APUSH Important Events Timeline

  • First Slaves in the Colonies

    First Slaves in the Colonies
    While slavery was morally incorrect, racist, and all-around terrible, the saying: "America was built on the backs of slaves" isn't an overstatement. In the first centuries of the colonies, slavery boosted and heavily supported the colonial economy while also maximizing production. The U.S. might have grown similarly to how it did without these slaves, but the growth would have been much slower.
  • Tobacco Boom in Chesapeake

    Tobacco Boom in Chesapeake
    The tobacco boom in Chesapeake surged the wealth accumulation of the colonies. This both furthered English abuse of stringing the colonies for all their profits and brought more colonists over to America. These two events worked together to separate colonists from their "proper" English counterparts.
  • Puritans reach America

    Puritans reach America
    The Puritan arrival in America set a start for a new government. These Puritans believed that the Church should exist outside the government; citing that much corruption and greed evolved from religious leaders in legislature. This idea closely resembles the current American government, with religion kept separate from government in an attempt to prohibit corruption and a hierarchy.
  • Founding of the Rhode Island Colony

    Founding of the Rhode Island Colony
    Rhode Island's founding set an image of what a truly "free colony" looked like. Rhode Island was the first colony to have no legally established church and a charter for self-ruling. A government not controlled by a church would allow colonists to worship as they pleased, this system still reflects the U.S. government today.
  • Toleration Act (1649)

    Toleration Act (1649)
    Pushed for by Lord Baltimore, the Toleration Act was one of the first steps toward real religious freedom. Aside from making it a crime to blasphemy God, this act allowed any and all Christians to practice their religion however they chose. This act is expanded on in the very first Amendment to the Constitution.
  • The Navigation Acts (1651)

    The Navigation Acts (1651)
    As Great Britain created its colonies, it developed them to be utterly reliant on their homeland; legislating that the colonies could use English commerce ships. Combined with the other Navigation Acts, the English succeeded in forcing dependency but bothered and angered many of the first colonies. This aspect of governmental control is commonly seen as the "seed of rebellion".
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Post the Seven Year's War, colonists wanted to obtain western land as that had been the war's purpose. But, due to complications, the British government outlawed any western movement. This resulted in Bacon's Rebellion, which showed that British authority could not be easily defended in the colonies. This was the last serious challenge of royal authority before total American rebellion broke out. This showed how deep the American value of freedom ran, which is how the U.S. formed its government.
  • Woolen Act

    Woolen Act
    Prohibiting the manufacturing of textiles, the Woolen Act prevented colonists from printing their own money, which would have further removed them from British control by starting their own economic system.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    This movement rejected traditional ways of life. It pushed aside religious beliefs and emphasized a more scientific and reasonable way of thinking. The start of the Enlightenment, people began questioning previous beliefs about government, people, and nature. John Locke proposed natural rights, Montesquieu; the separation of powers, and Rousseau; government exists for the people. Voltaire proposed the freedoms of speech, thought, and religion, giving birth to American ideals.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    Religion was becoming dull and distant. Preachers felt people needed to be concerned with inner emotions rather than outward religious behavior. George Whitefield used raw emotion while Jonathan Edwards used terror to make people fear God. The start of the Great Awakening gave colonists a shared religious experience but also gave deep religious convictions in the colonies. New churches were built and colleges were founded to train new ministers due to the attendance boom.
  • Molasses Act

    Molasses Act
    The Molasses Act was another attempt by English Legislatures to sponge out more profit from the colonies. This further separated the colonies from the motherland. Colonists commonly either ignored the mandate or bought their products elsewhere for higher prices.
  • Stono Rebellion

    Stono Rebellion
    A mass slave uprising in South Carolina, the Stono Rebellion highlighted the fragility of the slave system with the overwhelmingly increasing slave population. Slave owners realized they either had to restrict slave rights further or back down on slave oppression.
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
    Against colonial outcries, the British legislature returned the area of Louisburg to France. This action made it clear to the colonists that England was only worried about its own interests and not theirs. This realization further removed colonial respect for its cross-ocean government.
  • Benjamin Franklin's New Albany Plan

    Benjamin Franklin's New Albany Plan
    While Franklin's plan ultimately failed, it set a foundation for independence. The proposed "unity" throughout the colonies resonated with those who heard it and was later used when the prospect of independence surfaced. This unity could be used to bond the colonies together, support separation from British control, and could also give way to colonial representatives. The plan proposed a more centralized form of government, which would give the colonists more say in their government.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    The Proclamation of 1763 confirmed Indian control over the trans-Appalachian west. This angered colonists as it had been the whole purpose of the Seven Year's War. This declaration from British legislation angered many colonists and many moved west anyway, directly defying the governmental mandate.
  • The Quartering Act of 1765

    The Quartering Act of 1765
    The Quartering Act stated that British soldiers who stayed in America after the French-Indian War could not be denied if asking to live in someone's home. This act infringed on the importance of freedom in American culture. Commonly, wealthy residents had more influence in government. At the same time, more affluent houses were more sought after by soldiers. This event was so heavily hated that it is now illegal to create any such law retaining to quartering.
  • The Stamp Act

    The Stamp Act
    In debt after the Seven Year's War, Britain ended its "salutary neglect" period, in which Americans were not commonly forced to obey British acts and laws. Britain received intense backlash when it left British soldiers in America to enforce British laws and tighten its control over the colonists. Today, the rich have the most political sway in the American government. The Stamp Act affected the rich the most, so the overall American outcry shows the political sway of the rich even in the 1700s.
  • The Revenue Act of 1767

    The Revenue Act of 1767
    Passed by Charles Townshend in place of William Pit, this act created a board of customs in Boston, Halifax, and along the eastern coast. These boards revived the constitutional debate over taxes. The common colonial claim was that they only issued over internal taxation, rather than external. While this explanation was not entirely true, strengthened taxes in any way imposed fear of strengthing governmental control. This fear motivated the colonists to create their own systems of government.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    While caused by colonists hurling snow-rocks at British soldiers who were left behind from the Seven Year's War, the soldier's reactions were used to build conspiracy and disgust towards English involvement in the colonies. Even as the soldiers were bloodied and fearing for their lives, their shots were described as overreactions and purposeful killings of "freedom fighters". Crispus Attucks, a black laborer, died and was later identified as the first black martyr for freedom.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    In outrage at the Tea Act of May 1773, The Sons of Liberty, disguised as Indians, boarded three ships; Dartmouth, Eleanor, and Beaver. They then stole chests of to-be-taxed condensed tea and threw them overboard. The revolt netted a multi-million dollar loss of tax money, which would have gone directly to the British bank. The Boston Tea party was not only one of the most considerable financial losses but also a destructive attack on Britain's ability to govern/control its colonies.
  • Dunmore's War

    Dunmore's War
    After the abandonment of Fort Pitt, the Earl of Dunmore organized a local militia and started drilling near the fort's ruins. In defiance of British and American orders, Dunmore led his army against the Ohio Shawnees, and claimed Kentucky. This was known as Dunmore's War and was many colonists' declaration of independence. This war resulted from a split leadership and a long-standing disrespect of governmental law. Independence was the only resolution for change in the minds of many colonists.
  • The British Attacks on Breed's and Bunker Hill (The Battle of Bunker Hill)

    The British Attacks on Breed's and Bunker Hill (The Battle of Bunker Hill)
    After Lord Darthmouth proclaimed Massachusetts in a state of rebellion, General Cage was ordered to march against the colony. The resulting battles led to the Second Continental Congress (1775), during this meeting, British troops attacked the two forts near Boston. It took three assaults on the compounds to dislodge the defending American troops. These results highlighted the American resolve for independence and were even used by John Adams to convince Congress to create a continental army.
  • The Declaration of Independence (Approved 1776)

    The Declaration of Independence (Approved 1776)
    A formal secession from British rule, the Declaration listed the principles for colonial separation from Britain. It formally started the U.S. as a nation during the era of separate colonies. True dedication was required for this decision as it was the definition of treason, meaning that all who were involved would be executed if Britain regained control.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was composed of smaller battles leading to a larger overall outcome. British General John Burgoyne planned to move his army south and meet two other British armies, instead, he was surrounded by the Continental Army and forced to surrender himself and 5,000 British troops. Not only did this boost Continental soldiers' morale, but it was a major turning point in the war and even gained French approval, who subsequently agreed to a military alliance with the U.S..
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's Rebellion was caused by a crippling tax appointment on property that forced land closings on farmers who had left to fight in the war, and had not been able to care for their land. Left in serious debt, and not yet paid for their service, riots and courthouse closings became the only way of prohibiting land foreclosures, the government's response of the "Riot Acts" were seen as tyranny due to the Articles of Confederation's inability to give immediate control to the government.
  • The French Revolution (1789-1793)

    The French Revolution (1789-1793)
    The French Revolution was a war between the French citizens and the oppressive French monarchy. U.S. and French relations caused clashes in American opinion over involvement in the war, as the current treaty of friendship with France was made with the King*, however, the French people* were fighting their version of the American Revolution which was backed by the same American values that have supplied reasoning for American wars, military funding, and governmental policies since our birth.
  • Federal Judiciary Act of 1789

    Federal Judiciary Act of 1789
    The Judiciary Act created federal, supreme, and lower-level court systems. This gave the government and its people the means to lawfully and clearly sort out civil and criminal debates. This section of government has a large say in the laws that are passed, which in turn protect and mandate the country and its citizens.
  • Slave Trade (Specifically 1790s)

    Slave Trade (Specifically 1790s)
    While immoral, the height of the Slave Trade provided an unequivocal boost to the U.S. economy. It also helped the U.S. cement its nation in its early years. Furthermore, the Slave Trade allowed the U.S. to reach global exports, maximizing trade and commerce.
  • Washington Retires

    Washington Retires
    Washington could have easily stayed in power for years with public majority support, but his self-removal from office set a precedent for future presidents to follow. His two terms in office set a very important image of the newly forming American government. Washington's precedent was later made the 22nd Amendment in 1951. This amendment ensured the rotation of presidency permanently, solving most issues of potential dictatorships, monarchies, ect.
  • Marbury V Madison

    Marbury V Madison
    Through this famous court case, the principle of judicial review was cemented. This meant if a judge found one law in violation of another, it could be overruled. This court case added to the system of checks and balances that we have in place today.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    In 1803, needing a more permanent solution for use of the New Orleans Port and the Mississippi River owned by Spain, President Jefferson sent James Monroe to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans for $3 million from Napolean. The king of Spain offered only the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million. Jefferson agreed after a self-debate over his beliefs of a strict constitutional interpretation against the country's ensured improvement.
  • The Battle of Thames

    The Battle of Thames
    During the War of 1812, the Battle of Thames takes place in Canada with American forces rising victorious over the allied British and Indian forces in Prophetstown, Indiana. The death of the Indian tribe leader, Tecumseh, broke the tribes apart and ended most of the major native resistance against the United States in the Ohio River Valley. This removed a major obstacle of U.S. expansion.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    The Treaty of Ghent retained the prewar borders of the U.S.. While the treaty was undermined by the time it took to reach the public, it demonstrated the military power the U.S. had created for itself, marking the U.S. as a respectable global force.
  • The Second Great Awakening

    The Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was caused by the lower classes' recent gain of freedom, specifically the voting rights given to landless white men. Americans united and formed communal unions to advocate for reform movements like women's suffrage and abolition. Religious teachings also shifted to become more emotionally based and were attached to the Market Revolution. Sermons also began introducing the new idea of the ability to obtain salvation through one's life, known as free will.
  • The Battle at the Alamo

    The Battle at the Alamo
    This battle was due to the American rebellion against Mexico's governmental control over Texas. The battle was dramatized and used to draw waves of American support towards the effort to "free Texas". The Battle at the Alamo was a major influencer in the war and led to the annexation of Texas, which boosted the U.S. economy.
  • Manifest Destiny (Term created by John O'Sullivan; Period lasted from 1812-1867)

    Manifest Destiny (Term created by John O'Sullivan; Period lasted from 1812-1867)
    This idealism towards western settling was the backbone for the drive of the common colonist. Manifest Destiny allocated that it was God's plan for Euro-American colonists to settle the entire North American continent. While colonists used this "understanding" to defend the genocide and racism in their culture, this picture also gave light to many colonists' expansion beliefs and was a cornerstone in American society. Manifest Destiny also helped create the prosperous, Oregon Trail.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    The Mexican-American War, however a petty war caused by President Polk, was critical in growing the country. The coast-to-coast landmass control gave the U.S. immense power and defensibility. Polk's acquisition of California and other lands from the Mexican Cession mirrored his plan of taking the Texan land from Mexico. Polk sent a small party of troops both times to infuriate the Mexicans and trigger war when they attacked. Using his "bait", he got governmental backing for war after annexation.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848, officially ending the Mexican-American War. Its terms forced Mexico to cede over half of its territory, including multiple present-day western and southern states. While the treaty was very aggressive, it granted federal citizenship to thousands of Mexicans in the U.S. and also paved a strenuous path for the countries to become trade partners and repair relations, today Mexico is one of the U.S.' most important trade relations.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The four-part compromise was created by John Calhoun. While California entered as a free state and slave trade was abolished in Washington D.C., strict fugitive slave laws were enacted nationwide, as well as a proclamation that new territories applying for statehood would be governed by Popular Sovereignty (a citizen vote). Kansas had to decide slavery's future in the state, leading to the division between pro and anti-slavery groups who created differing constitutions, whose laws clashed.
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

    The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act divided Indian territory into the states of Kansas and Nebraska. It also repealed the Missouri Compromise and reinforced popular sovereignty, leading to the "Bleeding Kansas" conflict. Furthermore, the act shocked the political system, as large groups of northerners, particularly Whigs, stood up against the upcoming "slave power"; with the act continuing to cripple the Democratic party through "anti-Nebraska" separations, the demands for diverse political parties grew.
  • Homestead Act of 1862

    Homestead Act of 1862
    A federal program that gave 160 acres to families who moved west and farmed and improved the land for 5 years. As profitable as this was for Americans, it also built up income from the west, simultaneously supporting the federal government. The Act also supported the popular concept of "land equals opportunity". There was also no race or gender requirement, so freedmen and single women could travel west in attempts to make a living.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    Initiated by Confederate General Robert E. Lee, it was an assault on the Union, known as the most important engagement in the war, its purpose was to take cities near Washington D.C. to demoralize and scare the Union, as well as to obtain recognition by Britain and France. The assault was a massive fail and Lee retreated, losing 2/3 of his army. General Lee gave his resignation to the Confederate president but was denied. Now a demoralized General Lee faced the triumphant Union General Grant.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation (Preliminary Date)

    The Emancipation Proclamation (Preliminary Date)
    Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation publically stated the cause of the war was slavery. Previously, Lincoln denied emancipation as the subject of the civil war. His proclamation, while forced due to radical republican pressure, gave the northern states a cause to fight for and convinced Britain and France to avoid recognizing the Confederacy. While the Proclamation did not immediately free slaves, it was argued by abolitionist Wendell Phillips that it put slavery on "the edge of Niagra".
  • President Lincoln's Assassination

    President Lincoln's Assassination
    Prior to Lincoln's assassination, he had vetoed the Wade-Davis Bill. No one knows what he would have proposed instead or how he would have led the country. However, it can be easily inferred that Lincoln would have approached the situation differently than Vice President Johnson. Previously, Lincoln had worked well with Congress, President Johnson, on the other hand, wreaked political havoc through his disagreements with the Republicans and his both immoral and crude political judgment.
  • Congressional Election of 1866

    Congressional Election of 1866
    Due to the lack of Constitutional foundation, Congress clashed with President Johnson over governmental powers after the civil war. Congress created multiple laws to aid the freedmen and support racial equality. After Johnson vetoed these laws, Congress gathered and overrode his vetoes. The 1866 Election gave Radical Republicans the majority and allowed them to focus on Southern reform without racist presidential corruption. These events also showed the importance of checks and balances.
  • The Reconstruction Acts of 1867

    The Reconstruction Acts of 1867
    One of the first motions made by the new Congress (with radical majority), these acts stripped southern political power and restructured its government. However, one of the most important proposals was turning the South into five military zones. This gave the Union military control over the areas to enforce laws passed under an emancipated government. Without enforcement, Reconstruction in the South would never happen. These acts also gave the southern states a route to rejoin the Union.
  • Burlingame Treaty (Seward secured congressional approval in 1868)

    Burlingame Treaty (Seward secured congressional approval in 1868)
    The Burlingame Treaty provided a more secure layout for the rights of both U.S. missionaries in China and Chinese workers in the U.S. The treaty provided more workers for the railway project, which was, and is, one of the most important projects for the U.S. and its citizens. Chinese workers that had already been working on the railway achieved more rights and compensation, even with the blatant racism they faced, and the exceedingly low wages that were set.
  • The Fifteenth Amendment

    The Fifteenth Amendment
    Enacted in 1870, the amendment seemed to fulfill the promises made to African Americans. However, discrimination continued to run rampant and white schemes like literacy tests and voting taxes held many of the newly freed from exercising their right. However, it was a grand step in the right direction and helped set the stage for the civil rights movement. Many criticize the initial weakness of the amendment, but the population's attempts to undermine the law should not stand to define it.
  • Completion of the Transcontinental Railway

    Completion of the Transcontinental Railway
    The completion of the railway connected the two halves of the U.S. together. The railway provided means of commerce, trade, and transportation in a fraction of the time as previous methods. The completion of this grand project boosted the national economy and fostered further commercial growth.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1875

    The Civil Rights Act of 1875
    Partially taken from Radical Republican, Senator Charles Sumner's proposal in 1870, The Civil Rights Act was another large step toward equality. The act required "full and equal" access to jury service, transportation, and public accommodations, irrespective of race. This large step in equality was heavily influenced by the 15th amendment; both of which subsequently allowed women's suffrage groups to refocus.
  • American Fever (peaking in 1882)

    American Fever (peaking in 1882)
    The American fever brought more than 105,000 Scandinavians to the U.S. (as well as thousands of Africans). Swedish and Norwegian became popular languages in regions like Minnesota and the Dakotas. This entire time period was incredibly influential to American society, but the peak was the most important step in diversifying the Nation. America today is a largely diverse nation, with many religions, ethnicities, and racial groups; a vast number of whom appeared through the American Fever.
  • The Pendleton Act (1883)

    The Pendleton Act (1883)
    The Pendleton Act required most federal employees to have passed a civil service exam. This ended the "spoils system" and helped reduce governmental corruption massively. By requiring specific results, presidents or cabinet members could not gain support by offering federal positions. The Pendleton Act also made way for transformations in public employment. It was further extended in the 1910's.
  • The Dawes Act (passed in 1887)

    The Dawes Act (passed in 1887)
    The Dawes Act equated the Homestead act but for Native Americans. 160 acres were dedicated to Natives who wanted to claim land or 80 for single men. While this seemed to be a federally funded opportunity for Natives, the government could also use it to take back reservation land from them, followed by the fact that there was not enough land for the government to propose this to all Natives. The act also broke apart tribal loyalty and relations, minimizing tribal push-back.
  • The Great Railroad Strike of 1887

    The Great Railroad Strike of 1887
    The Great Railroad Strike was a nationwide strike of thousands of railroad workers and labor allies in protest of the unchecked power of railroad corporations and the heavy wage cuts workers during the Depression. Pennsylvania's governor sent the militia to intervene and the strike turned violent with crowds burning railroad land and pushing over trains. Subsequently, the "National Guard" was first created to enforce order within the country, a sector that now protects the country at home.
  • The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)

    The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)
    This book by U.S. naval officer Alfred Mahan urged the U.S. to start improving and modernizing their navy, referencing its importance in previous empires. In 1890, Congress allocated funds for 3 more steel-hulled battleships. Continuing the process for two decades, The U.S. built (and has still maintained) one of the most powerful and modern navies. The navy protects the U.S. border and allows for the quick mobilization of troops in event of an emergency or war. It also allows ranged attacks.
  • San Juan (The Buffalo Soldiers)

    San Juan (The Buffalo Soldiers)
    On July 1, Spanish forces fought Americans at San Juan Hill in Cuba, where the Spanish fleet was anchored. Four black (and some mixed) regiments bore the brunt of the fighting, their efforts were a leading factor in the Spanish surrender. Observers in fact credited much of the victory to the “superb gallantry” of these (black) soldiers. Opportunities like these gave blacks a chance to prove their loyalty and importance to the United States, and to fight discrimination.
  • De Lome Letter Uncovering

    De Lome Letter Uncovering
    A letter was uncovered sent from a Spanish minister in Washington to a third party. The minister mocked the president and admitted Spain had no intention of honoring the deal. This sparked mistrust in both the United States government, and in American citizens. Yellow Journalism evolved, selling papers about the occurrence. The uncovering affected military commands near the border involving Spanish relations.
  • The Tenement House Act of 1901

    The Tenement House Act of 1901
    The Tenement House Act outlawed the construction of dumbbell-style tenement housing and set minimum size requirements. It also lifted the standards of tenement houses by mandating lighting installation, decent ventilation, and indoor bathrooms. Having long been producers of sickness and death due to greedy owners, the act ensured constructional safety within homes. Renting and leasing today have many laws and rules like such to ensure tenants are not forced to live in poorly maintained housing.
  • McKinley's Assassination (1901)

    McKinley's Assassination (1901)
    President McKinley's Assassination put the ever-radical Theodore Roosevelt into the presidency. "Teddy" had been carefully placed into vice-presidency by the Republicans to gain voter support but avoid his radical impact. McKinley had been a very calm president with less radical views that were more favored by the Republican Party, his assassination put a radicalized president into office, one who would increase the navy's power, pass the Food and Drug Act, and cause many other changes.
  • Establishment of the Food and Drug Administration

    Establishment of the Food and Drug Administration
    The United States Food and Drug Administration was created to enforce the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906; protecting public health, and ensuring quality food, medicine, and cosmetics. Before the act, there were no requirements for the quality of such products, allowing businesses to place profit over public safety. Working conditions also became regulated in meatpacking factories. The FDA continues to regulate food and goods environments, ensuring Americans receive safe products and produce.
  • The Antiquities Act of 1906

    The Antiquities Act of 1906
    The Antiquities Act was the first law to protect general cultures or national resources. It was the first "preservation-based policy in the U.S. Before the Antiquities Act, land protection only came under specific laws for specific landmarks. It is important for any country to preserve land as it prevents wild species' extinction and helps retain the country's natural beauty; locations like the Grand Canyon, Rockies, and Appalachians would not be in the condition they are today without the act.
  • Ford introduces the Ford Model T

    Ford introduces the Ford Model T
    The public introduction of the Ford Model T widely expanded the economy and changed city layouts. The affordable car surged the industry, selling 26 million cars by 1929. The introduction of the car allowed citizens to live farther away from work and travel farther away for vacations. Cities expanded, suburbs grew, and new establishments like gas stations and drive-thrus were created. Cities and industries today rely heavily on automobile travel, which allows establishments to spread out.
  • Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914

    Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
    Woodrow Wilson signed the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914, banning practices of price discrimination and other monopolistic business practices. The law also affirmed that strikes, boycotts, and unions were legal. Businesses had long threatened workers against striking or being associated with a union by lowering pay or firing unionists and strikers. Under the Clayton Antitrust Act, businesses could no longer force workers into submission. Unions continue to be an anchor for many workers today.
  • Establishment of the National Park Service

    Establishment of the National Park Service
    President Woodrow Wilson established the National Park Service to manage federally protected and preserved parks. Before its establishment, many in America saw nature and land only as potential food and resources. Wilson recognized the importance of preserving land in America. The service would allow animals to stay wild and Americans to see the beauty of their country, outside the black smoke of factories. Continuing today, the National Park Service manages 84 million acres of land.
  • Zimmermann Interception is Sent to the U.S.

    Zimmermann Interception is Sent to the U.S.
    In 1917, British intelligence intercepted and decrypted a German telegram sent to their Mexican ambassador. The message outlined Germany's intent to send U-Boats to the Atlantic against all Allied troops, even those not at war; ex. The U.S.. It also revealed Germany urging Mexico to attack the U.S. if they declared war. Wilson then requested a declaration of war. The telegram showed how important counterintelligence was, causing a major increase in military funding towards hacking sciences.
  • Eighteenth Amendment

    Eighteenth Amendment
    The Eighteenth Amendment outlawed the sale and manufacture of alcohol. This movement backfired immediately, alcohol use exploded in angry fury. Speakeasies were created, gangsters like Al Capone arose, and the proposed effect of crime rates was reversed; crime rates skyrocketed. It also halted restaurant and theater revenue. The law was a lesson, demonstrating the chaotic effects of a controversial law; extra care must be used when operating with controversial topics on a federal level.
  • The Rise of Hollywood

    The Rise of Hollywood
    By 1920, Hollywood produced 90% of the ""world's"" films. This development created jobs and stimulated wealth in America. Hollywood films also depicted popular trends and fashion styles. Actress Clara Bow, Hollywood's famous flapper, had thousands of women following her lead. Public figures grew in this new theme and "pop culture" grew exponentially. Pop culture is still heavily important to millions in today's social setting. Celebrities and fashion trends continue to be idolized.
  • The 19th Amendment

    The 19th Amendment
    Ratified in 1920, the 19th Amendment officially gave women the right to vote, a constitutional right that had long been refused. This point of "Feminism" was fought for decades. The amendment opened up federal and state government input and votes to half of the population: whose opinions, and voices had previously been ignored. The 19th Amendment enforced constitutional freedom that the U.S. is based upon; federal attention must be used in extreme cases of citizen's rights infringement.
  • The Sheppard-Towner Federal Maternity and Infancy Act

    The Sheppard-Towner Federal Maternity and Infancy Act
    Commonly shortened to "Sheppard-Towner", the act was enacted to combat high mortality rates among mothers and newborns. The act provided a five-year annual $1 million fund in federal aid to state programs for mothers and babies. The funds were targeted toward prenatal and newborn care facilities in rural areas states. Sheppard-Towner helped reduce the mortality rates of child-bearing, offering aid to young families in the American population while also promoting the health of the country.
  • Great Migration (Initial boom's effects)

    Great Migration (Initial boom's effects)
    The Great Migration sent vast waves of Americans, particularly blacks toward northern and western cities. Today, the southern population remains small compared to the north, the cities of focus back then remain highly populated today. In these cities, minority neighborhoods formed. The Harlem Renaissance formed from this culture concentration. Culturally southern black music like jazz also moved northern. Northern factories and businesses allowed success for these incoming minorities.
  • Securities and Exchange Commission Founded

    Securities and Exchange Commission Founded
    The Securities and Exchange Commission oversees securities exchanges, brokers and dealers, investment advisors, and mutual funds. The commission works to enforce fairness in the market and business world, as well as prevent fraud. The act was another step the federal government took in a controversial direction of economic regulation. Even in good thought, any government connection to the United States capitalist economy must be closely watched.
  • The Second New Deal (1935)

    The Second New Deal (1935)
    In attempt to bolster the effects of the first one, FDR aimed this deal to help older citizens retire. By claiming new governmental power, FDR put forth the Social Security Act. Serving as a safety net, a percentage of citizens' paychecks/taxes would be collected to give to older citizens to help provide income in their retirement. This allowed a more rapid change of business positions, as people no longer had to work their entire life.
  • National Labor Relations Act

    National Labor Relations Act
    Congress (signed by FDR) passed the National Labor Relations Act in 1935. The act strengthened the U.S. policy of protecting workers' rights and freedoms, namely freedom of association. The act also underlines workers' rights to seek better working conditions and pay. Men and women alike benefitted from this law; the number of female unionists almost tripled in the following ten years. Unions continue to hold importance today as they help workers to fight large corporations.
  • The Dust Bowl (its effects)

    The Dust Bowl (its effects)
    States like Oklahoma, Texas, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas all experienced a drought. Overproduction and use of soil led to massive erosion of the land. Strong winds then came and picked up layers of earth, sweeping them away elsewhere and burying houses. Thousands of acres of land were left unfarmable and unusable, resulting in food scarcity. Farmers were forced to move, the next farming generation learned to avoid overfarming and to create more arable land.
  • Executive Order 8802

    Executive Order 8802
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Executive Order 8802 eliminated discriminatory hiring practices in the government and companies with federal contracts. The black population was required if companies were going to meet wartime quotas with so many (whites) leaving to fight the war. While discriminatory practices occurred elsewhere and blacks were even forced to fight in separated regiments, Order 8802 was an essential step towards ending institutional racism in the American government and economy.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor (1941

    The Attack on Pearl Harbor (1941
    In retaliation of U.S. intervention with Japanese interests, Japan attempted to cripple the U.S. fleet. In a surprise attack, Japan destroyed 188 American planes and 18 ships including 8 battleships, 3 light cruisers, 3 destroyers, and 4 other vessels. The high concentration of ships at Pearl Harbor added to the American loss. The military has since carefully stationed ships, planes, and troops; spreading out resources to mitigate damage from an incoming attack.
  • GI Bill

    GI Bill
    Initially named the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, the bill gave several benefits to veterans of WWII. The act gave veterans grants for education, low-interest mortgages and small-business loans, job training, hiring privileges, and unemployment benefits. Later amendments provided disability coverage. The GI Bill ensured veterans would not be left out of society or have to struggle for work. The original bill expired but continues to be renewed, giving veterans thanks for serving their country.
  • Iranian Cold War Dispute (1945)

    Iranian Cold War Dispute (1945)
    During WWII, Iran was occupied by British and Russian troops. Postwar, the British pulled out, but the Russians stayed, believing they were owed oil concessions from the Iranians. Previously, the U.S. had left all the WWII regions after they were considered safe; the continued Soviet presence in Iran caused the first initial fear of Communist nations. U.S. policies were then invoked to "contain" and prohibit Communist nations from expanding, many of which are still in act and relevant today.
  • ENIAC is Introduced

    ENIAC is Introduced
    ENIAC was the world's first automatic digital computer. It was designed to calculate artillery firing tables to assist in the U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory. This mathematical power, coupled with general-purpose programmability, excited scientists and industrialists. The computer has since improved to the slim, faster, modern screens the world has today.
  • Korean War (End) (1953)

    Korean War (End) (1953)
    The Korean war between the Communist-backed North and the American-backed south was a 3-year war. After an initial surprise attack from Korean and Soviet troops, the UN (Mainly American) troops responded by pushing the enemy all the way to the Chinese border. Even though the war ended in a stalemate and armistice, the events showed the U.S.' resolve to either maintain the line at the 38th parallel or take more territory from the Communist nation. The "Policy of Containment" had been reinforced.
  • Brown V Board of Education (1954)

    Brown V Board of Education (1954)
    Previously, Plessy v Ferguson upheld that it was constitutional for school systems to have segregated but "equal" schools. In Brown v Board of Education, The NAACP highlighted how unequal the system was; black schools had older and fewer materials than white schools and they also had less qualified teachers. Thurgood Marshall represented Linda Brown all to way to the Supreme Court, who overturned Plessy. This was a large movement in the direction of ending institutionalized racism.
  • National Interstate and Defense Highways Act

    National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
    Also known as the Eisenhower Interstate Highway Act, it was the largest public works project in history. Updating and modernizing U.S. roadways, the act connected the country, created jobs, and eased Cold War fears by giving citizens an escape route in case of oncoming air strikes. Today, the country could not live without the highway system; Trucks use it to carry goods and products across the country, cars use it for everyday travel and vacation, and its maintenance provides millions of jobs.
  • The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

    The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
    Previously, teens and students were told not to involve themselves in protests, the fear of losing a child caused parents to bar their children from joining unions or movements. The SNCC was the first union to advocate for the hearing of teenage voices. Consisting of predominately black college students, it protested segregation in restaurants and discriminatory voting practices. While remaining nonviolent, it joined several major civil rights movements like the Freedom Rides in the '60s.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (effects) (1962)

    Cuban Missile Crisis (effects) (1962)
    The Cuban Missile Crisis is the closest the world has come to full-scale nuclear war. When an American spy plane took photos of an in-progress nuclear launch site in Cuba, tensions between nations skyrocketed. MAD was a large factor in how nations interacted and worked around nuclear threats. The threat of nuclear attack caused an immense spike in resource hauling and tornado/bomb shelter construction. The U.S. embargo in Cuba is still current today as nuclear fear is still an issue.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act in 1965. The act outlawed systems that prevented people of color from registering to vote, like poll taxes and literacy tests. It also authorized federal examiners to register voters in counties with registration rates less than 50 percent, giving oppressed Americans a constitutional right that they had long been denied. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 also worked with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to further outlaw other discriminatory practices.
  • Establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency

    Establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency
    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established by President Nixon's executive order. The agency was formed to protect human and environmental health, as well as to create such health standards and laws.
    The EPA regulates the manufacturing, processing, distribution, and use of chemicals and other pollutants; helping preserve the United States and its citizens' health
  • President Nixon Visits China

    President Nixon Visits China
    President Nixon visited China in 1972. This visit helped reduce U.S.-Chinese tension, which served great importance as China was (and still is) a communist nation. The president's visit helped initialize China to U.S. trade, dampening U.S. inflation. The United States became able to use China as a balance against the Soviet Union. Nixon's visit helped open the U.S. up to the power of China's trade relations, of which have become one of the most important for the U.S. today.
  • National Black Political Convention

    National Black Political Convention
    Also known as the Gary Convention, the National Black Political Convention was the gathering of 10,000 African-Americans on March 10 to March 12, 1972, in Gary, Indiana. Those there discussed the current issues and movements for black people and their rights in the U.S. The convention was important as it allowed the spread and fostering of ideas that would eventually lead to movements. The convention inspired unity that would also lead to the growth of black politicians and voices.
  • The Birth of the Internet

    The Birth of the Internet
    The start of 1983 is considered the beginning of the Internet. The Internet is the ability for computers to communicate with each other separately over distances. Computer technology exploded after the internet became the highlight of modern sciences. The United States now runs on the Internet; to spread news and information and record documents. Citizens use the Internet in their daily lives to connect, learn, work, and play. The Internet also has deep connections to the global economy.
  • The Discovery of the Titanic's remains

    The Discovery of the Titanic's remains
    The revolutionary ship Titanic hit an iceberg and sank in 1912. Multiple attempts to find the ship failed and sonar detected nothing due to the roughness of the ocean bottom. In 1980, sonar passed over the Titanic but did not detect it, while a 1981 expedition passed within 1.5 miles of the site. A joint French-American expedition identified the wreck in 1985. The discovery of the ship highlights the growth and improvement in the science industry.
  • U.S.S.R. Launches MIR Space Station

    U.S.S.R. Launches MIR Space Station
    The MIR Space Station's purpose was to improve the scientific understanding of the issues involved in establishing a permanent presence in space. MIR was used to conduct joint U.S.-Russian medical research and weightlessness effects investigations. Information learned from studying MIR was used to prepare for the International Space Station. Not only was MIR's initial purpose important to the U.S., but working together helped reinforce positive relations between the two.
  • The Berlin Wall Falls

    The Berlin Wall Falls
    The fall of the Berlin Wall represented several victories. The wall represented the line between freedom and tyranny, the fall demonstrated the victory of freedom over tyranny. The fall also began the start of German unification.
    The wall's psychological significance of the oppressive tyranny of Communism in Germany fell along with the physical wall. The Berlin wall represents another victory in the United State's war against communism.
  • Poland Turns to Democracy

    Poland Turns to Democracy
    As the Soviet's grip on East Europe weakened, the Communist party holding power over Poland finally voted to disintegrate. Elections followed for the presidency, with Lech Walesa winning the 1983 election. Poland's turn to Democracy stands as another victory for the United State's war against "oppression" and Communism. Democracy grows, and Communism continues to fall. Poland's shift has also caused some chaos throughout the country.
  • Clean Air Act Amendments

    Clean Air Act Amendments
    The amendments to the Clean Air Act were derived to find ways of reducing smog and atmospheric pollution. Leaded gasoline was prohibited by 1996 as a result. The act was in large response to public demands about the issues of air pollution and the air quality in dense cities, cities which had been overtaken by manufacturing plants. The Clean Air Act was another step in preserving American land for the good of its people and interests.
  • North American Free Trade Agreement

    North American Free Trade Agreement
    Enacted in 1994, NAFTA created a free trade zone for Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.. Ending all tariffs between the three by 2008, the agreement is also the most important commercial relationship the U.S has with Mexico. Mexico holds one of the top trading and export relations with the U.S.. Free trade with foreign parties both directly and indirectly supports millions of American jobs. The agreement also supports foreign relations and helps build strong connections with neighboring powers.
  • Kyoto Protocol

    Kyoto Protocol
    A Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement among the United Nations on the basis of climate change. The protocol binds emission reduction targets to those in the U.N.. Kyoto also serves to recognize that developed countries are the most to blame for the high levels of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The protocol demonstrates worldwide nations' ability to work together for the good of the planet.
  • President Clinton is Impeached

    President Clinton is Impeached
    The 1998 impeachment of President Bill Clinton by the House of Representatives is a strong demonstration of the principles of checks and balances. While Clinton's impeachment was firstly a poor mark on the presidency, the process highlighted the ability of the federal government to work against internal problems. The situation also visualized the difference in a democracy in that leaders are not blindly followed and obeyed.
  • World Trade Organization Protests

    World Trade Organization Protests
    The city of Seattle was selected to host the ministerial conference for the WTO in November 1999. The conference inspired one of the largest protests ever in Seattle. Activists largely spoke about workers' rights, sustainable economies, and environmental and social issues. Citizens were largely worried about corporate owners dominating the WTO. Citizens wanted representation from multiple backgrounds and stances. Streets could not be cleared and the Mayor declared a (criticized) civil emergency.
  • Terrorists Attack World Trade Center and Pentagon (9/11)

    Terrorists Attack World Trade Center and Pentagon (9/11)
    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist group known as Al-Qaeda took over multiple planes and crashed them into the new Trade Center and the Pentagon. Because of that attack, airport security heavily increased and pilots are trained never to allow someone to enter the cockpit during flight, even at the cost of passengers. The attack pushed the U.S. into a new era known as the War on Terror; a global counterterrorism military campaign. The U.S. responded by invading Afghanistan, and later, Iraq.
  • Department of Homeland Defense (Security*) Forms

    Department of Homeland Defense (Security*) Forms
    President George W. Bush established the Department of Homeland Security following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Congress passed the DHS with the primary objective of the improvement of federal agencies' ability to protect the country from terrorist and foreign attacks. The department improved communication between federal agencies and the public.