The History of Early Cinema

  • Period: to

    1827-1834

    1827-First still photograph taken, using a glass plate technique Claude Niepce's photograph the View from a Window at Le Gras took nearly eight hours to expose.
    1832-Joseph Plateau and sons introduce the Phenakistoscope. It was one of the more successful illusion toys.
    1834- Zoetrope (another illisuion toy) was introduced by William George Horner.This toy used the same principal as Plateau's Phenakistoscope Zoetrope's were widely sold after 1867.
  • Thaumatrope

    Thaumatrope
    Early technological devices were based off the "Persistance of Vision" established by Belgian scientist Joseph Platea. Device was to fool the brain into seeing a series of images rather than still images. It would have one imgae on each side and was flipped back and forth. eg. bird & cage = bird in cage
  • Viewing Wheels

    Viewing Wheels
    Both Micheal Faraday (first) and physicist Joseph Plateau created a wheel taht when spun would create a moving image. Faraday's wheel was mounted on two different axis and had to be spun in opposite directions to see teh moving image through the slots. Plateau's was a toy that had similar pronciples but had a mirror.
    Often called Phantamascope.
  • Zoetrope

    Zoetrope
    William George Horner device based off teh wheels was more convinient. It did not have a mirror and allowed many to view it at once. It was a drum with an open top with a sequence of pictures on a strip of paper on the inside. Created allusion of movememt when spun and viewed from the small slots on the outside of the drum. Forgotten until Lincoln re-introduced it in 1887.
  • Period: to

    1835-1882

    1839-Henry Fox Talbot makes an advancement in photograph production with the introduction of negatives on pape.
    1846-Important in the development of motion pictures was the invention of intermittent mechanisms
    1877- Emile Reynaud introduces the Praxinoscope. Similar in design to Horner's Zoetrope 1878- Eadweard Muybridge achieves success after five years of trying to capture movement. 1882-Emile Reynaud expands on his praxinoscope and using mirrors and a lantern moving drawings onto a screen.
  • Thomas A. Edison

    Thomas A. Edison
    *1862 age of 15 published his own weekly paper 'The Grand Trunk Herald'
    *Worked as an telegraph operator
    *First invention: Telegraphic repeating instrument which enabled messages to be transmitted automaticlly over a second line without the presence of an operater
    *Invention made in New York: Universal Stock Ticker (Generated $40, 000 from the sale of this and many other inventions)
    *Greatest Invention: Incandescent electrict light bulb
    *He died in West Orange on Oct. 8 1931
  • Birt Acres

    Birt Acres
    Orphan at the age of fourteen during the American civil war; taken in by aunt who became his guardian
    England he set up a studio for the 'production of portraits by painting and photography'
    In 1893 joined Elliot and Sons
    1894 met electrical engineer, Robert W. Paul: they constructed a camera and Acres used it to make the first successful film in Britain - Incident at Clovelly Cottage
    Own company - the Northern Photographic Works
    Remained in the film business until his death in 1918.
  • W.K.L Dickson

    W.K.L Dickson
    In 1887 when Thomas Edison was thinking about moving pictures, Dickson occupied with experimentation on a costly ore extraction process. Edison set Dickson to work on developing his ideas. Edisons idea was centered around his sound capture divice- the phonograph Dickson was now firmly committed to the development of the Mutoscope, Nov 5 1895 saw it patent issued and 9 days later an application for a patient was made to a handheld mutoscope Died Spetember 28 1835
  • Maries Georges Jean Méliès

    Maries Georges Jean Méliès
    Interest: stage design and puppetry and stage conjury Bought famous Theatre Robert Houdin when Worker full time as theatrical showman: performances revolved around magic and illusionist techniques
    First film screening on April 4th 1896.
    Pioneered first double exposure (La caverne Maudite, 1898), the first split screen with performers acting opposite themselves (Un Homme de tete, 1898), and the first dissolve (Cendrillon, 1899)In 1923 he declared bankrupt
    Died 1938 after making over 500 films
  • Robert William Paul

    Robert William Paul
    Successful electrical engineer with own workshop in London
    Paul successfully copied the Kinetoscope and made several machines
    Paul turned to photographer Birt Acres who he had recently met and in February. Started to argue and spilt up as partners.
    Began work on improving the camera and incorporated a Maltese Cross mechanism which provided the film with an intermittent motion.
    Developed projector: Theatrograph
    1898 began construction on Britain’s first film studios in Muswell Hill
  • Edwin S. Porter

    Edwin S. Porter
    1895: Joined Vitascope Marketing Company
    First projected movie show: New York on the 23rd April 1896
    Freelance projectionist at Eden Musee Theatre in 1898
    Released The Great Train Robbery: most influential film of that decade
    Six years later, In 1915 Porter returned to his firs enthusiasm - projectors and remained involved with projection for the rest of his working life.
  • Praxinoscope to a New Level

    Praxinoscope to a New Level
    It was originally limited to repetitive pictures. He then took his device and created a method of painting a series of pictures on small glass plates which were joined together in a single flexible strip. These pictures were projected to a screen from behind. He gave public viewings but these shows were slow and jerky and not easy to create all the drawings. Came very close to cinema.
  • Cecil Hepworth

    Cecil Hepworth
    Interest: projecting pictures
    1896 touring with own mixed slide and film show
    Set up a laboratory in 1899
    1900 releasing 100 films/year
    A dedicated film pioneer and the driving force, many believe, behind the origins of the British Film Industry
    Bankruptcy in 1924
    Hepworth died in 1953 aged 79.
  • Praxinoscope

    Praxinoscope
    Using principles of the zeotrope, Fernchman Emile Reynaud adapted the zeotrope so that the images were viewed by prisms of mirrors in the center that reflected the image across from it as it revolved. This took the idea and perfected it to perfect aimation without the loss of luminosity which was experience with previous inventions. A step furhter was projecting images by using transparent paper so the light could shine through and be reflected by mirror prisms and foccussed through a lens.
  • Beginning of the Kinetoscope

    Beginning of the Kinetoscope
    Edison hired W.K.L Dickson to work on developing a device which would recod and reproduce video in motion. He believed he could shine light from an inside cylinder through the microphotographs which were areanged in spiral formation. It was given its name in 1888 at which time Dickson was doing the majority of the work. Original plan for intermittent motion included the use of electric shocks in the cylinder to provide light and a Start- Stop movement of the cylinder itself.
  • Period: to

    1888-1889

    1888- George Eastman devises a still camera which produces photographs on sensitised paper which he sells using the name Kodak. - Thomas A. Edison, inventor of the electric light bulb and the phonograph decides to design machines for making and showing moving pictures.
    1889- Reynaud exhibits a much larger version of his praxinoscope. -Edison travels to Paris and views Marey's camera which uses flexible film.
  • KInetoscope Continued

    John Carbuut launched photographic celluloid which was believed to be there breakthrough but after sevral experiments it was proven impractical. They then resorted to flexible film.
  • Period: to

    1890- 1893

    1891- Edison and Dickson have their Kinetograph camera and Kinetoscope viewing box ready for patenting and demonstration.
    1892-Using his projecting Praxinoscope, Reynaud holds the first public exhibitions of motion pictures.
    1893- Edison and Dickson build a studio on the grounds of Edison's laboratories in New Jersey.
  • Kinetoscope

    Kinetoscope
    The device was final put ot use. This device was run by an electrical motor and was a camera that could be converted to a projector by shining a light through the film and lens. With a peephole at the top and a lamp which was separated by a shutter providing intermitten light illuminating each frame in turn and producing a moving image.
  • Period: to

    1894

    1894- The Lumière family is the biggest manufacturer of photographic plates in Europe. -Louis and Auguste design a camera which serves as both a recording device and a projecting device. They call it the Cinématographe. -The Cinématographe uses flexible film cut into 35mm wide strips. -Woodville Latham and his sons Otway and Gray began working on their own camera and projector. -Edison's Kinetoscope made its debut in London.
  • Period: to

    1894-1895

    1894- The Mutoscope was patented by Herman Casler, and worked using a flip-card device to provide the motion picture. 1895- The first film shot with the Cinématographe camera is La Sortie de l'usine Lumière a Lyon (Workers leaving the Lumière factory at Lyon) -R.W Paul and his partner Birt Acres had a functional camera which was based partly on Marey's 1888 camera. The partnership broke up, Paul continuing to improve upon the camera while Acres concentrating on creating a projector.
  • Mutoscope

    Mutoscope
    Dickson had close association with inventors Lathams and Henry Norton Marvin. Dicksn proposed and altenative for the Kinetoscope but much simpler. Marvin and Casler took the proposal which was an elaberation of a flip book. This device contained a series of photographs which were aranged around the perimeter of the drum. Turning the handle flips the cards rapidly; gives teh viewer looking through the peephole a lot of control over the speed of the motion and gave the ability to turn it back.
  • Period: to

    1895

    1895-The Lathams too had succeeded in creating a camera and a projector and on April 21st 1895 they showed one film to reporters. Their projector received only a small amount of attention as the image projected was very dim. The Latham Loop as it was dubbed later is still in use in modern motion picture projectors. - One of the most famous film screenings in history took place on December 28th, 1895. The venue was the Grand Cafe in Paris.
  • Cinematographe

    Cinematographe
    Louis and Auguste's father Antoine who created a moving picture interest in sons. They set to work designing a camera and projector; had a camera for recording the movement, a printer and when connected to a magic lantern could project. Similar principles to the Kinetoscope but it was way smaller and lighter. To promote their creation Auguste publiced their device with sevral private screenings which generated a ton of attention. First real appearance was December 28, 1895.
  • Vitascope

    Vitascope
    Charles Jenkins and Thomas Armat created a version of the Phantascope which could project. After giving a public viewing the paartnership split up and each independantly worked on the Phantascope. Jenkins version was ready by the first week of November. Armat also finished his version where he took it to entrepeneurs Raff and Gammon who took the invention to Edison.
  • Mutoscope Altered

    Mutoscope Altered
    The Mutoscope was adapted with a mirror device which allowed the motion picture to be projected. Shortly after Casler and Marvin perfected a through-the-film projector which was named Biograph.
  • American Mutoscope Company

    American Mutoscope Company
    Partnership of Dickson, Marvin, Casler, and Elias Koopman.
  • Period: to

    1896

    1896- Herman Casler and W.K.L Dickson had developed their camera to go with Casler's Mutoscope. The camera and projector they produced were unusual as they used 70mm film which gave very clear images. -January 14th saw Birt Acres present a selection of his films to the Royal Photographic Society -The Lumière brothers sent a representative from their company to London and started a successful run of Cinématographe films.
  • Period: to

    1896-1897

    1896- R.W. Paul continued to improve his camera and invented a projector which began by showing copies of Acres' films from the previous year. - After agreeing to back Armat's Vitascope, Raff and Gammon approached Edison, afraid to offend him, and Edison agrees to manufacture the Vitascope marketing it as "Edison's Vitascope".
    1897- the American Mutoscope Company become the most popular film company in America
  • Vitascope Perfected

    Vitascope Perfected
    The re-invented Phantascope was named the Vitascope and was exploited. The first theatrical exhibition took place on April 23 1896 at Koster and Bial's Music Hall.
  • Period: to

    1899-1903

    1899- The American Mutoscope Company changes its name to the American Mutoscope.
    1900- British filmmaker James Williamson produces "The Big Swallow"
    1902- Georges Méliès produces his magnificent "Voyage to the Moon"
    1903- British film maker George Smith makes Mary Janes Mishap which was praised for its sophisticated use of editing. -The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company begin making films in the 35mm format rather that the 70mm which boosted their sales.
  • Period: to

    1903-1905

    1903- Edwin S. Porter, working for Edison makes "The Life of an American Fireman" which displayed new visual storytelling techniques and incorporated stock footage with Porter's own photography.
    1905- Cecil Hepworth produced, with Lewin Fitzhamon "Rescued by Rover". A charming film in which Hepworth, his wife, child and dog, star.
  • Lumière brothers: Auguste and Louis

    Lumière brothers: Auguste and Louis
    *Antoine (father) abandoned art to set up a business manufacturing and supplying photographic equipment
    *Louis began experimenting with the photographic equipment his father was manufacturing.
    *Louis discovered a process which assisted the development of photography*Louis developed a new 'dry plate' process in 1881 known as the 'Etiquette Bleue' process
    *By 1894 Lumières were producing around 15,000,000 plates a year
    *Auguste made first experiments
    Aim: to overcome limitations and problems of