They opposed the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. They proposed that all powers not given to the federal government by the Constitution be given to the states.
Hartford Convention Meets During War of 1812
Federalists representing New England states met at the Hartford Convention. New Englanders consider seceeding from the Union.
Tariff of Abominations Passed
President John Quincy Adams passed the Tariff to protect American industry in the North from Europe. The South thought that it unfairly benefitted the North. They considered it to be an attempt to undermine states' rights.
The Missouri Compromise settled the possibility of congress being unbalanced. Maine entered the Union as a free state and Missouri became a slave state. It also created a line across the country. Below it territories could have slaves, above it they could not.
South Carolina Tries to Nullify
South Carolina tried to nullify the Tariff. The Compromise Tariff of 1832 diffused immediate tension.
Abolition of Slavery Act
In 1833, Britain outlawed slavery. It freed slaves under 6 immediately and slaves over 6 would be fully free in 4 years.
Texas Declares Independence from Mexico
There was a convention to discuss the declaration and the goal of the revolution. They decided that the goal was to be independent from Mexico.
James Polk Elected
James Polk was elected to be the United States President in 1845. Polk led the expansion of America, as president.
Mexico was unhappy that America had annexed Texas. After there were border disputes and soldiers crossed the alleged borders, Congress declared war.
It proposed that the lands gained from Mexico would be slave free. It passed in the House of Representatives multiple times,b ut was not approved in the Senate.
California Enters the Union
In 1850, California entered the Union as a free state. It offset the balance of slave and free states in the Union.
Fugitive Slave Law Enacted
It was part of the Compromise of 1850. It said that escaped slaves in free states should be captured and brought back to their masters.
Publication of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
It demended the natural right of freedom. It also contributed to the Civil War.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Passed
It created the Kansas and Nebraska Territories. It gave the territories popular sovereignty for slavery.
Formation of Republican Party
It formed in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It was present mostly in the North.
"Border Ruffians" Attack Lawrence
It was to remove the anti-slavery government, that was set up by abolitionists. Proslavery men destroyed the town and abolitionists were infuriated.
Charles Sumner Attacked
Charles Sumner, a Massachusetts senator, was attacked by Preston Brooks, a congressman from South Carolina. They became icons of abolitioinism ans proslavery.
John Brown and his men killed 5 proslavery advocates, in Kansas. The murders took place almost immediately after Lawrence was attacked and Charles Sumner was beaten by Preston Brooks.
Dred Scott Decision Announced
Dred Scott was a slave who tried to sue for his freedom. He did not succeed and the Supreme Court deemed the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, which made slavery legal in all states.
Lecompton Constitution Passed
It was a state Constitution for Kansas that was passed and not passed several times, due to voting disagreements. It was about whether or not slavery would be legal in Kansas.
Lincoln and Doulgas were both running for the same Illinois senate seat. Doulgas supported popular soveriegnty and Lincoln said that the country could not survive divided. Douglas won the election, but Lincoln later beat Douglas in the run for presidency.
Raid at Harper's Ferry
John Brown led a group of abolitionist men to attack Harper's Ferry, a federal armory and arsenal hoping that they could convince slaves to join them in the fight for their freedom. They were defeated and John Brown was executed.
Election of 1860
The country was divided, because of slavery, and there were virually two elections, for the North and for the South. LIncoln won in the North and in the country as a whole and Breckinridge won in the South.
Democrats Split in 1860
In 1860 the Democratic party split into two groups. The North nominated Douglas to be president and the South nominated Breckenridge.
Formation of Constitutional Union Party
The party formed in 1860 in an attempt to keep the Unoin together. It nominated John Bell for president, but he did not win the election.
South Carolina Secedes
South Carolina was the frist state to secede from the United States. It was a direct response to Lincoln being elected president and they feared the change that he might bring.
Abraham Lincoln Inaugurated
Abraham Lincoln became the 16th president of the United States. In his inaugural speech, he addressed the South
Attack on Fort Sumter
Confederate forces in Charleston, South Carolina demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter, which they were refused. The Union forces were eventually forced to surrender.
Virginia wanted to remain part of the Union, but obly if the Union did not attack any of the seceded states. After the Battle of Fort Sumter, they seceded.
Robert E. Lee Surrenders Commission
Robert E. Lee was originally an officer of the Union army. He left the army, because he did not want to have to fight his home state of Virginia.
1st Battle of Bull Run
It was the first major land battle of the Civil War. Thanks to Stonewall Jackson, the Confederacy won the battle.
Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimac
It was the first battle between two ironclad warships. The battle was inconclusive, but proved that ironclads were the future of naval battles.
Battle of Shiloh
The Union armies of Tennesse and Ohio fought the Confederate army of Mississippi. The battle was a Union Victory.
2nd Battle of Bull Run
The battle was part of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's offensive campaign. The Confederates won the battle.
McClellan Returns to Washington after the Peninsula Campaign
McClellan was the Union general of the Peninsula Campaign, where he was defeated. He erturned to Washington to fight in the Second Battle of Bull Run.
Battle of Antietam
The Battle took place in Sharpsburg, Maryland. It was the bloodiest single day in American history and resulted in a draw.
Battle of Fredericksburg
Soldiers fought in the streets of Fredericksburg. General Burnside commanded the Union troops, who eventually lost the batttle.
Emancipation Proclamation Takes Effect
Lincoln made the Emancipation Proclamation to free slaves. It freed the slaves in states that di not rejoin the Union.
Battle of Chancellorsville
This battle is considered to be Lee's greatest victory. However, Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by friendly fire.
Battle of Gettysburg
Originally, Lee pushed back the Union forces. Hiwever, after both sides got reinforcements, the Union defeated the Confedrates and forced them to withdraw.
Surrender of Vicksburg
Pemberton led the Confederate soldiers who were under siege by Grant and the Union soldiers, in Vicksburg. Pemberton eventually surrendered to Grant.
Battle at Fort Wagner
It was a Union attack on a Confederate fort. The Union lost the first battle, but attacked again for another loss.
Lincoln Delivers Gettysburg Address
The Gettysburg Address was made by Lincoln at the dedicationof the Soldiers' NAtional Cemetary in Gettysburg. It called the war a struggle for "a new birth of freedom".
Grant Displays Fighting Style at Cold Harbor
Grant's previous battles were filled with hard and desperate fighting. This battle was a brutal defeat for the Union.
Atlanta Burns to the Ground
Union General Sherman ordered the burning of Atlanta aftter they defeated the Confederates there. He then set out for Savannah.
Sherman Set Out for the Sea
Sherman's March to the Sea began in Atlanta, Georgia. He decided to march his army to the Sea to prove that the Union was more powerful than the Confederacy.
Sherman Reaches Savannah
Sherman's March to the Sea ended in Savannah, Georgia. The Confederate's fled to South Carolina, because they did not want the citry to be leveled like Atlanta.
Lincoln Delivers 2nd Inaugural Address
In his speech, Lincoln wanted to avoid the North being too harsh towards the South. He also spoke about the evil of slavery.
Richmond, the Confederate Capital, Falls
After a siege Grant successfully captured the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia. As the Confederates ledft they lit the city on fire.
Surrender at Appomattox
After Grant defeated Lee in the Battle of Appomattox, Lee surrendered. It was not the last battle, but it was the last major battle.