BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

  • 9000 BCE

    PRIMITIVE TRADE

    PRIMITIVE TRADE
    Local and international exchange of goods.
  • 7000 BCE

    NEOLITHIC PERIOD

    NEOLITHIC PERIOD
    -Beginning of agriculture.
    -Crops for the subsistence of people.
    -More labor field.
  • 6000 BCE

    BARTER

    BARTER
    Exchange of goods for other goods of equal value.
  • 1301

    FEUDAL SYSTEM

    FEUDAL SYSTEM
    -Feudal production is being replaced by capitalists.
    -Trade takes over the market, money, merchandise, etc.
  • 1375

    FAIRS ARE CREATED

    FAIRS ARE CREATED
    Merchants meeting at fixed places and on fixed dates protected by legal provisions.
  • 1401

    TRADE ROUTES

    TRADE ROUTES
    From this date on, different routes emerged that facilitated trade in Europe, where you could find products that were produced in the same place.
  • 1460

    ORIGINS

    ORIGINS
    The origin is found in the exchange of wealth or products from tropical countries for products from temperate or cold zones. As improvements in the transportation system continued and the effects of industrialism were greater, international trade was increasing due to the increase in capital flows and services in the areas that were most delayed in their development.
  • 1492

    DISCOVERY OF AMERICA

    DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
    The development of navigation, the need to find another trade route to India and the interest in achieving territorial and religious expansion for commercial and economic purposes were some of the background that led Spain into the ocean through unexplored routes with the promise of great gains.
  • 1501

    CAPITALISM

    CAPITALISM
    -Trade is the greatest source of wealth.
    -Exports are cared for to be greater than importations.
  • 1532

    LIEN OF ALMOJARIFAZGO

    LIEN OF ALMOJARIFAZGO
    In the Viceroyalty of New Spain, the so-called almojarifazgo right was established, which was charged in ports for the extraction or introduction of merchandise.
  • 1551

    PORT FACILITIES

    PORT FACILITIES
    In Veracruz, the construction of the first port facilities began.
  • 1560

    INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORIGIN

    INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORIGIN
    With inequality in the distribution of natural resources, human differences mainly in terms of skills, division and specialization of work, as well as the comparative advantages of peoples or nations and the need to obtain goods that they could not nations produce or produced very costly.
  • MERCANTILISM

    MERCANTILISM
    Mercantilism maintains that the government can improve the well-being of the nation through laws and regulations. Mercantilists believed that the accumulation of precious metals was essential for a nation.
  • TARIFF SIMPLIFICATION TIME OF THE AUSTRIA

    TARIFF SIMPLIFICATION TIME OF THE AUSTRIA
    There was a set of liens on merchandise, a whole series of taxes.
  • "FAVORABLE" BALANCE OF TRADE

    "FAVORABLE"  BALANCE OF TRADE
    A "favorable" commercial balance is one in which the value of external national goods exceeds the value of imported foreign goods, this is through transport the path that comes by the respective metal content of the different currencies and the exchange rate must be adjusted, its commercial policy of the merchantilists consisted in encouraging exports and discourage imports to take the exceeds of export overflow resulting in gold.
  • LIBERALISM

    LIBERALISM
    The economics known as Physiocrats demanded liberty of production and trade.
  • FIRST PROTECTION CURRENCY COIN WITH THE BARLOVENTO

    FIRST PROTECTION CURRENCY COIN WITH THE BARLOVENTO
    The freedom of commerce of eight ports to trade with the Caribbean was enacted.
  • THE ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE THEORY

    THE ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE THEORY
    The absolute advantage is the ability to produce that good with obvious ease and height than any other producer, In England economist Adam Smith and his book The Wealth of Nations the advantages of removing trade restrictions.
  • ANOTHER MEASURE FREE TRADE DECREE

     ANOTHER MEASURE FREE TRADE DECREE
    Charles III established the "Decree of Free Trade," which allowed the Spanish American ports to trade directly with one another and most ports in Spain.
  • THE ANGLO-FRENCH TREATY

    THE ANGLO-FRENCH TREATY
    Said treaty was signed, which established the conditions of trade between those nations. This is a treatise of surprising modernity.
  • INTRODUCTION TO CURRENCY

    INTRODUCTION TO CURRENCY
    The use of money in commercial transactions was a great advance in the economy.
    The Romans spread this concept and began minting coins.
  • SPANISH TRADE BALANCE

    SPANISH TRADE BALANCE
    The trade balance, one of the components of the balance of payments, registers the purchases and sales of merchandise of a country during a certain period, and its balance is the difference between exports and imports.
  • TRANSPORT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    TRANSPORT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE
    The arrival of the industrial revolution immense innovations were carried out in transportation that gave rise to international trade, having a better distribution of goods since they could be manufactured anywhere.
  • FREE TRADE AND PROTECTION

    FREE TRADE AND PROTECTION
    It led in 1823 to the Reciprocity of Duties Act, a radical initiative which enabled Britain to sign mutual trading agreements with foreign powers on an individual basis. Other outdated aspects of the Navigation Laws were also repealed.
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
    Increased urbanization and migration processes from rural areas to urban areas.
  • RAILWAYS

    RAILWAYS
    The goods are manufactured anywhere and be transported cheaply to all points of consumption.
  • PROTECTIONISM

    PROTECTIONISM
    An economic practice that seeks to protect the national industry against competition from abroad by prohibiting citizens from comparing affected products from abroad.
  • FRENCH TARIFF

    FRENCH TARIFF
    The 1860 treaty ended tariffs on major trade items: wine, brandy, and silk products from France, coal, iron, and industrial products from Britain. It was the first modern trade agreement. It is named after the leading British and French authors of the treaty, Richard Cobden MP and Michel Chevalier.
  • RETURN OF PROTECTIONISM

     RETURN OF PROTECTIONISM
    There is talk of 1879 because it is at this time that Germany behind closed doors finds itself in a liberal interlude with a new tariff in 1879 changing its mind regarding trade policy. 1879 is recorded as the end of the free trade period and the beginning of a new period of protection.
  • WORLD WAR II

    WORLD WAR II
    The economic insecurity and extreme nationalism of the period created the conditions for the outbreak of World War II ,when trade agreements and supranational organizations became the chief means of managing and promoting international trade.
  • TELECOMMUNICATIONS

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS
    First attempts to combine communications and data processing.
  • MULTILATERAL REGIONALISM

    MULTILATERAL REGIONALISM
    The International Monetary Fund (IMF),World Bank,and International Trade Organization (ITO) arose out of the Bretton Woods Agreement.
  • THE NEW MERCANTILISM

    THE NEW MERCANTILISM
    The new mercantilism. For nearly 200 years, in the Contemporary era, the economic system that has the exchange of goods and services has been, almost always, free trade. ... Among its characteristics, promotion of economic regulation by the government to increase state power.
  • TARIFFS CONSOLIDATION

     TARIFFS CONSOLIDATION
    Fifteen countries began reductions in December 1945 to reduce and bind customs tariffs. The Second World War had just ended, and those countries wanted to quickly push for trade liberalization and begin to drop the last of the protectionist measures that had been in place since the early 1930s.
  • CREATION OF GATT

    CREATION OF GATT
    The GATT was designed to encourage the reduction of tariffs among member nations (23),and thereby provide a foundation for the expansion of multilateral trade.
  • CREATION OF THE OEA (ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES)

    CREATION OF THE OEA (ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES)
    The Organization of American States (OAS) is an international Pan-American organization of regional and continental scope created on April 30, 1948, with the aim of being a political forum for decision-making, multilateral dialogue and the integration of America.
  • THE TARIFF CONCESSIONS

    THE TARIFF CONCESSIONS
    The tariff concessions entered into force on June 30, 1948 under a "Protocol of Provisional Application". Thus was born the new General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, with 23 founding members (officially, "contracting parties").
  • ROUND TWO AT ANNECY

    ROUND TWO AT ANNECY
    During the second round of trade negotiations, which took place from April to August in Annecy, France, the contracting parties exchanged some 5,000 tariff concessions. At their third session, they also addressed the accession of ten other countries.
  • THIRD ROUND IN TORQUAY

    THIRD ROUND IN TORQUAY
    The contracting parties exchanged some 8,700 tariff concessions in this city of England, which meant reductions of approximately 25 percent compared to the 1948 level. Four more countries acceded to the General Agreement. During the fifth session of the Contracting Parties, the United States indicated that the ICO Charter would not be submitted again to that country's Congress; this in fact meant that the ICO would never be a reality.
  • OUTCOME OEA

    OUTCOME OEA
    Greater development with monetary stability, more exports, imports are adjusted and budget balance is maintained.
  • THE DILLON ROUND

     THE DILLON ROUND
    The Dillon Round, named after the US Assistant Secretary of State, Douglas Dillon, who proposed the negotiations, ended in July 1962 and resulted in some 4,400 tariff concessions representing $ 4.9 billion in trade.
  • SHORT TERM AGREEMENT

    SHORT TERM AGREEMENT
    Relating to cotton textile articles. This agreement was concluded as an exception to the provisions of the General Agreement, and allowed the negotiation of quota restrictions for exports from cotton-producing countries.
  • THE KENNEDY ROUND.

    THE KENNEDY ROUND.
    The concessions resulting from the Round represented commercial exchanges for an estimated total value of about $ 40 billion. Separate agreements on cereals, chemicals were concluded and an Anti-Dumping Code was negotiated.
  • A NEW CHAPTER

    A NEW CHAPTER
    The General Agreement required that developed countries accord high priority to reducing barriers to trade in products from developing countries. A Trade and Development Committee was created to oversee the operation of the new provisions of the General Agreement.
  • MEXICAN POLITICS

    MEXICAN POLITICS
    Mexico's foreign policy was active and had a strong international presence, since it expanded Mexico's presence in international forums and organizations.
  • THE TOKYO ROUND: FIRST ATTEMPT TO REFORM THE SYSTEM

    THE TOKYO ROUND: FIRST ATTEMPT TO REFORM THE SYSTEM
    102 countries participated in it. This Round continued GATT efforts to progressively reduce tariffs. Its results include an average reduction of one third of customs duties in the nine main industrial markets of the world, bringing the average tariff applied to industrial products down to 4.7 percent.
  • MULTIFIBER AGREEMENT (MFA)

    MULTIFIBER AGREEMENT  (MFA)
    The Agreement on International Textile Trade entered into force, also called the Multifiber Agreement (MFA), which replaced the agreements that governed the trade in cotton textiles since 1961. The MFA aimed to promote expansion and liberalization progressive trade in textile products, while avoiding the disorganization of particular markets and industries.
  • EMOTIONAL STABILITY OF MEXICO

    EMOTIONAL STABILITY OF MEXICO
    Mexico was given the need to expand its exports to other developed countries in Latin America.
  • THE URUGUAY ROUND

    THE URUGUAY ROUND
    The GATT Trade Ministers, meeting in Punta del Este, Uruguay, began the eighth round of trade negotiations. The negotiations, which took place in Geneva, Switzerland, were to last four years and lasted almost seven and a half years. The Uruguay Round work program has been the largest and most ambitious of all the rounds held to date.
  • THIRD MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE OF THE WHO

     THIRD MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE OF THE WHO
    This is the Third Ministerial Conference of the WTO. ... This Conference will launch new and important negotiations to expand the liberalization of international trade and review some of the current trade rules.
  • INCOTERMS

    INCOTERMS
    INCOTERMS are terms of international trade that have their
    origin and entered into force on July 10, 1990, are a set of rules
    approved by the Paris International Chamber of Commerce and allow a
    easy interpretation of the main term employees in the contracts of
    international sale. Each of them clearly establishes the
    obligations of each party in the normal practice of trade
    international.
  • THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA

    THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA
    The European Economic Area (EEA) brings together the EU Member States and the three EFTA states (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway) in an internal market regulated by the same basic rules.
  • CREATION OF THE WTO

    CREATION OF THE WTO
    The World Trade Organization is created,It is the international body that deals with the rules that govern trade between countries.
  • NAFTA

    NAFTA
    The treaty enters into force where Mexico, the USA and Canada agree to eliminate obstacles to trade and facilitate the three-way circulation of goods and services between them.
  • FINAL ACT OF THE URUGUAY ROUND

    FINAL ACT OF THE URUGUAY ROUND
    A comprehensive program of agricultural reforms, including commitments to liberalize tariffs, domestic support and export subsidies, and the substitution of all quantitative restrictions and other non-tariff measures for tariffs; phasing out export restrictions and improving market access for textiles and clothing; strengthened agreements on safeguards, technical barriers, customs valuation, import licenses, state trading, subsidies, and anti-dumping and countervailing duties.
  • GLOBALIZATION

    GLOBALIZATION
    Try to make a free trade area at an international level, reduce costs due to the needs of each person.
  • THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION IS ESTABLISHED

    THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION IS ESTABLISHED
    The WTO General Council approves the Headquarters Agreement concluded with the Swiss Confederation, which includes the decision to install the WTO in Geneva.
  • FIRST MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE

    FIRST MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE
    First Ministerial Conference of the WTO, held in Singapore December 1996. Among the most important results of the Conference are the establishment of three working groups to examine, respectively, the relationship between trade and investment, the relationship between trade and competition policy and the transparency of public procurement, as well as the mandate to carry out a study on trade facilitation.
  • BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS

    BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS
    Negotiations on basic telecommunications services are satisfactorily concluded. Sixty-nine governments agree on far-reaching liberalization measures.
  • REDUCTION OF CUSTOMS DUTIES

    REDUCTION OF CUSTOMS DUTIES
    40 governments agree to the reduction, as of July 1, 1997, of customs duties on information technology products, and set the goal of eliminating all duties on these products by the year 2000. The International trade in this type of products represents some 600,000 million dollars annually.
  • FINANCIAL SERVICES NEGOTIATIONS COMPLETE

    FINANCIAL SERVICES NEGOTIATIONS COMPLETE
    On December 12, 1997, the financial services transactions were successfully concluded. Seventy governments reach a multilateral agreement to open up their financial services sectors, which covers more than 95 percent of trade in banking, insurance, securities and financial information services.
  • AFTER THE CRISIS IN THE ALADI

     AFTER THE CRISIS IN THE ALADI
    Despite the crisis, the trade of the ALADI countries ended 2008 with new historical records of the values ​​in current dollars reached by exports and imports, both global and intraregional.
  • WORLD EXPORT GROWTH

    WORLD EXPORT GROWTH
    World trade recorded an unprecedented annual increase in 2010 as merchandise exports rose 14.5 percent, underpinned by a recovery in world output measured by gross domestic product (GDP) of 3.6 percent.
  • INCOTERMS 2020

    INCOTERMS 2020
    The new Incoterms 2020 have already been written within the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the body that publishes them since 1930.They facilitate the operation of international trade transactions and establish a set of terms and rules that determine the rights and obligations of both the seller and the buyer.