that microorganisms were responsible for infectous diseases.
  • Johann Miescher found nucleic acid in white blood cells from pus in bandages. Led scientists to believe DNA might be inheritable.

    Johann Miescher found nucleic acid in white blood cells from pus in bandages.  Led scientists to believe DNA might be inheritable.
  • Studying Fruit Flies, Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that genes were on chromosomes.

    Studying Fruit Flies, Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that genes were on chromosomes.
  • Fred Griffith proved that genetic material could be moved from one stain of bacteria to another, he used mice.

    Fred Griffith proved that genetic material could be moved from one stain of bacteria to another, he used mice.
  • Sir Alexander Flemmingisolated penicillin from fungus.

    Sir Alexander Flemmingisolated penicillin from fungus.
  • Chargaff showed that in DNA the number if units of adenine equaled those of thymine and number in cytosine equaled guanine.

    Chargaff showed that in DNA the number if units of adenine equaled those of thymine and number in cytosine equaled guanine.
  • Beadle ad Tatum proposed the "One gene produces one enzyme" hypothesis

    Beadle ad Tatum proposed the "One gene produces one enzyme" hypothesis
  • 1941 Beadle and Tatum proposed the "One gene produces on enzyme" hypothesis

    1941 Beadle and Tatum proposed the "One gene produces on enzyme" hypothesis
  • 1944 Avery, McCartyhed that indeedhat wastransferred. DNA was the hereditary material t, and McLeod eatablis

    1944 Avery, McCartyhed that indeedhat wastransferred. DNA was the hereditary material t, and McLeod eatablis
  • 1953 using their famous "blender experiment" Hershey and Chase proved viruses replicated using DNA and confirmed the role of DNA as the hereditary material

    1953  using their famous "blender experiment" Hershey and Chase proved viruses replicated using DNA and confirmed the role of DNA as the hereditary material
  • 1953 Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins established through X-Ray crystallography that DNA was indeed a double helix

  • 1953 Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA

    1953 Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA
  • 1953 hayes discovered plasmid DNA, circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria.

    1953 hayes discovered plasmid DNA, circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria.
  • 1961 Walter Gilbert discovered the mechanism of gene expression through his study of messenger RNA

    1961 Walter Gilbert discovered the mechanism of gene expression through his study of messenger RNA
  • 1962 Arber, Nathans, and Smith discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA

    1962 Arber, Nathans, and Smith discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA
  • 1966 Khorana and Nirenberg discovered the 64 codons (the triplet code of 3 bases in DNA) that code for the 20 amnio acids making up proteins.

    1966 Khorana and Nirenberg discovered the 64 codons (the triplet code of 3 bases in DNA) that code for the 20 amnio acids making up proteins.
  • 1967 DNA plasmids were isolated and purified by Vinograd

    1967 DNA plasmids were isolated and purified by Vinograd
  • 1970 Madel and Higa were responsible for the first transformation of the bacterium Escherichia coli

    1970 Madel and Higa were responsible for the first transformation of the bacterium Escherichia coli
  • 1972 Cloning experiments were conducted by Boyer and Cohen

    1972 Cloning experiments were conducted by Boyer and Cohen
  • 1973 Genentech, the world's first genetic engineering company, was founded

    1973 Genentech, the world's first genetic engineering company, was founded
  • 1976 140 scientists me to draw up guidelines for work with recombant DNA in microorganisms. Paul Berg was a key organizer

    1976 140 scientists me to draw up guidelines for work with recombant DNA in microorganisms.  Paul Berg was a key organizer
  • 1977 Sanger and Gilbert found a way to sequence DNA

    1977 Sanger and Gilbert found a way to sequence DNA
  • 1978 Boyer inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E.Coli

    1978 Boyer inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E.Coli
  • 1978 Botstein found that one could be identified by the pattern made of ones DNA through a digest by different enzymes. This DNA fingerprint was called a Restriction Fragment Langhth Polymorphism (RFLP)

    1978 Botstein found that one could be identified by the pattern made of ones DNA through a digest by different enzymes.  This DNA fingerprint was called a Restriction Fragment Langhth Polymorphism (RFLP)
  • 1978 Louise Joy Brown wa born, the first human babyresulting in in vitro fertilization, in which soerm and egg are joined ina petri dish. This fertilized egg is later implanted in a womb.

  • 1980 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that genetically altered life forms can be patented. This resulted in a huge startup of biotech companies

    1980 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that genetically altered life forms can be patented.  This resulted in a huge startup of biotech companies
  • 1980 Ohio University scientists made the first transgenic animals.

    1980 Ohio University scientists made the first transgenic animals.
  • 1982 Eli Lilly Company placed a human insulin gene inside bacteria

    1982 Eli Lilly Company placed a human insulin gene inside bacteria
  • 1983 Schell, Chilton, Van Montagu, Fraley, and Horsch transformed plants with Agrobacterium-medicated gene transfer

    1983 Schell, Chilton, Van Montagu, Fraley, and Horsch transformed plants with Agrobacterium-medicated gene transfer
  • 1983 Kary Mullis invented polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    1983 Kary Mullis invented polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • 1985 Jeffries applied RFLP in DNA profiling to the study of criminal cases

    1985 Jeffries applied RFLP in DNA profiling to the study of criminal cases
  • 1985 An automated florescence sequener was invented speeding up the abor intense process

  • 1985 Genes were moved into an organism through use of a gene gun

    1985 Genes were moved into an organism through use of a gene gun
  • 1994 NIH revised safety guidelines for reombant DNA to include plants grown in greenhouses and animals raised in barns.

    1994 NIH revised safety guidelines for reombant DNA to include plants grown in greenhouses and animals raised in barns.
  • 1996 Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered RNA interference, silence in genes, in the worm C.elegans

    1996 Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered RNA interference, silence in genes, in the worm C.elegans
  • 1997 Kohler, Milstein, and Jerne used monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology

    1997 Kohler, Milstein, and Jerne used monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology
  • 1997 Maynard Olson and collegues at Washington University invented "yeast artificial chromosomes" or YACs, which are expression vectors for large proteins.

    1997 Maynard Olson and collegues at Washington University invented "yeast artificial chromosomes" or YACs, which are expression vectors for large proteins.
  • 1997 Ian Wilmut cloned Dolly the sheep from an adult cell of a ewe at the Roslin Institute in Scotland.

    1997 Ian Wilmut cloned Dolly the sheep from an adult cell of a ewe at the Roslin Institute in Scotland.
  • 1997 DNA microarray technology, looking at eh expression of all the genes of an organism at one time

    1997 DNA microarray technology, looking at eh expression of all the genes of an organism at one time
  • and Garner invented an automated DNA seuencer

    and Garner invented an automated DNA seuencer
  • 2002 Ron Breaker coined the term riboswitch for part of an mRNA molecule that can regulate its own activity and therefore gene expression.

    2002  Ron Breaker coined the term riboswitch for part of an mRNA molecule that can regulate its own activity and therefore gene expression.
  • 2003 Announcement was made of the completion of the Human Genome Project by Francis Collins and Craig Venter

    2003 Announcement was made of the completion of the Human Genome Project by Francis Collins and Craig Venter