Baroque timeline (early, middle, and late)

Timeline created by MKC033
In Music
  • Beginning of the Thirty Years' War

  • Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in the New World

  • First public opera house opened in Venice

  • First pianoforte (built by Cristofori)

    (Date isn't completely accurate.)
  • Period:
    Oct 8, 1551
    to

    Giulio Caccini

    Caccini is one of the founders of opera as well as a composer, teacher, singer, and instrumentalist. He wrote more than 75 songs or arias and 4 stage works.
  • Period:
    1557
    to

    Giovanni Gabrieli

    Gabrieli was an Italian organist and composer, also the nephew of Andrea. He was most noted for his use of instruments in his sacred music. He wrote 90 motets and grand concertos instrumental music.
  • Period:
    Aug 20, 1561
    to

    Jacopo Peri

    Peri was one of the founders of opera. He claimed to be the first with his Dafne in 1597. He also wrote 20 stage works and 30 songs.
  • Period:
    Jan 2, 1563
    to

    John Dowland

    Dowland was the leading composer of lute music. He was Catholic and served in the court of Denmark. Later, he was appointed as one of the King's lutenists in London. He also wrote many pieces for lute, 3 books of songs, and some sacred music.
  • Period:
    1564
    to

    William Shakespeare

    Known as a poet and playwright, Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer in the English language and has been a very important person in the field of music from his time up until ours.
  • Period:
    May 15, 1567
    to

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Monteverdi is considered the most important composer of the early Baroque period. He wrote 13 operas, 8 books of madrigals, and Vespers. He also is one of the inventors of the new seconda pratica.
  • Period: to

    Orlando Gibbons

    Gibbons was an English composer of Anglican Church anthems. Also a keyboardist and leading composer in 17th-century England. He wrote anthems, sacred choral music, and consort music.
  • Period: to

    Heinrich Schutz

    Schutz is considered the most important German composer of the middle Baroque period. He wrote madrigals and hundreds of choral works. He also studied in Venice and is said to have written the first German opera (which we have lost).
  • Period: to

    Early Baroque

    Important changes in musical history that happened during the Early Baroque period include: the invention of opera in Florence, Italy, the development of a functional tonality (that is our major and minor keys), and a new bass line that popularized the use of homophonic style. Dynamic markings such as piano and forte came into use during this time. The oboe and bassoon also emerged during the early 17th century.
  • Period: to

    Giacomo Carissimi

    Carissimi, a leading composer of oratorios and Roman cantatas, wrote 1 mass, motets, oratorios (as previously stated), and over 150 cantatas.
  • Period: to

    Barbara Strozzi

    Strozzi was the adopted daughter of Giulio Strozzi. She was born in Venice and studied under Francesco Cavalli. Considered the most prolific composer of cantatas in the 17th-century. Wrote madrigals, arias, and cantatas.
  • Period: to

    Giovanni Legrenzi

    Legrenzi was an influential Italian composer in the middle Baroque period. Not only was he a composer, but also an organist. He wrote 19 operas, sacred and secular vocal works, and 7 oratorios.
  • Period: to

    Jean-Baptiste Lully

    Though Lully was born an Italian, he established French opera and ballet. He was also a dancer and violinist. Wrote 16 operas, instrumental works, motets, and more than 30 ballets.
  • Period: to

    Dieterich Buxtehude

    Buxtehude was the most important organ composer before J. S. Bach. He wrote over 100 sacred vocal works, over 100 works for organ, and instrumental works.
  • Period: to

    Marc-Antoine Charpentier

    Charpentier , a composer of French opera, was considered equal to Lully. Very prolific having written masses, motets, antiphons, oratorios, magnificats, psalms, operas, instrumental works, cantatas, incidental music, and airs.
  • Period: to

    John Blow

    Blow was an English composer, teacher, and organist. He taught Purcell and composed odes. Also wrote duets and trios, instrumental anthems, over 100 songs, and many other sacred works.
  • Period: to

    Middle Baroque

    Counterpoint was used during the Middle Baroque period. From this we now have fugues, passacaglias, and chaconnes. New genres were created such as concerto, trio, and sonata. And melodies were more clear during this era because of changes in compositional writing like repetition, contrast, and sequence. Our tonal system continued to develop and polyphony and homophony were commonly used. Another important aspect of the Middle Baroque era is the strong emphasis on string instruments.
  • Period: to

    Johann Pachelbel

    Considered a leading composer of his time, Pachelbel was a German composer and organist. Wrote Protestant church music, masses, liturgical organ music, and other keyboard works.
  • Period: to

    Arcangelo Corelli

    Corelli is the most important Italian composer of sonatas and concertos, and is also considered the most influential violinist of the Baroque era. He also has 6 published collections.
  • Period: to

    Giuseppe Torelli

    Torelli contributed most to the concert development around 1700, along with writing for trumpet and strings, and being a virtuoso violinist. He also wrote 5 collection of chamber works.
  • Period: to

    Henry Purcell

    Considered the most important English composer in the 17th century, Purcell wrote songs, sacred music, anthems, incidental music, keyboard works, and 6 stage works. Was also the student of John Blow.
  • Period: to

    Alessandro Scarlatti.

    Considered a part of the late period in Baroque, Scarlatti was an important Italian composer and teacher in Naples, Italy. His death marked the end of Baroque opera. He wrote many operas, oratorios, arias, serenatas, hundreds of cantatas, 10 masses, concertos, keyboard works, madrigals, motets, and theoretical and pedagogical works. He was also the teacher of many galant composers to come.
  • Period: to

    Francois Couperin

    Couperin was one of the most important French composers. Was also a keyboardist. He wrote sacred and secular vocal works, 27 ordres of keyboard works, and chamber music.
  • Period: to

    Antonio Vivaldi

    Italian composer and teacher who laid the foundation for late Baroque instrumental music, Vivaldi wrote 425 concerto grossi, 60 ripieni concerti, 350 solo concerti, 45 double concerti, sonatas, psalms, masses, motets, 45 operas, oratorios, cantatas, and serenatas.
  • Period: to

    Georg Philipp Telemann

    Telemann is the most prolific German composer of his day having written cantatas, oratorios, Passions, masses, motets, psalms, operas, concertos, overtures, sonatas, keyboard works, quartets and quintets, and theoretical publications. He was more popular than J. S. Bach during the Baroque! He contributed a great deal to the concert life in Germany.
  • Period: to

    Jean-Philippe Rameau

    Rameau was known as a theorist before ever being known as a composer. He wrote over 30 dramatic works, arias, cantatas, keyboard works, theoretical publications, and other instrumental works.
  • Period: to

    Georg Friedrich Handel

    Handel was a German musician who lived in England, but he also wrote Italian cantatas and Latin and English church music. He was the inventor of the English oratorio and was well respected by Beethoven. Handel also wrote 46 dramatic works, odes, oratorios, duets and trios with basso continuo, suites, songs, concertos, keyboard works, overtures, and sonatas.
  • Period: to

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Bach was considered the Baroque master and is one of the most revered composers to this day. He was a master of counterpoint and became an icon for future generations. Bach wrote over 205 cantatas, Magnificat, Masses, motets, oratorios, Passions, chorales, keyboard works, suites, fugues, sonatas, and concertos.
  • Period: to

    Domencio Scarlatti

    Son of Alessandro, young Scarlatti was a keyboard composer and virtuoso. He was personally aware of the progressive style he had. Also served Portuguese and Spanish royal families. Wrote over 550 sonatas for harpsichord, keyboard exercises, cantatas, vocal works, and operas.
  • Period: to

    Johann Joachim Quantz

    Quantz was a German composer and flutist. He also taught flute for Fredrick the Great in Berlin! Quantz wrote 204 sonatas, duets, over 300 concertos, vocal works, capriccios, and published treatise On Playing the Flute.
  • Period: to

    Late Baroque

    During the Late Baroque period, the courts really became the main primary patron of the arts. Churches still offered jobs to performers and composers, but if they wanted to make real money they were better off with opera. Melodies during this time were focused on sequences and fortspinnung (spinning out of musical ideas). By now, crescendo and decrescendo markings were used. The first pianoforte was invented during this time!
  • Period: to

    Giovanni Battista Martini (Padre)

    Italian composer, teacher, and writer, Martini was the leading teacher in the 18th century. He left an important piece of music history with his surviving letters. Martini wrote around 1500 compositions during his lifetime.