Armed Conflict (Inside and Outside of America)

  • Battles of Lexington and Concord

    A British commander sent troops to Lexington and Concord to seize colonial supplies such as gunpowder. The redcoats massacred eight American colonials at Lexington and moved onto Concord. In Concord, the colonials were prepared for the British and forced the redcoats to retreat back to Boston.
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    Revolutionary War

    The Colonists went to war with England to fight for independence. There are several battles that forever changed the course of the world later defining the United States of America as its own country in the Treaty of Paris and the Treaties of Versailles
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Colonial forces found out that British troops were seeking to occupy hills surrounding the city. The colonials occupied the hills and attempted to resist the British charges up the hills. Though there were massive British casualties, the British were able to take over the hills due to large number of troops and the low supplies the colonials had.
  • Declaration of Independence

    A list of greivences against Britain highlighting the colonies secession from British Parliament. The document also stated that the King of England violated the "natural rights" of mankind.
  • Battle of Long Island

    This battle took place in the summer and fall of 1776. British troops concentrated on claiming New York and using it as a base of operations. General Washington and 18,000 poorly trained recruits attempted to subdue these powerful British foes. Disaster for the recruits and General Washington. They retreated to Manhattan Island, crossed the Hudson River, and reached the Delaware River.
  • Washington "recrosses" the Delaware

    After retreating to New Jersey, General Washington and his army of colonials recrossed the Delaware river to surprise British troops chasing them. The colonials were successful due to the fact that the surprised British were sleeping off the effects of a Christmas celebration. In total, Washington's troops were able to capture 1,000 British soldiers.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    General Burgoyne and his British troops traveled down to north of Albany after attempting to seize Benedict Arnold and his colonials. In this travel, Burgoyne and his troops were swarmed by American militiamen and General Horatio Gates. The British troops were forced to surrender to Gates' men on October 17th 1777.
  • British retreat from Monmouth and attempt to focus efforts on NYC

    After receiving much needed aid from the French, General Washington and his colonials attack the withdrawing British troops in Monmouth, New Jersey. The battle remained indecisive as scores died from the effects of sunstroke.
  • Colony of Georgia overrun in 1778-1779

    The British forces devised a new plan in attempting to seize Southern colonies where the Loyalists mainly stayed. The colony of Georgia was the first to be captured in the southern colonies.
  • South Carolina captured

    The british troops later forced the colonials to surrender in the colony of south Carolina. In all, 5,000 Americans were captured as well as 400 cannons which was a heavy blow to the colonial campaign.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    French armies led by Rochambeau helped General Washington and his militiamen surprise Cornwallis' troops in Yorktown. Washington was able to secure a victory when Cornwallis and his 7,000 troops surrendered. The French also supplied strong seapower in this operation.
  • Treaty of Paris of 1783

    The British acknowledged the end of the war and made several concessions in this treaty. First they recognized America as a sovereign nation. They also granted land stretching across the Mississippi River. The Americans also made concessions. Some of which included an agreement not to persecute Loyalists and Congress was to recommend that staes return the confiscated land of Loyalists back to them.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Poor farmers lost their farms due to foreclosures and tax problems. Daniel Shays, a veteren of the Revolutionary Way, led these farmers and demanded for reform in Massachusetts. The Massachusetts authorities based in Springfield reacted to the uprising with violence resulting in the death of three of Shays' supporters as well as one wounded. Daniel Shay was sentenced to death but was later pardoned.
  • The French Revolution

    This revolution, which ended in 1793, was sparked due to the anger over taxes and the control of the upperclasses over the lower classes. The large schism between the classes accounted for the start of the revolution. The revolution was defined by the famous guillotine which was used to decapitate those who were thought to be critics of the revolutionary movement. King Louis and his wife were decapitated by the guillotine. This period of executions was known as the Reign of Terror.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    In Pennsylvania, people were angered over the excise tax placed on liquor by Alexander Hamilton in an effort to alleviate the national debt. President George washington brought together a militia to disperse the uprising. In total, three rebels were killed. The reaction of the government illustrated its strengths and capabilities.
  • War of 1812

    Americans, upset over the tight rules of the British and the hated Navigation Laws, declared war with Britain. The United States eventually wins the conflict and the British make several concessions. The British made several concessions because it needed America to continue its exports of products in order to have a thriving economy.
  • Battle of Lake Erie

    Commodore Perry defeats British fleet in Lake Erie after a bloody battle. The slogan "We have met the enemy and they are ours" is adopted and Lake Erie becomes officially an American lake.
  • Battle of Horshoe Bend

    This Battle was fought between General Jackson of the West Tennessee Infantry against the Creek Indians in Central Alabama. This was significant as it weakened the Native Americans participation in the war.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Though the war had already been over through the Treaty of Ghent, General Jackson led an attack on British forces trying to capture New Orleans who were under General Pakenham
  • Battle of Thames

    An American Victory after, troops crossed the Lake Erie and fight against General Proctor of the English and Indians led by Tecumseh. Tecumseh dies in battle.
  • Battle of Vera Cruz

    Landing South of the City, American forces under Scott were able to outflank Mexican Soldiers capturing the major city after sieging it for twenty days.
  • Battle of Mexico City

    Mexican troops under Dictator Santa Ana attempted to hold off General Winfield Scott's troops at Mexico City. They failed as the strategy of using different paths around the city opened up opportunity for the Americans.
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    Civil War

  • Battle of Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter located in South Carolina was a Union outpost before the War and as the state of South Carolina succeded, Fort Sumter became an easy target for Confederates. Lincoln sent in supplies into the Fort and Confederates thought this as an aggressive action. This was a Confederate victory.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    The first Battle of Bull Run was a Confederate victory as Union soldiers led by General McDowell became overconfident and marched twenty miles south of Washington D.C. into Confederate General Stonewall Jackson's troops.
  • Fort Henry and Donelson

    The Battles of Fort Henry and Donelson marked the first Union victory outwest and gained more popularity for General Grant. This occurred in Tennessee.
  • The Battle of the Monitor vs. the Merrimac

    The Battle of the Monitor vs. the Merrimac marked a change in technology for Naval warfare. The Merrimac (Confederate) was the first iron clad ship that went about destroying the Unions wooden ships. The Monitor (Union) was built in response. This battle was a draw but Confederates destroyed the Merrimac themselves incase of Union capture.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    The Battle of Shiloh was a Union victory under General Grant in the Southwestern part of Tennessee. This battle further opened up Tennessee to the Union and led to the movement of forces into Mississippi, where the Mississippi River was to be captured.
  • Seven Days Battle

    The Seven Days Battle took place just outside of Richmond as General McClellan leader of the Army of the Potomac was defeated and forced to abandon his Penisular Campaign of Virginia and retreat back to Washington.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run

    The Second Battle of Bull Run was a confederate victory under General Lee and General Longstreet as they defeated General Pope's Union troops. General Lee saw this as a go ahead into moving farther North into the Union.
  • Battle of Antietam

    The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War as General Lee's forces met with McClellan's forces in Maryland. This wasn't a victory for either side really as heavy losses were on both sides. General Lee was forced to retreat to Virginia and abandon his march northward.
  • Siege of Vicksburg

    The Siege of Vicksburg occurred right after the Battle of Gettysburg and was a Union victory as access to the Mississippi became under Union control.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg took place in three days and was General Lee's last march and push forward into the North. This battle taken place in Pennsylvania was a turning point to the War as General Meade of the Union stood off the Confederates.
  • The Battle of Chattanooga

    The Battle of Chattanooga was a battle for further control of Tennessee. It was a Union victory as General Grant was awarded to become the leader of the Army of the East while General Sherman became the leader of the Army of the West. Chattanooga opened up the advancement into Georgia.
  • Wilderness Campaign

    General Grant started his Wilderness Campaign and fight southward towards Richmond. A year worth of battles included Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg. In the end, Grant had crippled Lee's forces pushing him into falling back beyond Richmond and eventually to surrender.
  • Capture of Atlanta

    General Sherman captures Atlanta, Georgia and further destroying the Southern spirits of any victory,
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    The Sand Creek Massacre was a conflict between militiamen of Colorado under Colonel Chivington and the Cheyenne and Arapacho Indians. Indian women and children became victims of the troops as roughly 100 hundred indians were killed.
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    Indian Wars out West

    U.S. troops and the many trives of the Plains Indians conflicted in many wars/skirmishes over land and entitlement of who should own the West. During this time many Indians were forced onto reservations that created tension between the two groups.
  • Capture of Savannah

    The Capture of Savannah, South Carolina marked an end to General Sherman's march to the sea as the first state to succed saw its captiol in Union control.
  • Lee surrenders to Grant

    General Lee surrenders his army to General Grant at the Appomatix House in Virginia. This marks the end of the Civil War.
  • Fetterman Massacre

    This massacre was a conflict between U.S. troops under Captain Fetterman came from Fort Phil Kearny up the Bozeman Trail where they were attacked and ambushed by Sioux Indians under chief Red Cloud. The troops had been assigned to protect a group gathering wood whereupon they chased Sioux warriors that eventually led them into a trap. All 80 of the U.S. troops died.
  • The Battle of Little Bighorn

    After gold was discovered in the Black Hills of South Dakota, Colonel Custer led his troops to negotiate where the Sioux should be replaced. The Sioux refused to negotiate and Custer prepared to attack a group of Indians expecting them to flee at the sight of the troops. Custer split his men into three groups and attacked a group of indians. Three times the amount of Indians responded towards Custer and he and his 200 men were killed within an hour, This brought the U.S. out for revenge.
  • Haymarket Riot

    The Haymarket Riot was a conflict between The Knights of Labor and Police in Chicago as they were striking for less work hours. Anarchist leaders demostrated peacefully with thousands of followers and police came to disperse it. Someone threw a bomb and police officers were killed causing the Police to fire upon the strikers. This hurt labor unions at this time.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    The Battle of Wounded Knee maybe considered a massacre of the Sioux tribe who were under Sitting Bull. Indians at this time were conducting a spiritual dance that U.S. armed forces deemed as dangerous and may bring an uprising. U.S. forces tried to arrest tribe leader Sitting Bull but young Indians fired and as a result the U.S. troops killed Sitting Bull. Members of the trive fled to Wounded Knee where they met U.S. forces. This was the last armed conflict in the Indian Wars
  • Homestead Strike

    The strike occurred in Pennsylvania involving steel workers demanding better wages. They took over the Steel industry and currednt boss of the factory Henry Clay Frick. Frick called in "Pinkertons" who were supposed to break the strike but the violent crowd of workers didn't let them gain control. The National Guard had to come to resolve the conflict
  • Hawaii revolt and annexation

    White planters organized a small revolt in order to dethrone Queen Liliuokalani and annex Hawaii to United States. This was done to minimize prices that were raised under the McKinley Tariff. The revolt was openly assisted by American troops. A treaty was railroaded thru senate annexing Hawaii but was withdrawn by President Cleveland. (Hawaii would be annexed after Cleveland's term ion July 7 1898).
  • Letter of Dupuy de Lome

    Willliam Randolph Hearst sensationally publicized public letter from Dupuy de Lome. The letter detailed insults about President McKinley and incited intense uproar causing Dupuy de Lome to resign.
  • USS Maine explosion

    The USS Maine mysteriously blew up in Havana Harbor causing the deaths of 260 officers. U.S. naval officers investigated the explosion and stated it was caused by a submarine mine. The Spanish report stated it was a result of engine combustion. The Spanish report was correct but was overshadowed by the American investigation. The Spanish were to blame and Americans became war- hungry.
  • Declaration of War

    McKinley sends war message to Congress urging armed intervention to free the Cubans from the Spanish opressors. 28,000 men were deployed with 20,000 Spanish troops awaiting their presence.
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    Spanish American War

  • Dewwey's May Day Victory

    TR, assistant secretary of the U.S. Navy, dispatches Admiral Dewey to the harbor of Manila. 400 Spaniards were killed in naval battle without the loss of a single American life. American troops would arrive months later to secure the harbor and cement the victory
  • Battle of El Caney and San Juan Hill

    Roosevelt and his militia of Rough Riders encounter brisk fighting in securing Cuba. Both battles were handily won but with heavy casualties,
  • Armistice

    Spain concedes defeat in the war and sign armistice. Negotiators met in Paris to discussterms. Americans actually paid Spain $20 million for the Phillipines.
  • Armed Conflict erupts

    Private Grayson shoots and kills a Philippino soldier in San Juan, Manila marking the start of the war.
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    Phiippine- American War

  • Balangiga Massacre

    Balangiga Massacre
    American soldiers rounded up men 18 years old and older in the small village of Balangiga. The townspeople, angered by this act, reacted violently. On September 28th, they surprised American troops at breakfast and killed 54 soldiers and wounding 18 others.
  • Mexican Revolution

    A small group of terrorists kill the well- liked revolutionary President and install General Victoriano Huerta. Huerta's regime sparks Mexican migration to the United States. Wilson and Americans support Carranza with munitions supplies utimately forcing Huerta to abdicate his throne. Carranza's counterpart, Francisco Villa, turns into a bandit massacring 16 Americans on a train and even crosses border into America killing 19 more in NM. Gen. Pershing is ordered to arrest Villa but fails.
  • Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

    Franz Ferdinand Assassinated
    Franz Ferdidand parades through Sarajevo with his wife, Sophie. A terrorist group, the Black Hand, attempts to assassinate him by throwing a grenade at his ar. The grenade winds up blowing p another car. The archduke later go to the hospital to visit the injured in the attempted assassination. On their way there, Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand, shoots and kills Franz Ferdinand and his wife.
  • Ultimatum

    Austria- Hungary presents an ultimatum to Serbia over the assassination of Franz ferdinand. Serbia does not comply with the demand and Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia.
  • Alliances

    After Austria- Hungary's declaration of war on Serbia, Russia mobilizes its army for war on Austria- Hungary. Germany chooses to support Austria- Hungary's cause and declares war on Serbia and Russia. France joins the fight and declares war on Germany. England joins the cause as well. The two alliances are called the Allies (Russia, Serbia, France, England), and the Central Powers (Austria- Hunagry, Germany, Ottoman Empire).
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    World War One

  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    During Germany's U Boat Campaign, the Lusitania fell victim of a U-boat that carried roughly 1200 people on board. Of those people 144 were Americans. This is relevant because Germany was trying to avoid having America into the war but the death of these people angered the Sleeping Giant.
  • Sinking of the Sussex

    Sinking of the Sussex
    Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare had yet again threatened Americas entrance into the War. The Sussex was torpedoed by a German U-boat where rougly 25 American citizens lives were lost. After the incident, Germany not wanting to anger Americia created the Sussex pledge and got rid of unrestricted submarine warfare. The pledge had to have submarines announce a warning before attack.
  • Congress declares War

    After the threat presented by the Zimmerman Telegraph, Wilson asked congress to declare War on the Central Powers.
  • Battle of St. Mihiel

    Battle of St. Mihiel
    Under General Pershing, the AEF and some French forces looked to push out Germany from their position south of the French city Verdun. Catching the Germans on a retreat, General Pershing's artilery tore apart the German lines thus bringing the battle to an end in little over a day.
  • Battle of Meuse - Argonne

    Battle of Meuse - Argonne
    American forces pushed an offensive against the defending Germans. The AEF under General Pershing lost thousands but the battle was for the purpose of ending the war. At the end of the battle on November 11, defeated Germany signed an armistice.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles proposed a lasting peace in Europe but pursuing heavy reparations from Germany and the creation of the League of Nations in the end didn't accomplish this. Germany was bankrupt and America employed an Isolationist policy furthering it from the problems of Europe and the world.
  • Nazi invasion of Poland

    Nazi invasion of Poland
    Nazi's confident enough behind not having to fight against Russia took steps beyond the agreement made at the Munich conference and invaded Poland starting World War 2. The Allied and Axis powers each declared War and Europe was thrown into disarray once again.
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    World War 2

  • Battle of London

    Battle of London
    The Battle of London and Operation Sea Lion refered to Hitlers bombing of London and all of England through his Luftwaffe for roughly nine months. It came as a moral booster to the British as British planes fended off German planes and the country held on despite losing close to 43,000 civilians. Operation Sea Lion was the proposed invasion but never happened.
  • Operation Barbarossa

    Operation Barbarossa
    Operation Barbarossa was Hitlers invasion of Russia breaking the peace treaty between the two. German forces reached just outside of Moscow in 1941 but since then sufferered under cruel winters and heavy resistance by the soviets. In 1944 they were forced to retreat and shift thousands of soldiers to the western atmosphere.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Japanese forces surprise attack the naval base at Pearl Harbor targeting naval ships and finally initiating Americas entrance into World War 2. No carriers were present at the base which is pivotal and over 3500 Americans died. Japan after this would take over the Phillipines and other colonies. The Batton March in addition to this proved the most pivotal to American morale.
  • Battle of Midway

    Battle of Midway
    The battle of Midway is considered one of the most important battles in the Pacific hemisphere as American forces destroyed 4 Japanese carriers and stopped Japanes expansion. America would then move on to its Island Hopping technique in dealing with Japanese controlled islands.
  • D-Day Landings

    D-Day Landings
    Allied troops led by Dwight D. Eisenhower opened up the Second Front against the Nazis at German occupied France giving relief to the Russians suffering millions against Nazi agression. Close to 20,000 paratroopers were dropped behind enemy lines to sabotage Nazi's defense on the beaches while thousands flocked up the beach.
  • Battle of the Bulge

    Battle of the Bulge
    The Battle of the Bulge took place in the Ardennes Forest where Hitler through a last ditch effort against the surging Allied forces to stop them from attacking. It temporarily pushed back the Allie forces but under General Patton they surged through and crushed what would be the last German offensive.
  • V-E Day

    V-E Day
    V-E Day marked the surrender of the dismantled Axis Powers as Adolph Hitler had already committed suicide and Berlin was being invaded by Russian forces.
  • Atomic Bombings

    Atomic Bombings
    After the Japanese Empire had not givein to the demands of the Potsdam Declaration, President Truman ordered the Atomic Bomb be put in play on the city of Hiroshima. The devastation was immense as within a second over a hundred thousand Japanese died. Three days later after Japan didn't reach out to the Allied powers, Nagasaki was bombed with another atomic bomb. This devastation provoked Japan to surrender.
  • V-J Day

    V-J Day
    V-J Day is the official surrender of the Japanese Empire coming shortly after the devastations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Emperor Hirohito had to except the Potsdam Declaration.
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    Korean War

  • Battle of Pusan

    Battle of Pusan
    When North Vietnam invaded South Korea surprisingly, the South Koran army was pushed back into the coastal city of Pusan. There the South Korean army with the help of incoming American brigades stood off the invaders and started to push them back. General MacArthur is most notable as commander of the troops.
  • Seoul Recaptured

    Seoul Recaptured
    Momentum quickly changed in favor of the South Koreans as with help of the American Army, we pushed back into North Korea and took over Seoul.
  • Chinese Invasion

    Chinese Invasion
    Communist forces from China then invaded North Korea to help the North Koreans and the AMerican army and South Korean army had to retreat to the 38th parrallel where today devides South Korea and North Korea. MacArthur wished for more action to be taken and condemned President Truman for not taking more decisive action.
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    Vietnam War

  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    The Bay of Pigs incident was a mission accepted by John F. Kennedy for over a thousand cuban refugees to be trained in America to be given support and start a coup in Cuba. Castro found out about this and when JFK failed to keep his promise of air support, the invasion failed. We had hoped the people of cuba were feeling revolution.
  • Start of Cuban Missile Crisis

    Start of Cuban Missile Crisis
    This occurred when U.S. spy planes detected nuclear missiles in Cuba ready to be launched at the U.S. Kennedy at this time set up a blockade and demanded all missiles to be removed. Great tension and fear was felt as if attacked by Cuba it meant a war with the USSR. Eventually President Khruschev of the USSR negotiated that he would remove the missiles in return for Cuba to never be invaded and American missiles in Turkey to be removed.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    The Gulf of Tonkin Incident occurred when the USS Maddox was attacked by 4 North vietnamese ships. This is critical because we hadn't been fighting with North Vietnam but just with the Vietcong in South Vietnam. We swiftly retaliated and destroyed the Vietnamese ships and LBJ came up with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution which allowed military to fight all Vietnam Communists.
  • Start of Operation Rolling Thunder

    Start of Operation Rolling Thunder
    Operation Rolling Thunder was in response to the growing casualties in Vietnam as Lyndon B. Johnson accepted massive bombings on Hanoi and other parts of North Vietnam.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    The Tet Offensive was North Vietnams push toward the capture of Saigon and the Vietcongs success in winning the war.
  • My Lai Massacre

    My Lai Massacre
    The My Lai massacre occurred in response to soldiers frustration of the Vietnam War. Sergeant William Calley originally convicted with a life sentence was pardoned as he had killed hundreds of women, children, and elderly that may or may not have had ties to Vietcong.
  • America enters Cambodia

    Nixon enters American troops into Cambodia because there were suspicions that Cambodia was being used as a way for the North Vietnamese to communicate and to use supply lines. It failed and there were mass protests against Nixon's actions including the Kent State massacre
  • Bombing North Vietnam to Peace

    Nixon sanctions the relentless bombing of North Vietnam to force it to the peace table and work out a treaty which will appease the countries. He bombs North Vietnam for a period of 2 weeks
  • Carter attempts to save hostages in Iran

    Iranian fundamentalists seize the American embassy in Teheran and take hostage numerous Americans because of frustration with the U.S. allowing the deposed Shah to come for medical treatment. Carter, after several failures at negotiation, authorizes a military operation which ends in failure after several helicopters couldn't make it and two crashed killing all on board.