AP Euro '11-'12 Midterm Review

  • Jan 24, 1308


    Wrote The Divine Comedy in the Italian vernacular. He is accredited with being the first major literary figure to write in the common tongue as opposed to Latin. His work laid the foundations for the modern Italian language.
  • Jan 24, 1350


    Considered the father of the Humanist movement. He had a deep appreciation for antiquity and wrote several letters to dead scholars from antiquity to show his appreciation. He was considered a mentor by both Giovanni Boccaccio and Dante Alighieri.
  • Jan 24, 1350


    Wrote Decameron which described the day to day lives of young Italians and taught valuable life lessons through examples. Decameron marks the literary shift from focusing on the divine to focusing on the secular. He was a student and friend of Petrarch.
  • Jan 24, 1438

    Florentine Academy

    First art academy in Europe, located in Florence. It served as a meeting place for Humanist and renaissance artists in Europe. Spurns the new demand for the arts, and is financed by the Medici.
  • Jan 24, 1453


    He invented the printing press in 1453. Considered the greatest human invention in history even though Johannes Gutenberg does not receive recognition in his lifetime.
  • Jan 24, 1453


    The fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire. Also the year that Gutenberg is credited to have invented the printing press. The Hundred Years War between the English and the French comes to a close, with the French capturing Bordeaux and the English left with Calais.
  • Jan 24, 1455

    War of the Roses

    The House of Lancaster and the House of York fought over the English throne. Eventually Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster won, marking the beginning of 117 years of Tudor rule in England.
  • Jan 24, 1470

    Leonardo da Vinci

    Perhaps the most intelligent human being of all time, he embodied the archetype of a renaissance man, exploring all facets of science and art that were available to him at the time. His art and ideas for new inventions rivaled anything that the world had ever seen before his time or since his time. His empirical way of looking at things allowed his creative genius to flourish, and for him to understand things he contemporaries couldn’t comprehend. His famous works include the Mona Lisa, the blu
  • Jan 24, 1485


    A priest that managed to take control of the city of Florence from 1494-1497 because of a French invasion and a stroke of luck. He turned Florence into a catholic republic, which was essentially his dictatorship. He gained early support by preaching heavily about the end of days. When he became leader of the city, he cracked down on homosexuals, which were previously tolerated, and started burning books and art he deemed offensive. By 1497, he had outlawed drinking and public gambling which were
  • Jan 24, 1486

    Pico Della Mirandolla

    He wrote many works about the importance of Platonism during the renaissance, the most important of which being the Oration on the Dignity of Man, which sought to justify man’s ascendance on the chain of being because of his conquest for knowledge.
  • Jan 24, 1490


    A style of painting brought about by the big 3 artists of the humanist movement (Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.). The style was classified by its exaggerated features, lack of perspective, and its focus on antiquity and the secular as opposed to the religious.
  • Jan 24, 1492

    Ferdinand and Isabella

    They get married and unite the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile. They lay conquest to the rest of Spain and eventually create a unified Spanish state that we know as modern day Spain. The kick all non-Catholics out of Spain and start the Spanish inquisition to investigate religious crimes. They also finance the voyage of Christopher Columbus to the new world and gain much gold from his trip.
  • Jan 24, 1492


    He became famous for discovering the new world in 1492. To do this got a charter from the king and queen of Spain. He landed on San Salvador in the current day Bahamas.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Scientific Revolution

    This is an era that involved older knowledge and new discoveries, when astronomy captured the learned imagination and persuaded people of the culture power of Natural Knowledge. New social institutions to support this era emerged, and it was around this time when people challenged scholasticism and Aristotelian philosophy.
  • Jan 24, 1500


    Last of the big three renaissance artists with Leonardo and Michelangelo, he worked extensively for the Vatican. He had a serious appreciation for antiquity, which he portrayed in his most famous work, The School of Athens.
  • Jan 24, 1500


    Leader of the northern Christian humanist movement. Was a catholic priest and forged the early ideas for religious toleration as well as having an appreciation for antiquity.
  • Jan 24, 1500

    Benefice System

    Allowed church positions to be sold to the highest bidder as a form of reward for helping the Catholic Church, these endowments provided the opportunity to Protestants to preach whatever they want
  • Jan 24, 1500

    De Medici Family

    A large, rich banking family that dominated the politics of Florence and Tuscany from the 15th to the 17th centuries from behind the scenes. They financed the Humanist movement heavily and allowed Florence to become a center for the arts.
  • Jan 24, 1505

    Pope Julius II

    A patron for the arts as well as a supporter of an independent Italian state, he tried to unite foreign kingdoms to remove the Borgia influence over the papacy. After France, the Holy Roman Empire, and the kingdom of Aragon come to his aid and eliminate the Borgia, they take control of the territory they conquered. Pope Julius II gets mad and kicks out the French, but loses control of the rest of Italy to the kingdom of Aragon and the Holy Roman Empire. When he dies, so do his dreams of a unite
  • Jan 24, 1510


    As people were worried about the time they may spend in purgatory, the Catholic Church sold these as a guarantee that the time spent in purgatory would be lessened, if not abolished all together.
  • Jan 24, 1510

    John Tetzel

    Famous indulgence preacher in Albrecht territories
  • Jan 24, 1516

    Charles V

    Became emperor after Emperor Maximilian I died. He revived the old German-based Imperial Supreme Court and the Council of Regency
  • Period: Jan 24, 1517 to

    Protestant Reformation

    A movement that challenged renaissance ideals and flaws of the Catholic Church. Meant to reform the Catholic church in order to make it concur with the Bible. Culmination of years of discord and grievances against the church that are epitomized in Luther’s 95 thesis
  • Jan 24, 1519


    Spanish Conquistador who invaded Mexico in 1519. Initially believed to be a god by the natives and shown gold, Cortes and his men became greedy killing their leader, Moctezuma, and laying siege to their city, eventually destroying it, and proclaiming it New Spain
  • Jan 24, 1520


    Considered the greatest artist in the world during his lifetime and one of the greatest artists of all time, embodies the ideas of renaissance art. His works include the pieta, the David, and the ceiling of the Sistine chapel.
  • Jan 24, 1520

    Thomas More

    He was an advisor to Henry VIII of England. Wrote Utopia, a book about an idealized society, criticizing the society of his time. Opposed the protestant reformation in England and is executed for standing up for his beliefs. He is considered a martyr and a saint by Catholics today.
  • Jan 24, 1520

    Address to the Christian Nobility

    Luther’s summary of economic grievances of the church from 1520, urged nobility to force reforms on the church
  • Jan 24, 1520

    The Babalon Captivity of the Church

    Attacked the traditional sacraments of the church and advocated for lessened power of the pope, explaining that only baptism and Eucharist were explained in the Bible
  • Jan 24, 1520

    Freedom of a Christian

    One of Martin Luther's treatises, this advocated teaching salvation by faith alone
  • Jan 24, 1521

    The Diet of Worms

    A calling where Luther presented his views of Christianity to leaders of German lands, including Emperor Charles V. There he stated that people should recant otherwise it is an act against Scripture, reason, and conscience
  • Jan 24, 1524

    Peasant's Revolt

    Farmers took up Luther’s views as they opposed landowners, however when they revolted Luther distanced himself from their revolutionary politics. The revolt failed and 70,000 peasants lost their lives
  • Distinguished Anabaptists by their practices of adult baptism, pacifism, refusal to swear oath and their separation from society. This was published in 1527
  • Jan 24, 1528


    Wrote the book Il Libro del Cortegiano which describes a conversation he had within a palace in Urbino, Italy about what constitutes a renaissance gentleman.
  • Placed clergy under Henry VIII’s power. The Act of Succession made Anne Boylen’s children heirs to the throne. It convened in 1529.
  • Oct 1, 1529

    Marburg colloquyT

    This meeting between Zwingli and Luther called by Phillip of Hesse in October 1529, was an attempt to create a protestant defense pact between Zwingli and Luther. This failed due to differences in the beliefs concerning Eucharist.
  • Jan 1, 1530

    Diet of Augsburg

    An assembly of Protestants and Catholics called by Charles V in 1530 to discuss the growing religious division in the empire. The assembly called for all Lutherans to convert to Catholicism.
  • The Lutheran response to the Diet of Augsburg. The Schmalkaldic League wrote a moderate statement of the Lutheran beliefs. It was formed in February 1531.
  • Oct 1, 1531


    He led the Swiss reformation, opposed indulgences. Peoples priest in Zurich. Created puritanical Protestantism, whereby only things specifically stated in the Bible should be practiced. He died in October 1531.
  • Jan 24, 1532

    The Prince

    A book by Niccolo Machiavelli written in 1532. The book advises political rulers of the day to be feared by their subjects to stay in power and calls for them to rule with an iron fist. He later contradicts his views when he begins to write about the ideas of a republic in his later life.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Declared Henry VIII head of the Church of England. It occurred in 1534.
  • Jan 24, 1540

    Brothers of the Common Life

    Group that reformed the laity and provided schooling to some poor students, including Erasmus. Believe in a practical religion that had connection to the world that they lived in while still keeping personal piety extremely important
  • Jan 23, 1543


    Was a Polish priest and astronomer who published On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, a “revolution-making text, not a revolutionary text.” He provided an intellectual springboard for the then-dominant view of the position of the earth in the universe. He challenged the Ptolemaic picture in the most conservative manner possible. He believed that earth moved about the sun in a circle, but he was no more accurate than Ptolemaic models.
  • Jan 1, 1547

    Henry VIII

    The King of England who broke away from Catholicism and took power over his own religion so he could divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon. He had six wives in order to produce a male heir. He died in 1547.
  • Founder of the Jesuit religion Wrote “Spiritual Exercises” detailing how one can obtain spiritual mastery over feelings. Jesuits were against Protestants but urged Catholics to become obedient to a higher church authority. He died in 1556.
  • Jan 1, 1558

    Mary I

    The Queen of England who married Phillip, a Catholic. Under her reign, Parliament reverted back to the Catholic practices of Henry VIII and executed many Protestants. She died in 1558.
  • Took power as regent after when her son Charles IX took the throne. She wanted peace between Catholics and Protestants. In order to withhold this peace and the throne she sided with the Protestants, issuing the January Edict in 1562, which allowed Protestants to worship outside of cities freely and privately in cities. Feared the Guises though out her time as regent.
  • Jan 1, 1564

    John Calvin

    Influenced, and started Calvinism which was the dominant Protestant religion during the 16th century. Calvinists believed that God is all powerful, and that they are among God’s elect. He died in 1564.
  • Jan 1, 1567

    Duke of Alba

    Suppressed the protestant revolt in the Netherlands under Phillip’s command. He entered the region in 1567. He executed thousands of rebels while fighting in the Netherlands.
  • After an attempted assassination of Coligny by Catherine and the Guises, Catherine told Charles it was a Huguenot coup. 20,000 Huguenots were executed as a result. It occurred in 1572.
  • Jan 1, 1572

    John Knox

    An exiled Scots reformer who laid the groundwork for the Calvinist resistance. Wrote First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Terrible Regiment of Women (1558), which said it, was Catholic duty to remove a heathen tyrant. He died in 1572.
  • Jan 23, 1573

    Tycho Brache

    A Danish astronomer who took the next major step toward a sun-centered system, although he did not embrace Copernicus’s view, and advocated earth centered view. He had no publications of note. His assistant Johannes Kepler took his empirical data to support the geocentric theory in The New Astronomy.
  • Romanov

    A dynasty whose members brought brought stability and modest bureaucratic centralization to Russia after Ivan IV.
  • Born in France she moved to Protestant controlled Scotland and took the throne. She was forced to England after a scandal. There she was a symbol of a possible Catholic England and was executed by Elizabeth. She died in 1587.
  • Henry III

    King of France, who took a moderate stance on religion, but was pressured to create religious unity. He was forced to ally with Henry of Navarre against the Guises, but was assassinated in 1589.
  • Phillip II

    The king of Spain who established colonies in the New World. Under him, Spain faced inflation and large differences in the distribution of wealth. He formed a bureaucracy of nobles and defeated the Turks. Incredibly Catholic and attempted to spread Catholic influence wherever he could. He died in 1598.
  • Edict of Nantes

    A religious settlement called by Henry IV on April 13, 1598. It granted Huguenots religious toleration and rights. Also, it declared Catholicism official religion of France. However, it was only a temporary religious truce.
  • Francis Bacon

    Although he was not a natural philosopher, he was involved in creating a climate conductive to scientific work. He attacked the belief that most truth had been found, and thought that scholastic thinkers paid too much attention to tradition to the knowledge of the ancients. He compared himself to Columbus, and championed innovation and change by linking science and material progress.
  • Elizabeth I

    Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, she succeeded Mary as Queen of England. She established a moderate Protestantism as the official religion of the Church of England. She put political before religious unity, executing radical Catholics and Protestants. She died in 1603.
  • James I

    He was a strong believer in the divine right of kings and expected to rule with minimum consultation beyond his personal court and rarely called parliament in session. In January 1604 he rejected Puritans and declared his intention to maintain the Anglican episcopacy. His court was a center of scandal and corruption. In 1604 he made peace with Spain, England’s long time adversary, but after his death they went back to fighting.
  • Cervantes

    Spain’s greatest writer whose famous work was “Don Quixote”. The characters Don Quixote and Sancho Panza represented religious idealism and realism. Don Quixote was published in 1605.
  • Henry of Navarre

    Leader of the Protestants who took the throne as Henry IV after Henry III’s death. After threats from the Catholic Leagues he said “Paris is worth a Mass” converting to Catholicism in order to maintain political peace. He died in 1610.
  • Louis XIII

    He was Louis the Sun King’s father and a Bourbon monarch. His mother was Marie de Medici and acted as his only guidance when he took the throne at the age of eight. Her misleading of the country causesd Louis to exile her and kill her followers. Leaned heavily on Cardinal Richelieu to govern his kingdom.
  • Galileo Galilei

    He was an Italian mathematician and natural philosopher, who found stars with the newly invented Dutch instrument (the telescope). He wrote Starry Messenger & Letters on Sunspots, which was rhetoric to argue that his newly observed physical evidence required a Copernican interpretation. He had some trouble with the Roman Catholic Church, who had a problem with the idea that he argued that the universe subject to mathematical laws, and that nature displayed mathematical regularity.
  • Shakespeare

    The greatest English playwright, who wrote tragedies, histories and comedies. He implemented political and religious themes into his works. He died in 1616.
  • Index of Prohibited Books

    The Church would formally censor books like Copernicus’s On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres if it disagreed with the literal word of the Bible and the interpretations of the Church Fathers, putting such books on this list.
  • He was born in 1619 and was the archduke of Syria and the heir to the Bohemian throne. A fervent Catholic, when he became king of Bohemia he revoked the religious freedoms of Bohemian Protestants. Then he became the Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand II. Bohemians responded by making Frederick V king of Bohemia, this led to an international war lead by the Protestant nobility.
  • Richelieu

    Cardinal in France under Louis XIII. Responsible for revoking the Fronde Revolt. Attempted to impose direct royal administration on France. Repressive to Roman Catholics and Protestants.
  • Petition of Rights

    This was a document from 1628 that said Parliament would grant Charles I new funds for the war with Spain if from then on there were no more forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament, that no freeman should be imprisoned without due cause, and that troops should not be billeted in private homes. A year later he broke the agreement and dissolved Parliament.
  • Charles I

    Levied tariffs, duties and taxes to support war in Spain without Parliament’s consent. In 1629 he dissolved Parliament and did not recall it until 1640. He hoped to impose religious conformity within England and Scotland causing the Scots to rebel.
  • Edict of Restitution

    A late attempt by Ferdinand II in 1629 to restore the religious and territorial situations reached by The Peace of Augsburg. Reaffirmed the illegality of Calvinism although this dream of his was unrealistic at this point. This then panicked Protestants and Habsburgs.
  • Gustavus Adolphus

    King of Sweden, which was Lutheran, who became the leader of Protestant forces in the empire and opening the Swedish period of war. Was controlled by the French minister Cardinal Richelieu and the Dutch. The Swedish experienced an overwhelming victory at Breitenfeld due to his military genius. He died in 1632.
  • He was an opportunistic Protestant and a powerful mercenary, who fought for Emperor Ferdinand in the Thirty Years War. He was a brilliant ruthless military strategist who carried Emperor Ferdinand’s campaign into Denmark. He died in 1634.
  • Rene Descartes

    He invented analytic geometry, and wrote Discourse on Method. He rejected scholastic philosophy and education, and advocated thought founded on a mathematical model. He deduced the existence of God, and thought God guaranteed the correction of clear and distinct ideas and that god-given reason could not be false. Human reason could fully comprehend the world. He advocated for scientific induction, where scientists draw generalizations derived from and test hypotheses against empirical observatio
  • Oliver Cromwell

    Led the cavalry in the Parliamentary army to defeat King Charles I during the English Civil War in 1645. Ruled England as a Puritan republic from 1649 to 1660 - first as a commonwealth, then as "Lord Protector" after disbanding Parliamen and becoming a military dictator.
  • John Pym

    The leader of the Long Parliament. A prominent critic of James I and Charles I. He died in 1643.
  • New Model Army

    Created by Parliament who felt a professional army would be more successful than the previous part-time militia against the king’s army. Was based on ability and skill rather than social class. The commander-in-chief was General Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell was in charge of the cavalry. Gave Parliament a new chance in the English civil war.
  • The Royal Society

    A group of natural philosophers that met regularly to hear papers, observe experiments, and publish information relating to natural philosophy. They often organized libraries for their members, and attempted to separate the discussion and exploration of natural philosophy from the religion and political conflict of the day. Members presented science as an enterprise that could aid the goals of government and the growth of the economy.
  • Margaret Cavendish

    She was married to the duke of Newcastle, introducing her into a circle of natural philosophers. She quarreled with the ideas of Descartes and Hobbes, and thought that the Royal Society should solve practical problems. She published Observations upon Experiment Philosophy, and Grounds of Natural Philosophy. She is the only woman in the 17th century to be allowed to visit a meeting of the Royal Society of London.
  • The most violent war of religion in the Holy Roman Empire. It was caused by Germany’s fragmentation of many autonomous groups, formation of the Catholic league, and religious division of Catholics, Protestants, Lutherans, and Calvinists. It was separated into 4 periods; the Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and Swedish-French. It ended with the Treaty of Westphalia, in 1648, declaring that the ruler of each nation decides the official religion.
  • In 1648 this ended all hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire. Rescinded Ferdinand’s Edict of Restitution and reasserted the major feature of the religious settlement of the Peace of Augsburg, that the ruler of the land determines the official religion of that land. Broadened the legal status of Protestantism and perpetuated the German division and political weakness into the modern period.
  • The Fronde Revolt

    A rebellion occurring after Richelieu and Mazarin’s attempted imposition of direct royal authority on all peoples of the kingdom upset nobles who wanted some power to reside within themselves. After seeing this revolt, Louis XIV realized that nobles could not be given power.
  • Period: to


    Rose within the German power vacuum after the Peace of Westphalia. Forged together by the Hohenzollerns. Prussia would later become a major power in Europe and dominate central European affairs.
  • Blaise Pascal

    He was a French mathematician and a physical scientist who made the more influential efforts to reconcile faith and the new science. He is known for Pensees, which was a provoking collection of reflections on humankind and religion. He allied himself with Jansenists, who believed in human beings’ total sinfulness, eternal predestination to heaven or hell by God, and complete dependence on faith and grace for knowledge of God and salvation. He thought the only the reasons of the heart and a leap
  • Maria Cunitz

    She was a German female astronomer who published a book on astronomy that many people thought her husband had written until he added a preface supporting her sole authorship.
  • Period: to


    The family that owned the territory Brandenburg. Their goal was to acquire more territories, and through inheritance gained duchy of Cleves, the counties or Mark and Ravensburg, and the duchy of Pomerania, but none of them bordered Brandenburg. They forged Prussia.
  • Thomas Hobbes

    He is described as the most original political philosopher of the seventeenth century. He aimed to provide a rigorous philosophical justification for a strong central political authority, and that all human motivations are egoistical. He believed human beings only exist to meet the needs of daily life.
  • Leopold I

    The Habsburg emperor who resisted advances of the Ottoman Empire and the aggression of Louis XVI. Known for conquering the Balkan Peninsula and western Romania. He was succeeded by Joseph I.
  • Charles II

    Was happily received in England after Cromwell's rule. He restored England to the status quo of 1642 which featured a hereditary monarch, a Parliament of Lords and Commons that met when the king summoned it, and had the Anglican Church as its supreme religion. Had secret Catholic sympathies, wanted to convert, and favored religious toleration.
  • Mazarin

    Louis XIII’s chief minister after Richelieu who tried to impose direct royal administration on France. After his death, Louis XIV takes control of the government without appointing a new chief minister.
  • Book of Common Prayer

    A prayer book used in England and revised multiple times as new rulers come into power. Unified religion across the country due to its wide distribution.
  • Colbert

    Louis XIV’s financial minister who instituted economic policies which helped the country.
  • War of Devolution

    A war in which Louis XIV supported the right for his wife, Marie Therese, to inherit the Spanish Netherlands. He invaded the Netherlands but was repulsed by the triple alliance (Sweden, England, and the United Providences). The resulting treaty of Aix-la-chapelle in 1668 gave him some of the towns along the border and ended the conflict.
  • Treaty of Dover

    In 1670 England and France secretly signed this treaty declaring them allies against the Dutch. Louis XIV invaded the Netherlands, causing William III Prince of Orange to form an alliance against with HRE, Spain, Lorraine, and Brandenburg against England and France. The war ended inconclusively with treaty of Nijmwegen. France gained more territory.
  • Louis XIV

    The “Sun King,” who assumed control of throne at 23. Divine right of kings comes from Bossuet, his teacher, which he expressed with the phrase, “L’etat c’est moi”. He appointed no ministers so that anyone who challenged government could challenge him directly. Made sure that any power he gained also benefited those who gave him it. Worked relentlessly with advisers and parlements before making rulings that would affect them. Curtailed the Congress of Paris’ power and utilized propaganda to displ
  • Test Act

    Passed by Parliament requiring all civil and military officials of the crown to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation. No loyal Roman Catholic could honestly swear this oath. This act was directed at the king’s brother James II, a devout Catholic, in an attempt to exclude him from the throne.
  • Declaration of Indulgences

    Charles II passed this, suspending all laws against Roman Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants. Seen by parliament as being too pro-Catholic.
  • Spinoza

    This man set the examples for a secularized version of Judaism, as clarified in his book entitled “Ethics”, where he stated that the close relationship between nature and divinity condemned him. He died in 1677.(
  • Period: to

    Whigs v. Tories

    Whigs were interested in free trade and less in expanding the empire. The Tories were interested in protecting markets and expanding the empire.
  • Peter the Great

    One of Russia’s great leaders, who transformed Russia to become more European. He is known for taming the strelsty and boyars, developing a strong navy, and founded St. Petersburg. He is responsible for the westernization of Russia, and made them a giant power.
  • James II

    As a devout Catholic, he repealed the Test Act, dissolved Parliament, and put Catholics in the highest government positions after coming to power. He also issued another Declaration of Indulgence, permitting free worship. William of Orange came to remove him from the throne in the Glorious Revolution because English citizens didn’t want a Catholic king. He then fled to France.
  • League of Augsburg

    This was a new defensive coalition against France. This included England, Spain, Sweden, the United Providences, the major German states, and Hapsburg emperor Leopold I. During Nine Years War these two entities battled while France and England battled in the New World.
  • Isaac Newton

    He established a basis for physics that endured for more than two centuries. He wrote Principia Mathematica and reasoned that the planets and all other physical objected in the universe affected every other object through gravity.
  • Glorious Revolution

    James II close ties to Catholicism and the France super power cause concern in parliament. Overthrow of King James II of England by the English parliaments with help from William III of Orange-Nassus. Bloodless revolution and William and his wife Marty II of England take the throne as constitutional monarchs.
  • William of Orange

    He was married to Mary, the Protestant daughter of James II. He invaded England in the Glorious Revolution to preserve its “traditional liberties” and remove James II from the throne. Recognized a Bill of Rights that limited the powers of the monarchy and guaranteed the civil liberties of English privileged classes. Ruled England with Mary.
  • John Locke

    He was the major source of criticism of absolutism and provided a foundation for liberal political philosophy. He believed that government should be both responsible for and responsive to the concern of the governed, advocated for limited authority, and that the governed should have the right to replace government. He believed that humans are born with a "tabula rosa" and without original sin at birth, and that the human state was perfect freedom and equality.
  • William and Mary

    These individuals take the English throne and rule under a Bill of Rights. William is Dutch and protestant along with his English wife Mary, who is related to royal blood line.
  • John Locke

    Developed a social contract theory which says everyone is in a contract with their government and if they don’t like the contract then they have the right to revolt. He was the father of modern liberalism, believed in a tabula rasa (which stated that everyone is born with a blank slate mind), thought that knowledge is obtained through experience, and advocated for toleration.
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    A policy in the late 18th century that British criminals convicted of the most serious crimes would be sent to the colony of New South Wales.
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    Consumption Revolution

    The demand side of the Industrial Revolution, and the vast increase in both the desire and the possibility of consuming goods and services. Disposable incomes and marketing from people like Josiah Wedgwood. It occurred during the 1700’s.
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    The communities in which Old Regime Jews lived in separate from non-Jewish Europeans. They were treated as second-class citizens. Poland, Ukraine, and Lithuania had the largest population of Jewish people.
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    Industrial Revolution

    This is when the European economy achieved a constant amount of economic growth for a long period of time during the 1700s. The term was initially given to Great Britain for their economic change after the French Revolution occurred.
  • Mercantilism

    Economic system based on government control of trade to have a higher amount of wealth then countries they trade with. Nations grow only at the expense of another nation. Tariffs, navigation laws, and other restrictions on trade allowed for monopolies and vast trading markets.
  • Great Northern War

    Russian Tsar Peter the Great invades Sweden in hopes of establishing a trading port on the Baltic sea. The Swedes at first repel his attacks but he strengthens and overcomes Charles XII of Sweden thus allowing the establishment of St. Petersburg. Ends with the Peace of Nystad in 1721.
  • Witch Hunts

    Panic driven attacks on women who were believed to be using magic and not obeying Christian values plagued Europe in 1400-1700s. Thousands of people were killed during this time of paranoia that coincided with religious wars. Political leaders and the papacy used these attacks as a way to conform their regions of control.
  • Saint Petersburg

    Peter the Great founded his new capitol city and called it this. He built government structures, and tried to imitate Versailles. It symbolized a new western orientation of Russia and Peter’s determination to hold his position on the Baltic coast.
  • Seasoning

    A process of assimilating new African slaves into the duties they would have to perform. This involved changing your name, learning new skills, or working in field gangs. Younger slaves might learn from older slaves to help them learn the ways of slavery.
  • Since he was born in 1712, he embodied enlightened absolutism by instilling enlightenment ideals such as religious toleration, into Russian society. He allowed Christians, Turks and Jews to settle into a predominantly Lutheran community in order to assure that the workforce of Prussia was efficient and strong. Created a loyal following of clergy, bureaucracy, professors, and nobles by assuring their needs came before his own, and that merit qualified individuals for high-ranking positions. Sough
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    The legal basis negotiated by Emperor Charles VI for the Habsburg succession through his daughter Maria Theresa because Charles VI feared that his empire would fall prey to surrounding powers after his death. Established a permanent line of succession and the basis for future legal bonds within the Habsburg holdings
  • Fredrick William I

    One of the most effective and eccentric monarch to rule the Hohenzollern domains. He made the military a priority, making the Prussia the 3rd or 4th largest army in Europe, although he avoided conflict.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    This agreement ended the War of Spanish Succession and acknowledged French defeat. The agreement called for a balance of power within Europe and kept Spanish and French crowns from combining.
  • Treaty of Utrecht and Restadt

    These treaties ended the War of Spanish Succession. This war was because of Charles II of Spain had no heir and instead left the throne to Philip of Anjou, the grandson of Louis XIV. England got Gibralter and the island of Minorca, Philip still received Spanish throne, and Louis recognized the right of the House of Hanover to the English throne.
  • John Law

    This man received financial management from the Duke of Orleans gave financial management of the kingdom to John Law, a fellow gambler. He instituted paper money and established a monopoly over trading privileges with Louisiana. Paper money failed and he fled the country. After this event, which was known as the Mississippi Bubble, the French people became suspicious of paper money.
  • Charles XII

    He did not have a male heir or queen so he created the Pragmatic Sanction that was the legal basis for a single line of inheritance within the Hapsburg empire, which promised that his daughter Maria Theresa would get the throne.
  • Missisippi Bubble

    An event in France occurring after Cardinal Fleury created paper money bank and monopoly on trade in Louisiana, but when people purchased stocks in money and went to trade their money in for gold the Bank ran out of gold and failed. This reflected the monarchy poorly.
  • Thomas Gordon/John Trenchard

    Both men were writers who believed in the republican political ideas of the Commonwealth. They saw taxation as a way to support corrupt leaders and a standing army as threatening to freedom. Many people ignored their work in Cato's Letters because they felt they had the most rights in Britain compared to the rest of Europe.
  • Montesquieu

    A noble of the robe and a member of a provisional Parlement. In 1721, he wrote “The Persian Letters” as a satire of contemporary institutions to reveal the irrationality of European life. Also belonged to Bordeaux Academy of Science. In 1748, wrote “Spirit of the Laws,” in which he holds the British constitution as the wisest model for regulating government. He concluded that there could be no single set of laws that applied to all peoples at all times in all places. Best type of government depe
  • Locke and Newton

    The intellectual forerunners of the Enlightenment. Newton’s, Newtonian physics portrayed a pattern of mechanical and mathematical rationality that thinkers began to apply to society. Locke influenced by Newton focused on explaining human psychology in terms of experience. Newton died in 1727.
  • Thomas Newcomen

    He invented the first steam engine. His invention was large and inefficient but was used to pump water out of coal and tin mines, in England mining districts. He died in 1729.
  • War of Jenkins Ear

    A conflict that started based on British traders' discontent with Spanish trade regulation. Sir Robert Walpole declared war on Spain in 1739. A dramatic showing of a detached body part helped spur the rage of British traders to force their parliament into war.
  • War of Austrian Succession

    Fredrick II invaded Silesia disrupting the Hapsburg Empire. Maria Theresa held the empire together while France tried to aid Prussia. Britain rushed in to protect Austria so that France could not gain any more power. The war ended in a stalemate in 1748.
  • Frederick II

    Later known as Fredrick the "great," he invades both Silesia and Saxony to start two major wars for Prussia. He was a stubborn leader who helped Prussia become one of the major powers of the 18th century.
  • Robert Walpole

    The first prime minster of Great Britain. Under his age, Britain sees peace, trade, and a world power.
  • Joseph Dupliex

    French tradesman who took over areas of Indian in order to expand his trading company. The establishments of factories were over turned when he sought complete power of a region for trade expansion.
  • Montesquieu

    A noble of the robe and a member of a provisional Parlement. In 1721, he wrote “The Persian Letters” as a satire of contemporary institutions to reveal the irrationality of European life. Also belonged to Bordeaux Academy of Science. In 1748, wrote “Spirit of the Laws,” in which he holds the British constitution as the wisest model for regulating government. He concluded that there could be no single set of laws that applied to all peoples at all times in all places. Best type of government depe
  • Treaty of Aix la Chapelle of 1748

    An agreement to end the war of Austrian Succession. Britain was allowed once again to import slaves into the Spanish colonies. Prussia was able to keep Silesia.
  • Cardinal Fleury

    Similar to Robert Walpole of England, he promoted economic prosperity at home and peace abroad, but even he could not prevent France from entering world conflict. He was also the chief minister of Louis XV.
  • Enclosures

    These were intended to use land more rationally and to achieve greater commercial profits, through the fencing of common lands, reclamation of previously untilled waste, and the transformation of strips into block fields. They became popular by the 1750’s in Great Britain.
  • Gin Age

    A time in mid-century London in which the consumption of liquor blinded and killed many poor people.
  • Utilitarianism

    An ethical theory that an action should maximize the overall happiness of a group of people.
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756

    Britain and Prussia form an alliance to protect the German states from a foreign invasion. Britain feared a French attack while Prussia feared an alliance of Russia and Austria. In response, Austria and France formed an alliance.
  • 7 Years War

    Fredrick II invades Saxony causing France, Austria, Sweden, Russia, and German states to fight back. The war was fought in Europe and North America. It ended with the Treaty of Hubertusburg and Prussian victory.
  • Robert Clive

    He took over regions to help expand his trading company. He did so by leading armies in such battles of the 1757 battle of Plassey to help conquer India for the benefit of the British East India Company.
  • William Pitt

    He was British Secretary of State and financed much of Prussia's army in the Seven Year's War. He won all land east of the Mississippi and a lot of the islands of the French West Indies. He was full of himself and often boasted of his victories but nevertheless was the first to have large success in colonial warfare. He stated that Great Britain "won America on the plains of Germany."
  • Charles III of Spain

    He reformed Spanish trade by relying on royal ministers over royal councils. He broke the monopolies of Spain and opened more ports in South America. He also implemented the use of the intendant to collect taxes more quickly.
  • George III

    This king of Britain wanted to restore more royal power to parliament. He appointed numerous ministers who ignored the powerful Whig party beliefs. He tried to continue patronage techniques within the House of Commons to keep it under control.
  • Rousseau

    This man hated the world and society he lived in, seeing it as impossible for humans living according to 18th century commercial values to attain moral, virtuous and sincere lives. Believed that the individual must be educated in a different fashion than what was occurring. Rather than solely schooling, experience is the best way to educate, without the need for extensive services. He Addresses this in “Emile” which he published in 1761.
  • Treaty of Paris (1763)

    This agreement allowed for Britain to have full control of Canada, the Ohio River Valley, and part of the Mississippi River Valley. Also, France got back Pondicherry, chandernagore, and the sugar islands. From this treaty on Britain was viewed as a world power financially.
  • Beccaria

    An Italian philosophe, published On Crimes and Punishments in 1764, where he applied critical analysis to the problem of making punishments both effective and just. Wanted laws of monarchs and legislatures to match positive law to conform to rational laws of nature. He said that goal of laws was not to impose goods will, but to secure the greatest good or happiness for the greatest number of human beings.
  • Spinning Jenny

    This was a machine invented by James Hargreaves in 1765 that allowed 16 spindles of thread to be spun at the same time increasing the amount of thread available for the spinners.
  • Catherine the Great

    Her knowledge of Western culture and Enlightenment convinced her to reform Russia; she knew she needed broad political support for this. She convened council of 500 delegates, in 1767, from all sectors of Russian life to reform norms of Russian law and government, which was disbanded within a year. She tried to suppress internal trade barriers; this led to grain, flax, fur, and naval store exports increasing. She favored expansion of Russian urban middle class, while Maintaining correspondence w
  • Thomas Townshend

    He was a finical minister to Britain in 1767 who imposed new revenue regulations on imports in the colonies. These acts were made with custom agents who enforced them. This led to tensions in the colonies and the Boston Massacre.
  • Water frame

    Richard Arkwright patented this in 1769. It is a water powered device designed to permit the production of a purely cotton fabric, rather than a cotton fabric containing linen fiver for durability. This took the cotton textile manufacture out of the home and put it into the factory
  • The Encyclopedia

    This was a book published by Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert. This publication was a plea for freedom that included the most modern ideas of the time, which were critical on religion, government, and philosophy. This work was known as one of the greatest achievements of the Enlightenment. The final volume was published in 1772.
  • Marie Antoinette

    She was the queen of France during the French Revolution. Despite the economic state of France she spent money very lavishly and did not assist the starving peasants. She is a symbol of the aristocracy from the Old Regime. She became the queen of France in May 1774.
  • Association Movement

    Christopher Wyvil helped masses of property owners to gather in Yorkshire to reform parliamentary elections. This allowed for a larger group of people to demand reform. Although most reform failed Parliament did lessen crown power and place economic reform. All of this was ended when William Pitt reinstituted old parliament ways.
  • James Watt

    He was a Scottish engineer and machine maker who made the steam engine more efficient and practical. He consulted with Mathew Boulton and John Wilkin to produce Watt’s design. The steam engine was first used commercially in 1776.
  • Smith

    Wrote the Wealth of the Nations in 1776, saying how the government should not interfere to the extent that it currently does in France, and that if the economy is left alone it will return to its natural state of fluctuation. Also said that mercantilist goals interfered with this since it limited the working class’s capabilities.
  • Bentham

    He advocated utilitarianism - the belief that things should be done to bring the greatest amount of happiness to the greatest number of people, which he discussed in “Principles of Morals and Legislation”. His “Fragment on Government” asserted his belief that unity is more important than a privileged group’s special interests. His followers pass the Poor Law.
  • Voltaire

    Thought that we should follow the ideals of enlightened despotism, utilizing the ideals of the enlightenment (or at least mainly Locke and Newton). Though many monarchies tried, it was obvious that their own self-interest came before addressing any of these needs. He was deist who went to Britain, witnessed the rights that individuals had, and thought that France should have them to. He wrote essays and many books that addressed this until he died in 1778.
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    This agreement ended the American Revolution. It acknowledged the thirteen colonies’ independence and Spain gains territory in Florida.
  • Annals of Agriculture

    A small publication Edited by Arthur Young, that discussed new methods of animal breeding and other farming innovations. Arthur Young began publishing it in 1784.
  • Mendelsohn

    Established the main outlines of an assimilationist position. Known as Jewish Socrates. Argued for the possibility of loyalty to Judaism combined with adherence to rational, Enlightenment values. Could hold his position because of Lessing’s arguments for toleration. He died in 1786.
  • John Wilkes

    He was arrested for his newspaper titled The North Briton attacking the Lord of Bute and his political actions. He fled Britain but on his return was elected to Parliament four times, each time being ignored causing uproar in political radicals who thought British leaders were denying " liberty" by denying his seat in Parliament.
  • In 1789, the national assembly created this for the French people. It stated all men have equal rights and the government must protect those rights. It stated that “Liberty, Property Security and the resistance to oppression”
  • Jacobins

    They were a very radical group during the French Revolution that believed in popular sovereignty and a republic. They also wanted more equality in the French nation and wanted an unregulated economy. They were formed as a political club at the original Estates General meeting in 1789.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    June 20, locked out of meeting house, National Assembly moved to a nearby tennis court. There took an oath to not move until they had a French Constitution . June 27, King requested that First and Second Estates meet with National Assembly and voting would occur by head, not order.
  • National Assembly

    Third Estate, local officials, professionals, etc, refused to sit as a separate order as the king desired. June 1, 1789- the Third Estate invited the clergy and nobles to join them in organizing a new legislative body. June 17, the body declared itself this, and on June 19 by a narrow margin the Second Estate voted to join this.
  • Storming of Bastille

    On July 14, 1789 people, mostly shopkeepers, trade people, etc. went to this place in France to find weapons for militia. The governor of the fortress ordered his troops to open fire on the crowd, killing 98 people; the crowd stormed the castle they then released 7 prisoners and killed several troops and the governor.
  • Great Fear

    A rumor swept across French countryside that royal troops would be sent to rural districts. This resulted in increased peasant disturbances that began on July 20, 1789. Peasants refused to pay feudal dues, burning of the châteaux, destruction of records and documents.
  • Women march on Versailles

    On October 5, 1789 women angered by the high price and scarcity of bread walked from Paris all the way to Versailles demanding that King Louis and his family move out of the palace and go to Paris. This event is also known as the October March.
  • Joseph II of AUstria

    The son of Maria Theresa prided his passionless rationality, which he sought to impose on Hadsburg domain. Wanted to improve lives of most of his people, the result of his actions would be noble and peasant rebellions from Hungary to Austrian Netherlands. He died in 1790.
  • French Legislative Assembly

    This is the title of the a governing body of France, established by the Constitution of 1791. While it existed, France was under a constitutional monarchy and this was the body where all of the laws originated. It was replaced by the Convention in 1792
  • Girondists

    They were a group of moderate republicans in the French Revolution. They opposed counterrevolutionaries. They advocated the continental war and were first lead by Jacques Brissot de Warville. They were loosely affiliated rather than tight knit and set on their ideas.
  • Mountain

    This was a group of Jacobins who wanted to completely overthrow the monarchy. They were called Mountain because they sat high up in the hall of the assembly.
  • On August 27, 1791 Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued this and said that they would get involved with France if the French harmed the royal family. Great Britain did not allow them to do this, so it had no effect, however, this was followed very closely in France.
  • Sans culottes

    They were a political group composed of artisans and shopkeepers who disliked social inequality. They wanted the government to impose price controls on food to provide the poor with relief. They were most influential from 1792- 1794.
  • This event took place in 1792, when there were several attacks on the prisons of Paris. The massacres began on September 2, 1792 and lasted five days. The public assumed that all of the prisoners were counterrevolutionaries. Other nations across Europe were angered by at the French government because this occurred.This event took place in 1792, when there were several attacks on the prisons of Paris. The massacres began on September 2, 1792 and lasted five days. The public assumed that all of
  • National Convention

    This was a governing body during the French Revolution that first met on September 21, 1792. It abolished the monarchy completely, and was formed to create a new democratic constitution. The members were voted in using universal male suffrage and this group declared France a republic.
  • Reign of Terror

    This occurred between 1793 and 1794 when the French government used extensive executions to defend the revolution and to eliminate its alleged internal enemies. Robespierre was the mastermind of this. It began with the death of Louis XVI.
  • This man was a radical Jacobin and was the figurehead of the Committee of the Public Safety in 1793. He was completely selfless and supported the revolution entirely. He implemented the Reign of Terror and exiled thousands.
  • Jacques-Louis David

    Neoclassical French painter used ancient republican themes in the 1780s to emphasize the corruption of the French monarchy. He is famous for “The Death of Marat” in 1793 and for “The Oath of the Horatii”.
  • Immanuel Kant

    German philosopher who stated how rather than justification on faith alone, one must have concrete evidence. He wrote “Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone” in 1793.
  • Partioning of Poland

    Anxiety overcome by a prior division of this area. Austria wanted expansion into Danube was well, and Prussia was being pressured to aid Ottomans. Frederick II then proposed an exchange of territories to avert conflict. Russia and Prussia partitioned this area again in 1793. Prussia, Russia, and Austria partitioned it third time in 1795. It was removed form map for over 100 years.
  • Louis XVI

    King during the time of the French Revolution. Wanted his monarchy to remain in tact, but he didn’t necessarily understand what the people wanted at the time until the revolution was in full swing. He reinstated Parlements, allied himself with conservative aristocrats, and near the end of his reign, he was tried as “Citizen Capet.” Girondists want to spare him, Mountain defeats them and he is convicted of conspiring against the liberty of the people and the security of the state. He was beheade
  • It was created in April 1793 by the National Convention. The purpose of it was to defend the republic against its enemies. It ruled near dictatorial power and executed many people.
  • Thermidorian Reaction

    This represented the end of the Reign of Terror and the creation of a new government. The wealthy portion of the middle class replaced the sans-culottes. It occurred in 1794 and lead to another constitution creating the Directory in France.
  • Gibbon

    Wrote with respect of Muhammad’s leadership and Islam’s successes in conquering so vast a territory in the first century of its existence. He died in 1794.
  • Jacques Danton

    This man was a leading figure in the French Revolution and was an early member of the Committee of Public Safety. The Committee of Public Safety executed him in April 1794 for profiting on the war, and for not acknowledging the link between morals and politics.
  • This was intended to be the state religion during the French Revolution. The Convention created it on May 7, 1794. This new religion also had its own calendar.
  • Directory

    This group of five dictators held executive power in France between 1795 and 1799. The directory era was Split up into the first and the second, this era was the 2nd to last stage in the French revolution
  • Gracchus Babeuf

    This man was beheaded by the Directory for leading the Conspiracy of Equals. This was a call for a democracy in 1796. They believed that the French Revolution was not over because the rich still dominated society and the poor were working in poverty.
  • Edmund Burke

    This man wrote reflections on the Revolution in France. He supported military intervention against the French Revolution and for tighter controls of civil liberties in Britain. He said that “popular will” does not really exist, but that the ancient constitution did, and it should be upheld. He died on July 9, 1797.
  • Malthus

    He believed that food production increases arithmetically while population increases geometrically. His “Essay on the Principle of Population” advocated that late marriage and contraception were the only ways to prevent humanity’s inevitable fate of being too great for the food supply to support.
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    Napoleonic Wars

    These are a series of wars between 1799 and 1815 held by the French Empire against the other powers of Europe such as England, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. Over one million people died in Europe because of these wars.
  • This governing document appeared to be a democracy that allowed universal male suffrage but it allowed Napoleon Bonaparte to act as the First Consul and rule as one man. It was established December 1799.
  • Consulate

    This is what ended the revolution in France. The wealthy portion of the third estate had many of their goals achieved. This government was supported by Napoleon and made the wealthy class feel secure in that they would keep their wealth.
  • Proposed internal trade, lower some taxes, such as the gabelle on slat, and to transform peasant’s services to money payments. New land tax that all social classes paid. Intended to establish new local assemblies to approve land taxes, power in assemblies from quantity of land. He died in 1802.
  • Herder

    In his book “On the Knowledge and Feelings of the Human Soul” this man criticized the Enlightenment’s mechanical explanation of nature. He argued the human beings are different at different times and places, therefore collecting and preserving one’s distinct cultural elements is important. Additionally, he felt that common and universal languages rejected the individuality of people. He died in 1803.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    This man became the emperor of France in 1804 and was defeated in 1815. He created the Napoleonic Code, which has influenced much of the legislation of the future. He led France through a series of wars in which he dominated mainland Europe for many years. He used a monarchy to rule his empire, but applied some enlightenment ideas.
  • Napoleonic Code

    Britain has declared war on France, and after William Pitt the Younger comes back to office as the prime minister, he began to construct the Third Coalition (Russia, Austria, and Britain). At this battle, British admiral Lord Nelson defeats French and Spanish fleets off the Spanish coast, ending Frances hope of invading Britain and securing British naval supremacy.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Britain has declared war on France, and after William Pitt the Younger comes back to office as the prime minister, he began to construct the Third Coalition (Russia, Austria, and Britain). At this battle, British admiral Lord Nelson defeats French and Spanish fleets off the Spanish coast, ending Frances hope of invading Britain and securing British naval supremacy.
  • Continental System

    This was Napoleon's attempt between 1806 and 1814 to Britain’s trade with Europe. Any region that Napoleon had control over would not be allowed to trade with Europe. This is one of the main reasons why many conquered regions of the French Empire disliked Napoleon. Great Britain’s economy withstood this because of their colonial markets.
  • Treaty of Tilsit

    This was a peace agreement between Tsar Alexander I (Russia) and Napoleon (France) that confirmed the gains France had made in central Europe. Prussia had lost half its territory to France. It was signed on July 7, 1807.
  • Louis Blanc

    He was born in 1811and published the Organization of Labor, where he wanted to end capitalist society and create a government where the working class controlled the politics and where they gave themselves an advantage in the economy. He believed that this would lead to more workshops which would add more jobs. This man was also a minister of the government in 1848 that existed immediately after Louis Philippe fled France.
  • Congress of Vienna

    This was compromised of the Quadruple alliance and the royalist portion of France. They aimed to create stability and maintain peace, not to punish France, declared that treaties were to be made between states, not monarchs, and created balanced trade agreements. This was the first time the great powers were attempting to maintain peace. It met in September 1814 and ended in November 1815.
  • Quadruple Alliance

    England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia renewed this in 1815 with a goal of maintaining peace equal to its goal of pursuing victory over France. This was a new idea since prior to this war had always been viewed as a desirable event in which countries could gain land and resources.
  • The Hundred Days

    This was the period in which Napoleon returned back to France from exile on March 1, 1815 and attempted to seize power once again. He promised a liberal constitution and peaceful foreign policies, but the allies did not trust him and sent in armies to defeat him for good. Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo and exiled, never to return again.
  • Ricardo

    He was an English political economist who advocated for free trade due to benefits from comparative advantage. He also asserted that an inevitable increase in population will cause a fall in wages and thus misery. His piece “Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” (1817) discussed his labor theory of value (an object is worth the labor put into producing it.)
  • Karl Marx

    He was born in 1818, created Marxism, the most influential form of socialism, and published the Communist Manifesto. His ideas criticized all other socialist forms, called for a revolution and claimed to have scientific backing. This man was born in Germany and was forced into exile because of his radical Rhineland Gazette. He worked with another man named Friedrich Engels after his exile.
  • Burschenschaften

    This was a liberal student association that wanted to create a unified German state in place of provinces. One important member of this was Karl Sand, who assassinated Kotzebue, a conservative. Because the government was threatened by these groups, Metternich convinced the major German states to issue the Carlsbad Decrees, which banned them.
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    These were issued by the major German states upon Metternich’s request. They banned the Burschenschaften and provided for university inspectors and press sensors.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    After Parliament issued the Coercion Acts in 1817 and the harvest improved, the unrest Great Britain was experiencing from the working class faded out. However, it soon started up again in 1819. This event was when radicals gathered in Manchester on August 16, 1819, and royal troops and local militia moved in on them. At least 11 people died due to this act of local officials.
  • Six Acts

    This was in response to the Peterloo Massacre. It forbade unauthorized public meetings, increased fines for seditious libel, increased trials of political agitators, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited training armed groups, and declared that local officials can search homes. It was issued in December 1819.
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    Role of Women in the Industrial Age

    Factories employed mostly young, unmarried females. However, most worked in domestic industries where they earned low wages and had no means of protecting themselves from exploitation. Many lived off their husband's earnings, working only when necessary. Instead, many females maintained the home by cooking and managing finances.
  • Lord Byron

    He was a Romantic writer who wrote both “Childe Harolds Pilgrimage” and “Don Juan” which pointed out nature’s cruelty and beauty. Most of the other Romantic writers did not like him, but outside England he embodied the French Revolution. He died in 1824.
  • Saint Simon

    This individual died in 1825, and was a utopian socialist who worked primarily during Napoleon’s rise. He wanted to create a government where there was a board of directors that managed private wealth. It is important to note that he did not believe to redistribute this money. Very few people adopted his ideas, however, in his societies, early feminism debates took place.
  • This was issued by Charles X in 1830 in attempt to gain a royalist seizure of power. It restricted freedom of press, dissolved the Chamber of Deputies, limited franchise to wealth, and called for new elections. The July Revolution was a response to this, where Paris workers barricaded the streets, Charles X sent in troops and although the army was able to gain control around 1,800 people died.
  • Hegel

    This man set up the foundation of a thesis and antithesis, with the thesis being a set of idea and the antithesis the challenging of these ideas. He believed that all cultures are valuable because they contribute to the clash of ideas and that every time in history is important because they set up what is going to happen in the future. Some of his works include “The Phenomenology of Mind” and “Lectures on the Philosophy of History”. He died in 1831.
  • Geothe

    His major work was the tragic play “Faust” and he also wrote “The Sorrows of Young Werther” which was a series of letters,that emphasized feeling things. He died in 1832
  • Establishes a regular work day in the textile industry by limiting working hours to no more than 8 hours per day for children under 13 in factories, prohibiting children under 9 from working in factories, mandating two hours of education per day, providing for routine factory inspections.
  • Poor Law

    Establishes a Commission to make poverty extremely undesirable. Gives government relief to the poor only in workhouses but makes workhouses unpleasant (separates spouses, bad food, enforced work). Presumes that people do not work because they are lazy.
  • Charles Fourier

    This man died in 1837 and was a utopian socialist who believed that industrialization destroyed the human spirit and lacked the joys that human beings sought out by nature. He created communities named Phalanxes, which focused primarily on agrarian activities. He also created a task rotation to keep people from being bored and supported pre-marital relationships. His ideas never caught on and he waited in his house everyday for a patron to sponsor his ideas.
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    Prison Reform

    Changes in the mid-19th century aiming to transform prisoners into better people. The Auburn system separated prisoners at night but then kept them together during the day, while the Philadelphia system always kept prisoners separate so as to inspire self-reflection and reform. France began sending away its repeat offenders as the century went on.
  • Sir Robert Peel

    A British statesman who helped to modernize the police force by creating “Bobbies,” police officers in England. He also repealed the Corn Law.
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    This was a movement in the 1840s against the government and industry. Some, like Auguste Blanqui used terror as a means to promote their ideas. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon expressed his ideas more peacefully and wrote What is Property, a book criticizing the banking system, which wouldn’t lend to the poor. He believed that there should be an aspect of mutualism where all companies were made to benefit a community, not an individual.
  • Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto was created by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848. It said that the labor force represented the future of the human race. It also said that the current organization of society increased the division of the classes, and the size of the working class would increase, eventually causing a revolution. This revolution would give way to a society without private property and classes.
  • 1848

    This is one of the most eventful years in all of European history where liberal and national uprisings occurred in France, the Austrian Empire, and the German states. In France, Louis Napoleon came to power. The Austrian Empire struggled with uprisings in both Vienna and Italy, as well as the Magyars who wanted independence and Magyarization of other territories. The German states also made a failed attempt at unification.
  • This government replaced that of Louis Philippe after he called an end to political banquets after a poor harvest and high prices for food. Using universal male suffrage a new National Assembly was created with many moderates and conservatives. This government first came together on April 23, 1848. Soon, after the violence in June, property holders wanted a president who would give them security, and Louis Napoleon met this requirement.
  • Metternich

    This man was an Austrian prince who was extremely conservative. After Karl Sand assassinated a conservative he suppressed liberal institutions. He died in 1851.
  • Louis Napoleon

    This man was elected as the leader of the Second Republic of France partially because of his relation to Napoleon Bonaparte. He was considered the first modern dictator. He dispersed the National Assembly after they refused to let him run for president a second time. He was re-elected on December 21, 1851 after this coup over the previous government, where he arrested over 26,000 people.
  • Owen

    This person died in 1858 and was a utopian socialist who believed in John Locke’s idea of environmentalist psychology. According to this concept, people’s character would improve if they were placed in the correct surroundings. Therefore, in his cotton factory at New Lanark, he created a factory that had optimal conditions and maintained a good profit. After failing on an additional colony in New Harmony, Indiana, he failed in creating the Grand National Union.