The Roaring Twenties

  • Palmer Raids

    Palmer Raids
    The Palmer Raids were an attempts by A. Mitchell Palmer and J. Edgar Hoover to deport radials from the United States. J. Edgar Hoover was appointed by the Attorney General to the position of chief of the General Intelligence Unit. Hoover wanted to remove any threats to the United States government. There was a terrible fear (xenophobia) of anyone who was against their conservative views. So, the bureau and police arrested thousands of alien residents, yet only a few deported.
  • Prohibition Begins

    Prohibition Begins
    The Volstead act stated that the manufacture, transportation, sale, import, and export of alcoholic beverages were illegal. The purpose of the prohibition was to lower crime, lower social problems, improve health, and lower taxes. This was also known as the Noble experiment. Supporters had anticipated that the banishment of alcohol would only better the United States. Speakeasies flourished during this time and even the average citizen broke the law visiting such happening establishments.
  • The Sacco and Vanzetti trial

    The Sacco and Vanzetti trial
    Sacco and Vanzetti were both Italian, immigrants, and anarchists. So, in April 1920 when a payroll holdup at a factory in Massachusetts left two men dead they were easy targets. Although originally not suspected of the crime, both men were carrying guns at the time of arrest and when questioned they lied. They were indicted for the crime and both were sentenced to death. In a time of political repression,the Red Scares, they were trapped. The trial spoke of the government's fear of radicals.
  • The Nineteenth Amendment was ratified

    The Nineteenth Amendment was ratified
    This amendment states that the citizens of the United States shall not be denied the right to vote by the United States because of their sex. Woman had been fighting for woman's suffrage since the late 1800's, but their protesting and fighting finally paid off in 1919. The two-thirds vote needed was finally received and in August the amendment was finally ratified.
  • Tulsa and Rosewood

    Tulsa and Rosewood
    The KKK had found fertile grounds in Tulsa, and the mood of the 20's was of isolation in which anything not American was dangerous. A black shoe shiner was arrested for assaulting a white woman, and later another, Rowland, was also arrested for the same crime. Blacks gathered outside the courthouse to protect him. Shots were fired, a community was up in flames, and ten thousand whites with the aid of police fought back. "Ethnic cleansing": wiping out not just black people, but their dignity.
  • The Fatty Arbuckle Scandal

    The Fatty Arbuckle Scandal
    Arbuckle a popular comedian had just signed a three year contract with Paramount for one million dollars. Arbuckle and friends wanted to celebrate, they checked into the St. Francis Hotel. An actress, Virginia Rappe was a guest at the party. Arbuckle went to his room to change. She was in his room, he tried to help, and soon after she started screaming. A few days later Rappe died: her bladder had exploded. The media went wild, yet jury found little evidence that he was connected to her death.
  • The KKK activity peaks

    The KKK activity peaks
    In November 1922, Hiram Evans became the Ku Klux Klan's Imperial Wizard, he gave the Klan a respectability it had lacked. Once he became the leader the Klan grew rapidly; Klan members were appointed to positions of political power. After the first World War, in a time of Red Scares, they had the perfect opportunity to expand and broaden their message of hate. Even though blacks were still their main target, the KKK broaden their hate to Jews, Catholics, foreigners, communists, and socialists.
  • The Charleston becomes popular

    The Charleston becomes popular
    The Charleston was named for the city Charleston, South Carolina, and was popularized after the song "The Charleston" hit the radio. The Charleston represented the time of flappers and speakeasies. The flapper women would dance alone and mock "drys," those who were for prohibition. The Charleston was then thought of as provocative and lewd. The dance was said to have come from African American roots, but as the dance became popular many had put a new twist, and made it new.
  • Tulsa and Rosewood (Rosewood)

    Tulsa and Rosewood (Rosewood)
    The small mill town of Rosewood and their neighboring town of Sumner seemed to coexist. Yet, when another black man was accused of assaulting a white woman all hell broke loose. Once word hit, the white men of Sumner went wild. The days that followed were horrific, black families fled to the woods and to those who would help. While, blacks were being shot and houses were burning. These events represent the fear that Americans had and the hatred they displayed, yet was forgotten to history.
  • The Teapot Dome Scandal

    The Teapot Dome Scandal
    The most famous scandal during Harding's presidency was The Teapot Dome scandal. There were two federal oil reserves: one in Teapot Dome, Wyoming and the other in Elk Hills, California. The reserves were set aside for the U.S. Navy. Albert Fall persuaded the Navy that he should take control of the Naval reserves. Soon after, Fall sold off leases to private developers; he was paid in bribes, kickbacks, and stock. Soon after Senate began to investigate Harding died of a heart attack.
  • Leopold & Loeb Case

    Leopold & Loeb Case
    Leopold, nineteen, was a student at the University of Chicago, and Loeb, eighteen, had graduated from the University of Michigan. Both, were intelligent young men, and so could commit the perfect crime. Their perfect crime was to kidnap a wealthy Bobby Franks, demand ransom, and murder him. They were arrested and both pleaded guilty. Their lawyer appealed to the beliefs of Freud that a man's character is influenced by his environment and genetic makeup. They were to spend life in prison.
  • Scopes "Monkey" Trial

    Scopes "Monkey" Trial
    A young biology teacher, John Scopes, was charged in Dayton, Tennessee for teaching the theory of evolution to his students. He violated the Butler Act for teaching which stated, “any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible.” The town turned into a carnival, journalists swarmed, and the case soon became the most popular trial. The purpose of the trial was to place Dayton on the map, to increase the popularity of a dieing town.
  • End of the Scopes Trial

    End of the Scopes Trial
    Scopes agreed to be a defendant against William Jennings Bryan, a Republican. The trial soon ended, and the court a time later overturned the decision. The trial was an example of the clash between generations. The conservative, church-going folks versus the liberal, scientific folks. Traditionalists were afraid of losing the popularity of their beliefs.
  • The First Talkie; "The Jazz Singer"

    The First Talkie; "The Jazz Singer"
    October 24th the first spoken voice in a film was heard. The crowd went wild when they heard, “Wait a minute, wait a minute. You ain’t heard nothin’ yet!”, coming from Al Jolson's mouth. Such words spoke volumes to the advances the film industry would see after the premiere of this first talking film. The film told the story of a young Jewish man who ignored the family tradition and became a jazz singer. He sang throughout the movie, yet it was a mix of both silent and talkie.
  • Penicillin

    In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming found while researching staphylococci bacteria that a mold had contaminated one of his experiments. He had set a lab dish by a window and when he examined the dish he found some bacteria had come in through the window. When he took a closer look he found penicillin, and it was dissolving the deadly staphylococci. During World War II it saved many lives, yet left the body quickly so they had to be dosed often. They also saved the urine and reused it.
  • St. Valentine's Day Massacre

    St. Valentine's Day Massacre
    On February 14th, four men posed as police officers and raided a warehouse. They lined up six gang members against the wall and opened fire. Al Capone was the police officer's prime suspect, but he was in Miami at the time, they had no evidence. No one was ever tried for the murders. This placed fear in Americans, and was the epitome of gang violence, and showed even the law could not protect Americans.
  • The Stock Market Crash

    The Stock Market Crash
    The 1920's were known as a time optimism. A time when Americans took their savings and invested money into the stock market. Many believed the stock market was a sure thing. Yet, as more and more people invested, the stock prices began to rise. The strong bull market excited people to invest even more in the stock. Ordinary people began to see the market as a way to become rich, yet they couldn't afford such stocks and so they borrowed it- buying stocks on margin. The market inevitably crashed.