The PhenakistoscopeFounder(s): Joseph Plateau; Simon von Stampfer
- Both invented at the same time separately in Brussels and Berlin respectively.
- Circular cardboard is used, each frame is painted, and the disk is spun to cause looped animated movement.
- Innovated and officially published in 1933.
- Often sold as toys for kids.
- Becomes more complicated as time went on.
- Innovated into the Zoetrope and then the Zoopraxiscope, which projected the animation.
Stop Motion AnimationFounder(s)(s): Albert E. Smith; J. Stuart Blackton
- A picture is taken of the object and after movement is taken again to make movement. Jumping frames make illusions as if they warped or grabbed something out of thin air.
- Makes up about 90% of all animations.
- Involves rapidly taking a picture of an event or taking a picture and tweaking the object before taking another picture.
- Cel Animation
- Cut-out Animation
- Regular filming
The Enchanted DrawingFounder(s): J. Stuart Blackton
- First animation recorded on standard picture film through stop motion animation and as a silence film.
- Film involves a man drawing on a giant piece of paper, then takes them out of the paper.
Little NemoFounder(s): Winsor McCay
- Considered the highest quality comic series in his time.
- Nemo, the main character based off Robert McCay, has a dream which ends in him waking up.
The Silent AgeSpecial Notes:
- Animations showed expressions and used stop motion.
- First *hand-written* animation was Phantasmagorie by Emile Cohl.
- Either entirely silent or sound is performed live.
- Steamboat Wilie
- Felix the Cat
- Betty Boop
Gertie the DinosaurFounder(s): Winsor McCay
- Film showed dust particles, water droplets, and expressions.
- Changing expressions were not well established until then.
- Producer interacted, using a whip, an apple, and himself.
Cel AnimationFounder(s): Earl Hurd
- The animation is layered with clear sheets of images (Cels) and is taken a picture from birds-eye view to add a type of layering effect.
- The layering effect is used for shading, walking behind and in front of objects, and effects that involve going towards or away from the camera.
- One of the most used animations in Disney before CGI.
- Little Mermaid
- Snow White
- Beauty and the Beast
- Alice in Wonderland
- The Black Cauldron
Cut-out AnimationsFirst Animation: El Apostol
Founder(s) by: Quirino Cristiani; Diógenes Taborda
- First known true animated film before the only copy was destroyed.
- Involves using pieces of flat material, such as fabric or paper, and moving them for stop-motion animation.
Walt Disney's AnimationSpecial Notes:
- Started animation in Kansas City in October 1919 with Ub Iwerks.
- Favored cel animation instead of cut-out.
- Made his own company based on cel animation in 1921 with Fred Harman.
- Made another company with Hugh Harman, Rudolf Ising and Ub in 1920.
- He and his brother Roy created the Disney Brother Studio with Margaret J. Winkler and Ub in 1923.
- Alice's Wonderland (1921) (failed)
- Plane Crazy (failed), The Gallopin' Gaucho (failed) & Steamboat Willie (1928).
Bouncing BallFounder(s): Max Fleischer
- For silent films or to follow a sing-a-long, a ball appears and touches every syllable for people to follow.
Steamboat WillieFounder(s): Ub Iwerks; Walt Disney
- Mickey Mouse's (and a few others) Debut
- New Era of American Animation
- One of the first animations with synchronized sound
- Created through stop-motion animation
- Started the Golden Age
Golden Age of AnimationSpecial Notes:
- Began with Steamboat Willie.
- Sound quality / synchronized sound becomes common.
- The quantity of animations increases exponentially.
- Loony Toons
- Mickey Mouse
- Betty Boop (Late)
- Popeye (Late)
Warner Brother's Cartoons/AnimationsFounder(s): Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising; Leon Schlesinger; Eddie Selzer; William L. Hendricks
- (Re)Founded in 1930, 1933, 1944 and 1967 by the respected founder(s).
- Ended in 1969; Revived in 1980 by Chuck Jones
- Loony Toons and Merrie Melodies(1931)
- DC Comics / Animated Universe (1992)
- Animaniacs (1993)
The Dark AgeSpecial Notes:
- Limited animation was forced for less production costs and/or less time consumption.
- Animation was aimed for children now.
- Producers believed in dialogue over visuals.
- People copied shows such as Scooby-Doo or Super Friends.
- Fat Albert
- The Jetsons
- The Flintstones
- Josie and the Pussycats
- Jabber Jaw
- Johnny Quest