Film reel

A History of Short Films

  • Étienne-Jules Marey

    Étienne-Jules Marey
    To Etienne-Jules Marey the movie camera was an instrument to be used in research on animal locomotion, but to the rest of the world, it was the force behind the advent of the motion picture industry. After George Eastman marketed, in 1885, a photographic film that used a silver bromide emulsion on a gelatin base, Marey was able to increase exposure speed. In his chambre chronophotographique, a paper ribbon of film that produced images 3.6 sq. in. (9 cm) was drawn along behind a shutter.
  • Etinne-Jules Marey continued

    Etinne-Jules Marey continued
    There it stopped long enough to be exposed before it was moved forward. Marey was thus able to expose 60 images per second.
    During the next 20 years, Marey filmed a wide variety of human and animal movements using his new apparatus. As well as slowing rapid movements by the useof high-speed cinematography, he also invented the technique of time lapse,which is used to speed up of slow movements. Marey studied his films frame byframe and published his observations in numerous scientific journals.
  • LE PRINCE (Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince)

    LE PRINCE (Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince)
    Le Prince was an inventor who is considered by many film historians as the true father of motion pictures,one of the most important early pioneer of filming technology who shot the first moving pictures on paper film using a single lens camera. It wasn't until recently that Le Prince was recognized for the filming of 3 short films which were decades ahead of their time, including the famous "Roundhay Garden Scene", the "Leeds Bridge" scene and the filming of a gathering at the Keighley Playhouse
  • The Lumiere Brothers

    The Lumiere Brothers
    Steam Train
    The Lumiere brothers, Auguste 1862-1954 and Louis 1864-1948, were amoung the earlist film makers in history. They both attended La Martiniene college. They both began making films in 1892 and one of their first was Steam Train. This had audiences ducking out the way of the train and some even ran out of the cinema.
  • The Lumiere Brothers 2

    The Lumiere Brothers 2
    The Lumières saw their invention with the eyes of entrepreneurs and soon opened a theater for exhibiting their films. Lines stretched down the block. Audiences were enthralled. Soon the Lumières trained additional cameramen and ventured to Mexico, Russia, Australia, Japan etc.
    Their's are the films that made the world excited about cinema. As Louis Lumière said, "The motion picture entertains the whole world. What could we do better and that would make us more proud?"
  • Edwin Porter

    Edwin Porter
    Edwin Porter was an early film pioneer, who in the late 1890s, worked as both a projectionist and mechanic, eventually becoming director and cameraman for the Edison Manufacturing Company, for which he is most famous as a director at this company, which he joined in 1899.
    It was in 1896, that Porter entered motion picture work. He was central in the organisation of the first projected movie show in New York on the 23rd April 1896.
  • Edwin Porter, part two

    Edwin Porter, part two
    In 1899, he took charge of motion picture production at Edison's New York studios. During the next decade he became the most influential filmmaker in the United States. In 1903, he created "The Great Train robbery". With the combination of film editing and the telling of narrative stories, Porter had produced one of the most important and influential films of the time to reveal the possibility of fictional stories on film. This visual film, set many milestones at the time.
  • George Eastman- The invention of film

    George Eastman- The invention of film
    In 1880 George went into the dry plate business. The Eastman dry plate company officially opened January 1, 1881. By November 1881, the company was making 4000 dry plates a month. One day, photographers were complaining the plates weren't working. So he began making a new gelatine emulsion. He did 469 experiments, but the plates still didn't work. He then had the idea to make a camera with no plates. George took a long thin roll of paper, coated it with collodion, and named it film.
  • George Eastman - 22 Ounce Camera

    George Eastman - 22 Ounce Camera
    In 1888, George produced a small, 22 ounce camera. The photographer would take pictures, then ship the camera back to the Eastman company. He simply chose his favorite letters and made the name Kodak to call the camera's. Soon George made a slogan, "You press the button, we do the rest." In December, 1889, The Eastman Kodak company was founded. Thomas Edison ordered a camera that summer. He used Eastman's camera to help develop his motion picture camera.
  • Roundhay Garden and Leeds Bridge - Le Prince

    Roundhay Garden and Leeds Bridge - Le Prince
    Roundhay Garden SceneIn October 1888, Le Prince filmed moving picture sequences "Roundhay Garden Scene" and a "Leeds Bridge" street scene using his single-lens camera and Eastman's paper film. "Roundhay Garden Scene" is the recognisable ground-breaking short film project (presumably the world's first motion picture) to be directed by inventor Louis Le Prince. It was recorded at 12 frames per second, runs for approximately 2 seconds, and is the earliest surviving motion picture film.
  • Sir Chales Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin

    Sir Chales Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin
    Chaplin was an English comic actor and film director of the silent film era. He became one of the best-known film stars in the world before the end of the First World War. Chaplin used mime, slapstick and other visual comedy routines, and continued well into the era of the talkies.
  • Charlie Chapiln - Film techniques

    Charlie Chapiln - Film techniques
    Chaplin never shot from a completed script until he stated making films with dialogue, The Great Dictator in 1940. The method he developed was to start from a vague premise. He then had sets constructed and worked with his stock company to improvise gags and "business" around them, almost always working the ideas out on film, after various idea's a narrative structure would emerge, frequently requiring Chaplin to reshoot an already-completed scene that might have otherwise contradicted the story
  • Laurel and Hardy

    Laurel and Hardy
    Laurel and Hardy were one of the most popular comedy teams of the early to mid classical Hollywood era of American Cinema, and also known as one of the greatest comedy teams of all time. They became well known during the late 1920s for their work; the team also appeared on stage throughout America and Europe. Laurel made his first film appearance in “Nuts in May” (1917), Laurel continued to make more than 50 other silent films for various producers.
  • Luis Bunuel Portoles

    Luis Bunuel Portoles
    L'age D'orLuis Buñuel Portolés was a Spanish filmmaker. He worked in Spain, Mexico, France and the United States. He is considered one of the finest directors in the history of cinema.
    He was knwn for his controversial short films and his first solo film was L'Âge d'Or . It was read to be an attack on Catholicism, and thus, precipitated an even larger scandal than Un chien andalou. The press criticized the film and the police placed a ban on it that lasted 50 years.
  • le voyage dans la lune

    le voyage dans la lune
    A trip to the moonthis is the first science fiction film, and uses innovative animation and special effects, including the well-known image of the spaceship landing in the moon's eye.
    It was directed and written by Georges Méliès, assisted by his brother Gaston. Some historians suggest that although le voyage dans la lune was among the most technically innovative films up until that time, it still displays a primitive understanding of narrative film technique.
  • The Great Train Robbery

    The Great Train Robbery
    The Great Train RobberyThe film was an American Western film at approx 10 minutes long, shot on one-reel, containing 14 scenes. Cross-cuts were a new, sophisticated editing technique, first developed within this film. The film uses simple editing and the story is almost linear, but it represents a significant step, being one of the first "narrative" films of significant length. With these combined, Porter had produced one of the most important and
  • The Great Train Robbery, Part two

    The Great Train Robbery, Part two
    Milestones it set;
    1)it was the first narrative Western film with a storyline, and included various western cliches that would be used by all future westerns.
    2)one of the earliest films to be shot out of chronological sequence, using revolutionary parallel cross-cutting.
    3)rear projection in an early scene, the image of a train seen through a window.
    4) first real motion picture smash hit, establishing the notion that film could be a commercially-viable medium.
  • Laurel and Hardy part 2

    Laurel and Hardy part 2
    In 1914, Hardy acted in his first film - Outwitting Dad. 1914-916 Hardy made 177 shorts with Vim Comedy, which were released up to 1917. It was when he became a member of Hal Roach's stock company, that he began working regularly with Laurel.They first worked together on the silent film; The Lucky Dog, which was produced in 1919, and released in 1921. They started appearing in shorts together in 1926 and after collaborating on many films their sucess spread and they started making feature films.
  • Un Chien Andalou

    Un Chien Andalou
    Un Chien AndalouThe first film Buñuel co-wrote and directed was a 16-minute short film, Un chien andalou. This film – which features a series of startling and sometimes horrifying images of Freudian nature – was enthusiastically received by the burgeoning French Surrealist movement of the time, and continues to be shown regularly in film societies to this day.
    Prior to this he worked as a director's assistant on the films; mauprat, La Sirène des Tropiques and La chute de la maison Usher
  • The Rogue Song

    The Rogue Song
    fragment from the rogue songThis marked Laurel and Hardys first appearence in color. Hal Roach kept them a team for the next decade, making silent shorts, talking shorts, and feature films. While most silent-film actors saw their careers decline with the advent of sound, Laurel and Hardy made a successful transition in 1929 with the short “Unaccustomed As We Are”. Laurel's English accent and Hardy's Southern American accent and singing brought new dimensions to their characters
  • Laurel and Hardys films

    Laurel and Hardys films
    Most of the shorts ran two reels, several ran three and one; “Beau Hunks” was four reels long. It was in 1929 that they appeared for the first time in a feature film. Among their most popular and successful films, were the shorts; “Big Business” (1929) , “Liberty” (1929) and their Academy Award-winning short, “The Music Box” (1932). This won the first Academy Award for “best short subject” (Comedy). It was also honoured with an Academy Award. “Tit for Tat” was the only other film nominated.
  • François Roland Truffaut

    François Roland Truffaut
    400 BlowsTruffaut was an filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, and actor working on over twenty-five films. Truffaut was one of the most influential figures of the French New Wave. 400 Blows marked the beginning of tthis movement, which gave other directors a wider audience. The New Wave dealt wih a rejection of traditional cinema structure which Truffaut had been writting about and encorperating in his short films for years.
  • Laurel and Hardy

    Laurel and Hardy
    The popularity of the double feature diminished the demand for shorts, Hal Roach cancelled all of his shorts series. The final short in the Laurel and Hardy series was 1935’s “Thicker than water”. they formed their own production company but were unable to repeat the same success. In total, they appeared together in 106 films, starring in 40 short sound films, 32 short silent films and 23 full length feature films and in the remaining 11 films made geust/cameo appearences.
  • Francois Truffaut - Les Mistons

    Francois Truffaut - Les Mistons
    Les Mistons"As a director I cared more about technique: all the scenes are shot in a single take and do not use reverse cutting; in most scenes you hear the soundtrack before you see the corresponding images - that reflects Orson Welles' radio training, etc. Behaving like the ordinary spectator, one uses a film as if it were a drug; he is dazed by the motion and doesn't try to analyze."
  • French New Wave

    French New Wave
    The French New Wave was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French Filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema. Although never a formally organized movement, the New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of classical cinematic form and their spirit of youthful iconoclasm and is an example of European art cinema.
  • French New Wave part 2

    French New Wave part 2
    Cinematic stylings of French New Wave brought a fresh look to cinema, with a group of conventions that were consistently used in the majority of French New Wave films including; Long takes, Jump cuts & rapid changes of scene, improvised dialogue and plotting, shooting on location, natural lighting, direct sound recording and shots that go beyond the common 360 degree axis.
    Most agree that the French New Wave was at its peak in 1958, and 1964, but it continued to ripple on afterwards.
  • Ashvin Kumer

    Ashvin Kumer
    Ashvin Kumar started out originally working as an actor and director in theatre. After graduating at university in 1996, he began working in films as an editor. Between 1996 and 2001, Ashvin edited, produced, acted-in and directed plays, short films, commercials and music videos, whilst setting up his own digital post-production business in New Delhi, India.
    In 2002, he directed the successful film “Road to Ladakh, for which he received acclaim at various film festivals, including Cannes.
  • Ashvin Kumar part 2

    Ashvin Kumar part 2
    Ashvin realised there was more money to be made from films than theatre, especially the theatre that he was doing in India- things like Becket and the theatre of the absurd he was experimenting with at the time. He felt that there was so many stories to be told out of India. As India moves rapidly to capitalistic praising from a having a militant social background, there is very little time there to want anything but escapist, mindless entertainment, therefore leading to high film veiwings.
  • Ashvin Kumar part 3

    Ashvin Kumar part 3
    India is such a varied and culturally interesting country, and especially in the last 200 years, with its contact with the English lanuage, this has opened it very uniquely, to the rest of the world. And nowadays, it is Bollywood that totally dominates the cinematically cultural Indian landscape, that very few alternative voices can shine through, that may be tied up in the feudal system- which is why Ashvin Kumar strongly felt the drive and passion to make his films in India.
  • Francois Truffaunt - Shoot the Piano Player

    Francois Truffaunt - Shoot the Piano Player
    Shoot the piano player trailerFollowing the success of 400 Blows, Truffaut featured disjunctive editing and seemingly random voice-overs in his next film Shoot the Piano Player . Even though Shoot the Piano Player was much appreciated by critics, it performed poorly at the box office. The film focused on two of the French New Wave’s favorite elements, American Film Noir and themselves, by the box office numbers this shows that some effects and elements would work perfectly in a short film, but not a feature length film.
  • French New Wave Funding

    French New Wave Funding
    Many films were produced on tight budgets; often shot in a friend's apartment or yard, using the director's friends as the crew, they often had to improvise with equipment. Many conventions actually sprang not only from artistic tenets, but from necessity and circumstance. Some included some radical experimental editiediting, visual style and narrative. This approach helped filmmakers get at the essential art form and find what was a much more comfortable and honest form of production.
  • Pixar

    Pixar
    Pixar began in 1979, as the graphics group, part of the computer division of Lucasfilm, before it became a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company, being bought by the company in 2006. it is best known for its CGI-animated feature films which are created with PhotoRealistic RenderMan, its own animation software , an implementation of the industry-standard RenderMan image-rendering API used to generate high-quality images.
  • Pixar part 2

    Pixar part 2
    Initially, Pixar was a computer hardware company but as poor sales threatened to put the company out of business, Lasseter's animation department began producing computer-animated commercials for outside companies. All pixar films to have been computer-animated features (WALL-E has so far been the only pixar film to not be completely animated). Pixar has produced eleven feature films, beginning with Toy Story in 1995, all of which have met with critical and commercial success.
  • Pixar part 3

    Pixar part 3
    Pixar have their own animation software, to choreograph the movements and facial expressions of the characters in each scene, the animators behind it, are more like actors or puppeteers, using computer controls to define the key poses. This is because the character, models layout and sound are already set up. Pixar films are a new take on the forms and conventions of short films, short films have moved forward with technology innovations. Everything now seems to be produced/programed by computer
  • French New Wave - Breathless

    French New Wave - Breathless
    Breathless sceneJean-Luc Godard’s “Breathless” used FNW techniques to shock the audience out of submission and awe, in a bold and direct way, so much so that he was accused of having contempt for his audience. The film was too long so parts that didn’t work were simply cut from the middle of the take, a practical decision and also a purposeful stylistic one. many of these conventions are commonplace today and jump cuts were used as much to cover mistakes as they were an artistic movement.
  • Ashvin Kumar - films

    Ashvin Kumar - films
    In 2001, Asvin moved back to London and briefly attended the London film school where he created the short films; “Sam” and “First Day Out”. In 2002, he directed the successful film “Road to Ladakh, for which he received acclaim at various film festivals, including Cannes. He then went on to his biggest success in 2004 “Little Terrorist”. From this, Ashvin made his debut feature; “Forest”, which is a recent film, produced 2009.
  • Little Terrorist

    Little Terrorist
    Little TerroristThis was the first time an Indian short film was eligible for an Oscar nomination. It was made on a limited budget, and therefore a group of authentic Rajasthani musicians were recruited to provide the music for the film, this resulted in a lyrical and unique fusion of Indian folk and western.
    This film also won a first prize for best short film at the Montreal Film Festival. He went on to collect 15 awards and honours in over a hundred film festivals around the world.
  • Pixar's short films

    Pixar's short films
    Day and Night- The Adventures of André and Wally B (1984)
    - Luxo JR. (1986)
    - Red’s Dream (1987)
    - Red’s Dream
    - Tin Toy (1988)
    - Knick Knack (1989)
    - Geri’s Game (1997)
    - For the Birds (2000)
    - Mike’s New Car (2002)
    - Boundin’ (2003)
    - Jack-Jack Attack (2005)
    - One Man Band (2005)
    - Master and the Ghostlight (2006)
    - Lifted (2006)
    - Your Friend the Rat (2007)
    - Presto (2008)
    - Burn E (2009)
    - Partly Cloudy (2009)
    - Dug’s Special Mission (2009)
    - Day & Night (2010)